Every trait that was a part of the revolutionary movement that penetrated the Greek and Roman cultures of the first century are evident in the rapidly growing Christward movement in India. In relating the origins and the growth of the New Testament Church we find an account of the origins and the growth of the present indigenous church in India This essay is an initial attempt at highlighting a vigorous indigenous church planting movement that is gaining rapid momentum now in India.
First hand eye-witnesses to the ‘field’ have repeatedly described their experience as “walking through the pages of the New Testament” and that “the New Testament comes to life in India”. It isn’t just an analogy. In many respects it is literally true. The sick are healed. Demons are cast out. The blind see and the lame walk. The Kingdom of God is flourishing. This is perhaps one of the largest movements in the history of the Indian Church however, one that is less known and needless to mention, less discussed in Christian academia. Therefore, very little documented and published material is available if none at all.
For a better understanding of this movement, it is critical to be familiar with the ‘great traditions and little traditions’ that have governed indigenous movements in various parts of the world. A description of the interaction of these traditions with indigenous movements is a vast subject for independent research. “Subaltern” is another important word in the study of Indigeniety especially in the Indian context since its principles underlie streams of emerging indigenous theologies and indigenous movements originating in response to colonialism and other oppressive cultural elements.
An overview of a select few of such indigenous movements from socio-cultural environments in Africa, Latin America and Asia similar to India, is included. A comparison highlights factors that could inhibit or increase the momentum. Indigenous movements among several people groups of the ‘greater traditions’ are also currently active in various regions of the country. They are duly recognized. However, references to Church Growth and Indigenous movements in this essay particularly in the last chapter are limited to movements among the subaltern, Dalit and Tribal people of the ‘little traditions’.
INDIGENOUS CHRISTIAN MOVEMENTS IN AFRICA LATIN AMERICA AND ASIA – AN OVERVIEW The Church grew significantly in the non-Western world during the twentieth century. It has absorbed many expressions of the local cultures in which it has become rooted. Just in terms of numbers, these indigenous and independent churches have changed the historical perception of Christianity being part of Western culture. Both numerically and theologically the center of Christian influence has significantly shifted toward the South to Africa, Latin America and Asia.
Hedlund explains this trend further that it is “found in the non-traditional (non-Catholic, non-Protestant, non-Syrian) Churches of Indigenous-Independent variety, frequently Charismatic, not necessarily Pentecostal, but of substantial evangelical and cultural diversity. Predominantly it is a Church of the Poor. ” A methodical description of Indigenous movements begins from the earliest church portrayed in the book of Acts. ‘Indigeneous Christianity is as old as Christianity itself’.
Wherever the Christian Faith has taken roots no matter which continent or nation it may be, the Church has embraced elements of the local culture to some degree. Therefore Indigenous movements are a global phenomena not restricted to any particular region or area demonstrating the truth that the Christian Faith is universal and translates into every tongue, tribe, people, nation and culture. Lamin Sanneh describes this as the “translatability of the Gospel”. The boundless Gospel cannot be bound to any single human culture.
Sanneh expounds, this “translatability” as the “source of the success of Christianity across cultures”. In the very first instance, it was possible for Christians to abandon Jerusalem as the heart of the Christian Faith. This resulted in the advancement of the Faith through not one but innumerable Christian centers with a rich diversity of languages, cultures and ethnic flavors. Thus right at the very beginning of Christian history the notion that one single culture provided the norm and standard for the Gospel and its salvific power was shattered.
Studies reveal that certain indigenous movements in Africa, Latin America and Asia taking place among people in similar socio-cultural and economic ethos bear resemblances with those in India. It is observed that several of the Indigenous movements have in the past occurred and still continue to do so for the most part among people who belong to the ‘little traditions’ common to these cultures. CHRISTIANITY BECOMES INDIAN (From ‘indigenized’ Church with foreign origins to the beginnings of a totally ‘indigenous’ Church with Indian origins).
Indigenous movements are not new phenomena in India. From the 19th Century onwards several efforts are recorded to both indigenize the Christian Faith as presented by missionaries and also originate indigenously the Christian Faith in Indian soil. These efforts date all the way back to the 19th century. Several of them have been quite successful while others enjoyed momentary success and then dwindled and died. The reasons are varied and numerous and is outside the scope what is currently addressed. David Barrett, has recorded over 150 Hindu- Christian movements from1858 to 1975.
