Today India is one among the top ten industrial nations of the world. Industrial development has changed India’s economy from under-developed status to developing status.
Industries can be classified into various types on the basis of their structure. The two main types are: 1) Manufacturing industries including heavy and light industries. 2) Small-scale and cottage industries .
Manufacturing industries: Industries which are concerned with the processing or conversion of raw materials into finished products are called manufacturing industries.
IMPORTANCE OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES:
1) Manufacturing industries increase the national income and per capita income.
Industrial development increases the employment opportunities to a large number of people and thus increases their income. 2) Industrial development solves the problems of un-employment and under employment which are some of the major problems of India. 3) Industrial development promotes agricultural development. Many industries are agro-based industries. Agricultural products are raw materials for these industries. Development of these industries enables agriculture to increase its production.
4) Industrial development helps to utilise the natural resources, such as mineral resources, water resources, forest resources and other natural resources.
Utilisation of these natural resources helps in the progress 0f the country. 5) Many institutions belonging to the tertiary sector are also developed as a result of industrial development. e.g. Banking, education, insurance, transport and communication.
6) Countries which depend only on agriculture have low standard of living. But countries which have developed both in agriculture and industries have well balanced economic system.
7) Industrialisation helps both the domestic and foreign trade of a nation. Many goods, which we produce are exported to other countries and help us to earn foreign exchange.
It also reduces our dependence on foreign countries for many goods.
8) Generally industries are located in towns and cities, this enables the towns and cities to become trade and cultural centres.
9) Arms and ammunition required for the defence of the country need to be produced in the country itself. We cannot depend on other countries for these arms and ammunition. Industries manufacture tankers, aeroplanes, explosives, guns, bullets and many other defence requirements and thus help to strengthen the defence of the country.
10) Increase of industries helps in the increase of income of the government because they pay taxes and duties to thegovernment.
Facilities available for industrial development in India:
1) India has plenty of natural resources like forests, minerals, power resources, water resources etc. which are required for industrial development. 2) India has large human resource, which can provide cheap labour. The large population of India also provides market for industrial products. 3) India is an agricultural country. Agriculture provides raw materials for many industries and agriculture is the chief market for industrial products.
Industrial development in India:Ancient India had made great progress in industries. Manufacture of cloth, gunny bags, paper and other industries were well developed in India. Example: Muslin cloth of Dacca, chintzes of Masulipatnam, Calicos of Calicut and Gold embroidery of Surat. All these goods were manufactured in cottage industries. During the British period all these industries suffered. The industrial policy of the British and the Industrial Revolution in England were the main causes for the decline of our industries. However few modern manufacturing industries were started during the British period.Important among them were a cotton textile mill at Bombay in 1854, a Jute mill in Calcutta in 1855 and another cotton textile mill at Ahmedabad. A paper mill was started near Calcutta in 1867 and smelting of iron ore at Kulti in West Bengal in 1870. Availability of raw materials and cheap labour were responsible for the establishment of these industries. Our industrial progress was very slow until the First World War. After the First World War, industries like iron and steel, chemicals, sugar, cement and machine tools were started. After Independence, our industries made great progress. The Five Year Plans were started for all-round economic development and today India occupies an important place in world industrial development.
Factors for the location of Industries:The factors for the location of industries are availability of raw materials, power resources, transport and communication facilities, skilled and unskilled labour, favourable climate, capital, water resources, market and Government policy. All these facilities may not be found in one region, but a combination of these factors leads to the location of industries.
Industrial regions of India:Based on the factors mentioned above, four main industrial regions are found in India. They are,
1) West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh
2) Maharashtra and Gujarat
3) Central Gangetic region
4) South India
Jharkhand, West Bengal and Chhattisgarh region: It is also known as Damodar-Hooghli region. The region includes Chotanagpur plateau which has large deposits of minerals like iron ore, coal, manganese, mica and bauxite. Port facilities, power resources and availability of cheap labour are the other factors.
Maharashtra – Gujarat region: It has extensive cotton growing areas. There are good transport and port facilities, hydro-electric power, labour force and facilities for capital investment. Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Surat, Sholapur are noted for cotton manufacture.
