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The Influence of alcohol consumption on teenage pregnancy among learners at Bukalo circuit in the Zambezi region.
Zambezi region is popularly known to be the top number one region that consumes much of alcohol in Namibia and a great number of consumers are the youth and these are mostly school learners. Schools in the Bukalo circuit are having learners that are attending classes with pregnancies and this makes it difficult for the learner to concentrate in the classroom to their full capabilities as we mostly observed it during the school-based studies (SBS).
The Ministry of Education introduced a policy that allows pregnant learners to go to school as the have a right to education just like those who are not pregnant because back then in the days they used to expel pregnant learner from school to go home and they will just come back for exams that will result in a high failure rate in schools.
In Zambezi region, Bukalo circuit there seem to be a great number of teenage pregnancies among the learners and it has come to our attention to research on the issue of how alcohol consumption of teenagers leads to teenage pregnancy.
Teenage pregnancy around Namibia seems to be a huge problem around our country and the parents are mostly seeking for help through the Ministry of Education, therefore this study looks on to the influence of alcohol consumption on teenage pregnancy among learners in the Bukalo circuit in the Zambezi region
The study is important because it will help the principals, teachers and parents to realize the fact that alcohol has led to too many teenage pregnancies and that this issue has to be addressed.
The study will still furthermore help the Ministry in bringing more strategic plans to reduce this problem. The last point would be that this study will alert other regions all over Namibia that are about to face the same problem in getting rid of it before it surfaces even more and becomes a problem.
Conducting the research will not be easy as the teachers and learners are not available because they will be on holiday. In addition to that the selected schools in Bukalo circuit are situated far from each other and that will take much time travelling from one school to another as well the lack of money needed for transport.
The study will only focus on the influence of alcohol consumption on teenage pregnancy among teenagers in the Bukalo circuit in the Zambezi region.
In this chapter, the researcher will look at data and information already collected in the same field of study by other scholars. The preliminary literature reflects that different researchers have different perspectives on the issue. Therefore, this paper will use both primary and secondary literature to investigate issues of the phenomenon.
A literature review is a text written by someone to consider the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic.
Alcohol consumption at an early age especially binge drinking and drinking greater quantities is associated with an increased risk of becoming pregnant as one will have multiple partners. The consumption of alcohol in young people contributes to the level of regretted sex because they might end up having forced sex(rape) or having sex without their knowledge. Teenagers drink alcohol not knowing that when they are drunk, they can passout and one will have sex with them without them knowing and without the use of the condom.
Alcohol consumption especially bingeing and drinking greater quantities is associated with an increased risk of becoming pregnant women and getting someone pregnant in male. An analysis of national data from 14.114 high school students (12->18 years) involved in the YRBS in 2003 showed that compared with abstainers, current drinkers (who did not binge) were at an increased risk of becoming pregnant or getting someone pregnant. Binge drinkers had close to fivefold increased risk of becoming pregnant. New Zealand showed that the number of pregnancies (for males whether they have made a woman pregnant increased linearly with increasing alcohol consumption at 16 years CITATION Wel04 l 1033 (Wells JE, Horwood LJ, Fergusson DM, 2004) CITATION Ara13 l 1033 (Arain, M. Haque, M. Johal, L. Marthur, P. Nel, W. Rais,. Sandhu,R. & Sharma, S., 2013) argues that teenagers are limited by the cognitive development in making critical decisions. CITATION Ber10 l 1033 (Berk, 2010) argues that although adolescent can consider many possibilities when faced with a problem, they often fail to apply this reasoning to everyday situations or behave in ways that put their lives at risk. Therefore, in order to reduce the intake of alcohol in teenagers’ programs should introduced in a form of group discussions in schools for them to talk about these issues of alcohol and teenage pregnancies.
This study discusses on the influence of alcohol consumption on teenage pregnancy among learners in the Bukalo Circuit in the Zambezi Region. This Chapter informs us on the research methodology used for data collection, the purpose of which is to answer the research questions in the study. The chapter will furthermore show us the research design, population, sample, sampling procedures, research instruments, data analysis as well as ethical considerations of the study.
This Research design is a plan and structure of the research project that describes how, when and where data are to be collected and analyzed CITATION Cre94 l 1033 (Cresswel, 1994)This study will follow a qualitative research method of collecting data directly from the participants themselves CITATION Rob14 l 1033 (Robert, 2014) this will help the researcher to sit with the respondents and listen to their views, voices, perceptions and their expectations in detail. Through qualitative research method the research will collect data through observations and interviews from the teacher and learners.
Population is the larger group of people with one or more collective characteristics, from which a sample can be attained from CITATION Lor09 l 1033 (Lorraine R Gay ,Geoffrey E Millis, Peter W Airasian, 2009)The population of the study will be learners and teachers at the selected schools that are at Bukalo circuit, Zambezi region.
The study will use a purposive sampling whereby the researcher will select 5 learners at each school that will be selected to take part in the study. CITATION Joh14 l 1033 (John, 2014)Defines purposeful sampling as a strategy that the researcher will use to select participants who will provide the information, those who are most interesting and those who manifest the characteristics of most interest to the researcher. Convenience sampling will be used to sample out the teachers to take part in the research. Convenience sampling is a strategy that consists of selecting people available for the study CITATION Joh14 l 1033 (John, 2014)3.5 Research InstrumentsThe researcher will use semi-structured face to face interviews and observations to collect data. CITATION Mar07 l 1033 (Maree, 2007) defines semi-structured interviews as a conversation between two people, where the participant is required to answer a set of predetermined questions.
The researcher will observe as learners enter the gate to count out the number of learners that are pregnant. An observation is a process of gathering open-ended first-hand information by observing people and places at research site CITATION Cre94 l 1033 (Cresswel, 1994)3.6 Data collection procedureThe researcher will firstly collect data using observations; therefore, the researcher will act as a non-participant observer. The researcher will visit the research site and record data without being involved in the research activities of the participants. The researcher will also prepare a semi-structured interview, whereby the researcher will sit with selected teachers and learners and ask them a list of prepared an open and close -Ended questions. Open-Ended questions allow participants to give their own point of view about the phenomena while close ended questions required the participants to be objective.
This is a process of evaluating data using analytical and logical reasoning to examine the component of the data provided According to CITATION Run05 l 1033 (Rundh, 2005). The data that is collected from semi-structured face to face interviews and observation is raw data (data that has not been interpreted yet so that it can be understandable). Three tables or figures will be used to present the qualitative data of the perception, values and understanding of the respondents.
The researcher will ask permission from the department of education through the Principal of a selected school in the Zambezi Region to be allowed to conduct the study in their responsibility. A letter from the University of Namibia, Katima Mulilo Campus will be obtained by the researcher to seek permission from the gatekeeper of School to allow the scholar to conduct the study. The researcher will explain the main aims of the study to the participants, all participants will be treated with dignity and their rights will be protected. Information given by the participants will be kept confidential. After the findings, all the recorded data will be deleted and the note-books will be disposed.
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