Among the early ones that are prominently listed are The Hindu Church of the Lord Jesus at Tinnevely in 1858, The National Church of Bengal proposed in 1868, The Chet Ramis of Punjab in 1870, the Church of the New Dispensation at Calcutta in 1880, The National Church of Madras in 1886, the Christo Samaj in 1887 at Calcutta, a proposal for a National Church in India in 1893, and the Fellowship of the Followers of Jesus led by Kandiswamy Chetti at Madras in 1920, 1921,and 1933, and the Subba Rao Movement begun in 1942in Andhra which in 1966 had 300,000 followers.
Scores of other indigenous movements have emerged since then with a following of a few hundred to several hundred thousand members. According to Hedlund research related to this subject is more recent and only now “beginning to yield information about the hitherto neglected sector of Indian Christianity. ” A comprehensive and deeper understanding of Indigenous Christianity is yet to emerge. Hedlund further reiterates that “the study of Churches of indigenous origins is timely and long overdue!
” Rather than an exhaustive listing of Indigenous movements, a brief overview of other spheres of indigeniety that offer credence to the overall picture is presently more judicious. They are worth considering because they serve as both the cornerstone and the building blocks for the construct of the Indigenous Church. INDIGENOUS IDENTITY The study of Indian Indigeniety begins with the question of identity. This question arises from India’s colonial history. Although the colonists rarely or never demonstrated any interest in religion, they were considered as Christians.
Following this predicament, ‘Missionary Christianity’ brought carried a two-fold burden. First that it was an alien religion and secondly that it was the religion of the colonizers. Therefore it always necessitated a second and third explanation apart from the primary elucidation of the Faith itself. The characteristics of the Christian identity although not as well defined then as now had to be established in order to be accepted as a truly indigenous identity. A. That the Christian identity is a religious identity, not attached to any particular geopolitical entity, ethnicity or culture.
B. That it is inclusive and transformational, one that transcends and absorbs rather than abrogates existing identities. C. That the Christian identity is one that unites and directs other identities toward Christ. INDIGENOUS LEADERSHIP The emergence of Indian Christian leadership is an important milestone in the history of the Indigenous movement. Early indigenous Christian leaders have left an significant imprint upon Indian Christianity. Each one in different ways and without compromise demonstrated the life of a committed Indian disciple of Jesus Christ.
These leaders who exemplify the Indian identity of the Christian community are many but those of prominence who made significant contribution to the Indigenous Christian movement were leaders like Pandita Ramabai (1858 -1922) , Narayan Vaman Tilak(1862-1919) and Sadhu Sunder Singh (1889-1929? ) and Bakht Singh (1903-2000). A letter written by Tilak before his death succinctly summarizes both the nationalistic spirit of the time and the fact that Indian Christian leadership had come of age: “Cease to be fathers and mothers, be real brothers and sisters.
Know how to appreciate, trust people, and take the place of India’s revered saints” INDIGENOUS MISSIONARY MOVEMENTS During the late 19th and early 20th centuries many missionary organizations were formed within denominations and as a co-operative effort of denominations and churches fully supported and serviced by Indian leadership and resources. In 1900, the Home Missionary Society, a totally indigenous organization was started with the stated aim of initiating ‘self propagating’ and ‘self supporting’ churches by Indians with their own resources.
The early part of the 20th century saw several such indigenous movements birthed in Southern India. Indian missionaries were sent to Africa and to other ‘islands of the seas’ where Indians were scattered. The population of India at that time was around 294 million with only 3 million Christians. Zealous and educated Indians were ready to go to ‘mission fields’ but a strong nationalistic spirit prevented them from working under foreign missionaries. In a way nationalism along with a missionary zeal that saw the growth of the Indigenous Missionary movement.
The Indian Missionary Society and The National Missionary Society stand among the very first that paved the way for scores of future protestant indigenous missionary organizations. They began to sow the seeds of the Gospel bearing them in ‘Indian’ vessels. Missionaries who were sent by these organizations served their people in a truly Indian fashion. INDIGENIZED, INDIGENOUS AND INDIGENIETY Every attempt at theoretically defining ‘indigeniety’ has been wordy on account of complex issues that surround it.