Central Gangetic region: This region produces plenty of raw materials required for agro-based industries. The Plain region has made possible for the development of roads and railways. High density of population has provided market and labour supply.
South India: The industries are spread over many towns and cities of South India. Many types of industries have been developed. Availability of raw materials, hydro-electric power, market and labour force have helped the growth of many industries. Bangalore, Chennai, Coimbatore, Salem and Hyderabad are the important industrial centres.
IMPORTANT INDUSTRIESManufacturing industries are divided into two types on the basis of the raw materials that they use. They are
1) Agro-based industries
2) Mineral-based industries
1) AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES: The important agro-based industries are cotton textiles, jute, sugar and paper.
The first cotton textile mill on modern lines was started in Bombay in 1854. Later, mills were started at Ahmedabad in 1858, then in Kanpur, Nagpur, Sholapur, Surat and other places. Today India holds the third place among the cotton textile producing countries of the world. It provides mployment to a large number of people and also helps to earn foreign exchange. Gujarat and Maharashtra states, lead the country in cotton textile production. Mumbai and Ahmedabad are the important centres. Mumbai has the largest number of cotton textile mills. It is the main cotton textile centre in India. Mumbai is called cottonopolis or Manchester of India. (Manchester is the main cotton textile centre in England) The other important centres of cotton textiles are Nagpur and Sholapur in Maharashtra, Kolkata in West Bengal, Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh, Indore in Madhya Pradesh, Surat in Gujarat, Salem, Coimbatore and Chennai in Tamilnadu, Bangalore and Davangere in Karnataka and Delhi. Handloom industry
Handloom industry is concentrated in Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Assam and Uttar Pradesh. In recent years ready-made cotton garment industry has been developing fast and earns a good amount of foreign exchange. Cotton textiles and ready-made garments are exported from India to foreign markets. Europe, the U.S.A., and many countries of Africa and Australia are our main markets. Rough cotton cloth and cotton thread are exported to Myanmar, Middle East, Thailand and other countries.
Jute industry occupies an important place in the industrial progress of India. It has provided employment to about 25 lakh workers. India produces 35 % of the total jute products of the world. Its share in earning foreign exchange is also important. The first jute mill was started at Rishra near Kolkata in 1855. Being an export oriented industry, it grew very fast. The partition of India struck a heavy blow to the jute industry. Most of the jute mills remained in India and the jute growing areas went to East Pakistan (Bangladesh). Now attempts have been made to grow jute in the Gangetic delta of West Bengal, in Assam, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa. Jute mills are largely concentrated in lower Hooghly basin. The main reasons for this concentration are availability of raw jute, fresh water, cheap water transport, power resources, cheap labour, capital and port facilities. In recent years, jute mills have also been located in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh. The main jute products are gunny bags, jute cloth, tarpaulins, ropes and cordages (required for cable industry). India exports jute products to the U.S.A Britain, Canada, Argentina and Russia.
Sugar Industry: Sugar has been used in India since a very long time. India produces White sugar, Khandsari and Gur or Jaggery. It provides employment to about 2.5 lakh people in India and also earns foreign exchange. Modern sugar mills were started in 1931. Sugarcane, which is the raw material for sugar industry, is a perishable and weight losing raw material. The Sugar factories are located wherever sugarcane is grown. Sugar factories are concentrated in the Gangetic plain (Uttar Pradesh and Bihar). The other states where sugar factories are found are Maharashtra, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh. The sugarcane of Peninsular India yields more sugar than the North Indian sugarcane. There are 37 sugar factories in Karnataka. The districts of Mandya, Belgaum and Bellary have a large number of sugar factories. Gorakhpur districts of Uttar Pradesh has the largest number of sugar mills and is called “Java of India”. India exports sugar to the U.S.A, Britain, Iran, Malaysia and Canada.