Defining ‘Indigenous’ and ‘Indigeniety’ must include the explication of culture, intensive theological reflections, search for scriptural foundations, practical implications in various contexts and several other factors. Most attempts have therefore been definitions of function more than form. INDIGENIZE Henry Venn (1796-1873) and Rufus Anderson (1796-1880) were the earliest proponents of the subject of the indigenous church. In Tippett’s words: “The idea of the indigenous church came to us in its original form from the greatest missionary theorist of the last century, Henry Venn.
The idea was a based on the concept of Selfhood, and was always accompanied by its sister doctrine of Euthanasia. Thus the emergence of the Church and the dying of the Mission in the foreign land were conceptualized as part of a single process. ” It was still an early phase of western missionary enterprise and the first stage when the concern was directed toward the structure and function of the local church started by foreign missionaries within the setting of a ‘mission station’. Three fundamental elements need to be underscored.
First, discussion during this early period was not a plea for indigeniety of the church but indigenization of the church. Secondly the discussion was among and addressed to Western missionaries agencies of their responsibility. It was not the native’s expression or aspiration for indigeniety. Thirdly, mission had been understood predominantly as “conversio gentilium – a conversion of individual persons. ” The vision was for individual conversion rather than church planting. “During the 1920s and 1930’s many attempts were made to define and describe what an indigenous church should become. Two are of particular interest at this point.
In 1926 Dr. John R. Mott, in Australia, stated that “indigenous churches are those in which the natives find themselves at home and which even impress their non-Christian friends as national, homelike, and belonging to the country. ” In 1925 an American Baptist group made an attempt to define it more technically: “It follows that a truly indigenous church will not merely appropriate those values which have been brought to it by others, but will make use of any permanent values in its own heritage and will endeavor to make its own contribution to the world’s knowledge of the riches available in Christ.
” A more recent definition encapsulates both the present thinking as it has evolved in India. It also illustrates the dilemma missiologists still face in striving to adequately define “indigenize”. “Indianization, context-ualization and indigenization are expressions of the effort towards change/relevance made by a non indigenous church (one of alien origin and pattern) – in an attempt to give it an Indian face. ” INDIGENOUS Roland Allen (1869-1947) is the central figure responsible for popularizing the “indigenous principles” that has dominated and guided missionary thinking since.
His promulgation of ‘self-supporting’, ‘self-governing’ and ‘self-propogating’ churches has become the central premise for the indigenous church. However seminal his thoughts may be, it is still tethered to western missions. The ‘three self ‘test alone will not determine indigeniety since a church or movement could have all three qualities and yet not be indigenous. It falls short in meeting the present needs for indigeniety in the present time. An indigenous church or an indigenous movement may be described as one that is not the result of direct foreign effort.
It is established primarily on indigenous initiative. William A. Smalley defines the nature of an indigenous church thus: “It is a group of believers who live out their life, including their socialized Christian activity, in the patterns of the local society, and for whom any transformations of that society comes out of their felt needs under the guidance of the Holy Spirit and the Scriptures”. It is true that the Church established by the missionaries provided a public space for the converts to gather without caste or race discriminations that may have existed in external community.
Nevertheless, these gatherings were authorized, supervised and controlled by missionaries. Naturally, as the congregations matured and native leadership emerged the need arose for independence and freedom to carry out their own agenda and interests. Thus started the search for alternative space and the quest for more freedom resulting in the rise of independent churches. Peter Wagner’s call perhaps summarizes the challenge that lies ahead: “Indigenous churches is somewhat of an improvement on native churches, but it too is becoming worn out”.
THE THIRD WAVE (The first wave called for the indigenization of the church. The second wave was a call to indigeniety. The ‘Third wave’ is a call to ‘autochthony’ – of the earth, by the earth). An enormous indigenous Christward movement is taking center stage in Indian Church history with the potential to become a historic ‘Third Wave’ of the indigenous Church. It is believed to be the largest that the India has ever experienced, however, one that is less known received very little academic attention.
Hedlund poignantly describes one of the challenges that is faced in the research of a movement of this nature: “Statistics are notoriously difficult to obtain for these independent church bodies, but they represent a vigorous and rapidly-expanding section of Christianity in India today. They are true indigenous church movements, in contrast to indigenized churches. The distinction is important. ” 30,000,000 people, mostly from among the Dalitand Tribal communities have embraced the Christian Faith within the last decade at the rate of an estimated 8000 baptisms every single day.
An estimated 250,000 small house churches have been planted among these people in the rural villages of India totaling 400,000 The following unpublished, but available statistics from a single organization is illustrative of this enormous movement. A co-ordinated church planting effort called Vision 2000 initiated in 1992. The organization’s data reveals that during the last two decades over 50,000 small churches have been planted. Approximately 4000 full time, indigenous church planters are included in this network. The numbers continue to grow.
Several other indigenous organizations and mission agencies such as FMPB, IEM, IMS, NMS, ECI, and indigenous denominations such as IPC, PCI, ACA and a host of others are actively involved in church planting efforts with similar results in rural and well as the urban poor. This massive movement has not received its due recognition and remains unaccepted by the mainline Church (mostly greater tradition) because it fails to conform to accepted norms and standards that the Church has been used to. This movement falls outside traditional forms and historical patterns and therefore it is rejected by the established and structured church body.
It must be noted that the movement is predominantly among the Dalits and indigenous Tribal populations who are people of the ‘subaltern’ “little traditions”. This Christward movement however, has great significance at the present time since it touches and is among a very large segment of the population of rural India. The highest level of response to the Gospel has come from these two groups of people in the past and still continues to be so more from the Tribals than the Dalits. “Christianity brought a new dimension into the life of the tribes which is seen in the Believing community”.
The origin of this ‘Third Wave’ movement is quite recent and current. Post 1980 marked the beginning of a new era in missions in India, a country that has for nearly three centuries been familiar with colonial rule. The new era started with the Indian Government imposing tighter restrictions on expatriate missionaries and workers. Indigenous leadership began to emerge. Indigenous missionary organizations mushroomed. Indigenous missionaries were raised, trained and deployed. The 1990s also witnessed the rise of the Pentecostal and Charismatic movement in India.
The face, the voice and the flavor of Indian Church began to change. The “Third Wave Indigenous Church” may be described as an outcome of the presence of the indigenous church and its missional outreach. They could also be described as the second generation indigenous church experiencing total indigeniety from its very inception without interaction with anything ‘foreign’ to the native soil, native culture, social, linguistic and other native milieu. It is indigenous in origin, indigenous in structure, indigenous in resources, indigenous in theology, indigenous in expression and indigenous in Mission.
They fulfill Rolland Allen’s dream of “Self supporting, self governing, self extending”, and have moved beyond Peter Wagner’s anguish to “self theologizing and self Missionizing” CONCLUSION The current narrative in relation to Christward movements in India is no longer about Western Christianity discovering indigenous societies. India and most of the world is well past that stage and era. It is now an account of indigenous people finding within their own cultural context a living Faith and passionately responding to it.
This is a story of people who have been in bondage, eagerly responding to the liberating invitation of a Christ in the Indian garb and walking the Indian road. People who for ages have endured the suppression imposed by the darker side of culture and religion are liberated, transformed and emancipated as the Gospel takes root. This discussion has been on the indigenization of churches and movements which then become indigenous in their local contexts. The Christian Faith which is also going through a similar process of becoming indigenous and autochthonous cries for acceptance.
There is no culture on earth that is totally sacred. But there is something sacred about every culture. The universal call of Christ and the faith that responds to that call has the potency to recognize that which is sacred in each culture and to make sacred that which is not. There is no culture, no people, no nation, no language that the Christ cannot enter. He does not pass by anyone. A significant movement of this nature first and foremost needs recognition. It necessitates immediate, urgent and exhaustive research in order to identify essential elements and the forces that drive it.
The Church at large can then find ways and means to empower indigenous catalysts and change agents who are instrumental and ensure the movement’s effectiveness and sustainability. It needs to be approached with sensitivity and creativity in order to discover new ways whereby God is building His Kingdom. Moving toward sustainability, the Indigenous church must experience a holistic growth in all spheres equally. It includes quantitative, qualitative and organic growth. The Church must mature till all the marks of indigeniety are manifested. Works Cited Aghamkar, Atul Y. , and Vishwas Padole.