Paper manufacturing had been carried on in India as a cottage industry since ancient times. As a manufacturing industry it was first started in 1867 at Bally near Kolkata. There were only 15 paper mills before independence. Softwood, bamboo, sabai grass, straw, bagasse, soft water and chemicals are the raw materials required for paper industry. Owing to very limited forest as raw materials. The chemicals required for paper industry are caustic soda, soda ash, sodium sulphate, chlorine and sulphuric acid. West Bengal has the largest number of paper mills in India. The reasons for it are, availability of raw materials, coal and electricity, abundant supply of soft water, supply of capital and availability of cheap labour. The important centres are Kolkata, Titagarh, Raniganj and Kakinada. In Karnataka the paper mills are located at Dandeli, Bhadravathi, Mandya etc. Nepanagar in Madhya Pradesh is an important producer of newsprint. The production of paper in India is not sufficient to meet the demand, so large quantities of paper are imported from other countries.
MINERAL- BASED INDUSTRIES:
The important mineral-based industries of India are iron and steel, heavy engineering and machinery, machine tools,transport equipment, chemicals, chemical fertilizers and cement industries.
Iron and steel industry:
Indians knew the art of smelting iron ore since early times. Modern steel industry was first started at Kulti in West Bengal in 1874. But the real beginning of Iron and Steel industry was made in 1907 at Jamshedpur in Bihar (present Jharkhand) by the Tatas, called Tata Iron and Steel Company (TISCO). Again in 1919 a steel plant was set up at Burnpur in West Bengal called Indian Iron and Steel Company (ISCO) and at Bhadravathi in Karnataka in 1923 called Mysore Iron and Steel Company (MISCO). Now it is called Vishweswaraiah Iron and Steel Company (VISCO). After Independence during the Second Five Year Plan period, three big Iron and Steel plants were established at Bhilai in Madhya Pradesh (now in Chhattisgarh) Rourkela in Orissa and Durgapur in West Bengal. During the Third Five Year Plan, a very big steel plant was established at Bokaro in Bihar ( now in Jharkhand).
The fourth five year plan proposed to start three more steel plants at Salem, Vijayanagar and Vishakhapatnam. The Salem and Vishakhapatnam steel plants have started production but Vijayanagar steel plant was entrusted to the private sector and production is in the beginning stage. Tata Iron and Steel Company and Vijayanagar steel plant are under the private sector. The others are under the public sector. To encourage and extend iron and steel industry under both private and public sectors, Steel Authority of India was established in 1973. All the raw materials required for iron and steel industry like iron ore, manganese, limestone and coal are bulky and weight-losing. So this industry is located near the regions where the raw materials are found in abundance. The finished products are also heavy and need good transport system for their distribution. Iron and steel industry is concentrated around the Chotanagpur plateau which is rich in most of the raw materials required and therefore Chotanagpur plateau is called the Rhur of India. (Rhur region in Germany is noted for iron and steel industry). India exports a large quantity of steel and cast iron to Britain, the U.S.A and Japan.
There was a time when we were dependent on other countries for various types of engineering goods. Since Independence great progress has been achieved in this field and now we manufacture machinery required to manufacture goods. A heavy engineering plant is established at Ranchi in Jharkhand, which manufactures various machines required by us and also machinery for export. Hindustan Machine Tools at Bangalore manufactures a wide variety of machine tools and tractors. Machines required to manufacture cement and chemicals are manufactured at Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh.
Heavy electrical equipment industry:
India produces many types of electrical equipment. Heavy electrical motors, transformers, water wheels, electric fans etc., are manufactured at Bhopal, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Tiruchinapalli and otherplaces. Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) has set up its plants at differentplaces. One such plant is in Bangalore. Transport and equipment Industry:
India has made good progress in this industry also. It is engaged in the production of automobiles, railway engines, railway coaches, railway wheels and axles and ships. Chittaranjan in West Bengal manufactures electrical and diesel locomotives, Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh produces diesel locomotives, Perambur near Chennai produces railway coaches. Mumbai, Kolkata, Kochi, Vishakahpatnam and Marmagoa are the major ship building centres. Aircraft industry has been developed at Bangalore, Hyderabad and Kanpur. Maruthi Udyog near Delhi produces motor cars. Kolkata(West Bengal), Jamshedpur(Jharkhand), Hosur in Tamllnadu (Leyland) and Bangalore in Karnataka (Volvo) are noted for the manufacture of motor vehicles. The railway wheel and axle plant is at Yelhanka near Bangalore.
Many chemicals are required for the production of rayon, rubber, paper, glass, soap, chemical fertilizers and insecticides. Except for sulphur, the other raw materials are available in India for the production of chemicals. After Independence great progress has been made in this direction. At present, there are more than three hundred chemical factories spread all over India. Mumbai, Kolkata, Kanpur, Bangalore, Chennai and Ahmedabad are the important centres of this industry. Sulphuric acid, caustic soda, soda ash, bleaching powder and soaps are produced in our country.
Chemical fertilizer industry:
Chemical fertilizers are very essential to improve the fertility of the soil and to increase the production in agriculture. India being a predominantly an agricultural nation, production of chemical fertilizers is necessary. Complex fertilizers like urea, ammonium sulphate and nitrates are produced in India. The bi-products of coal, and oil refineries are used as raw materials in this industry. Now natural gas is also used as a raw material. The first chemical fertilizer factory in India was started at Belagola near Mysore (Mysore fertilizers). The next factory was started at Travancore (Alwaye) in Kerala called Fertilizer and Chemicals Travancore Ltd. (FACTS). Now there are more than one hundred fertilizer factories under both public and private sectors. Some of the important fertilizer factories under the public sector are at Sindri (Jharkhand), Nangal (Punjab), Trombay (Maharashtra), Gorakhpur (Uttar Pradesh). Rourkela (Orissa), Neyveli (Tamilnadu), Durgapur (West Bengal), Kochi (Kerala) and Mangalore (Karnataka). Though the production of fertilizers has increased over the past few years, still it is not sufficient and we import fertilizers from other countries.
Cement is the most essential commodity for construction work after iron and steel. For the construction of buildings, roads, river valley projects, bridges etc., cement is very necessary along with iron. That is why the consumption of cement is the index for the rate of development of a country. The first cement factory was set up at Chennai in 1904. It used seashells as raw material. Now limestone, coal and gypsum are the main raw materials. As the raw materials are heavy, the cement factories are generally located close to the source of raw materials. Cement factories are located all over India, because the raw materials are available throughout the country. There are about 150 cement factories in India. Most of the cement factories are in Tamilnadu, Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Bihar, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. Most of the factories are under the private sector. In Karnataka, Associated Cement Company near Gulbarga, Mysore Cement Company in Bhadravathi, Diamond Cement factory at Ammasandra near Tumkur are important. India is self sufficient in cement production. We also export cement to Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Myanmar, Afghanistan, Iran etc.
EFFECTS OF INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA:
You have already studied that India has made industrial progress. This development has resulted in some good and bad effects.
Good effects: Industrialisation has changed India into a developing nation and to-day India is one of the ten industrially advanced nations of the World. Industrialisation has increased production through the utilization of unused natural resources. It has reduced to some extent the population that would have been dependent on agriculture. The industrial centres have become the centres of education, culture and trade. Industrialisation has enabled us to become selfreliantwith regard to many goods for which we were depending on other countries earlier. It has affected our foreign trade also and we are able to export many goods to other countries. Import of many goods has been stopped or reduced. The National Income and per capita income has increased. We have achieved development in the field of technology also. There is great progress in the field of Banking, Transport and Communication and Insurance. The foreign countries are attracted and they are investing their capital in our industries. The non-resident Indians are also investing capital and hence the investment of capital has considerably increased.
Bad effects: The industrial centres attract population from rural areas and the density of population has increased in industrial centres. Lack of housing facilities has created many slums. The slum dwellers are suffering from lack of healthfacilities, housing, sanitation and water. The slums have become the centres of many anti-social activities. Recently in almost all the states, the Slum Development Boards have been set up to improve the conditions of slum dwellers. Excessive use of Technology and Computers in industries, has resulted in the removal of workers and this has become a big problem. There is a fear that the foreign capital investment may result in the economic exploitation of the country