Christian mission in Maharashtra: retrospect and prospect. Bangalore, [India: TETRAWPOI (The Evangelical Theological Research and Writing Project of India), 2010. Allen, Roland. The Spontaneous Expansion of the Church. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1962. Athyal, Jesudas M. “The Legacy of Bakht Singh and Indigenous Ecclesiology. ” Dharma Deepika – A South Asian Journal of Missiological Research, 2012: 60-65. Hedlund, Roger E.. Christianity is Indian: the emergence of an indigenous community. Delhi: Published for MIIS, Mylapore by ISPCK, 2000. _______.
The Quest for Identity – India’s Churches of Indigenous Origin. Delhi: ISPCK, 2000. Kraft, Charles H. , and Tom N. Wisley. Readings in dynamic indigeneity. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1979. Lamott, Willis C.. Revolution in missions: from foreign missions to the world mission of the church. New York: Macmillan, 1954. Phillips, James M. , and Gerald H. Anderson. Toward the 21st century in Christian mission: essays in honor of Gerald H. Anderson. Grand Rapids, Mich. : Eerdmans, 1993. Tippett, Alan R.. Introduction to missiology. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1987.
Wagner, C. Peter. Frontiers in missionary strategy,. Chicago: Moody Press, 1971. Bibliography Aghamkar, Atul Y. , and Vishwas Padole. Christian mission in Maharashtra: retrospect and prospect. Bangalore, [India: TETRAWPOI (The Evangelical Theological Research and Writing Project of India), 2010. Allen, Roland. The Spontaneous Expansion of the Church. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1962. Athyal, Jesudas M. “The Legacy of Bakht Singh and Indigenous Ecclesiology. ” Dharma Deepika – A South Asian Journal of Missiological Research, 2012: 60-65. Bharati, Dayanand.
Living water and Indian bowl: an analysis of Christian failings in communicating Christ to Hindus, with suggestions toward improvements. 1997. Reprint, Delhi: ISPCK, 2004. Harper, Susan Billington. In the shadow of the Mahatma: Bishop V. S. Azariah and the travails of Christianity in British India. Grand Rapids, Mich. : W. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co. , 2000. Hedlund, Roger E.. Christianity is Indian: the emergence of an indigenous community. Delhi: Published for MIIS, Mylapore by ISPCK, 2000. _______. The Quest for Identity – India’s Churches of Indigenous Origin. Delhi: ISPCK, 2000. India Gospel League.
“Vision 2000. ” Statistics and Records. Salem, March 31, 2011. Hiebert, Paul G.. Transforming worldviews: an anthropological understanding of how people change. Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Academic, 2008. Hiebert, Paul G.. The Gospel in Human Contexts: anthropological explorations for contemporary missions. Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Academic, 2009. Hminga, Chhangte Lal. The life and witness of the churches in Mizoram. Serkawn, Lunglei Dist. , Mizoram: Literature Committee, Baptist Church of Mizoram, 1987. Hoefer, Herbert E.. Churchless Christianity. Pasadena, Calif. : W. Carey Library, 2001. Kane, J.
Herbert. Understanding Christian missions. Grand Rapids, Mich. : Baker Book House, 1974. Kraft, Charles H. , and Tom N. Wisley. Readings in dynamic indigeneity. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1979. Kraemer, H.. The Christian message in a non-Christian world,. London: Pub. for the International missionary council by the Edinburgh house press, 1938. Lamott, Willis C.. Revolution in missions: from foreign missions to the world mission of the church. New York: Macmillan, 1954. Mathew, C. V. Mission in context: Missiological Reflections : essays in honour of Roger and June Hedlund. Delhi: MIIS/ISPCK, 2003.
McGavran, Donald A.. Church growth and Christian mission. South Pasadena, Calif. : William Carey Library, 1965. Phillips, James M. , and Gerald H. Anderson. Toward the 21st century in Christian mission: essays in honor of Gerald H. Anderson. Grand Rapids, Mich. : Eerdmans, 1993. Pierson, Paul Everett. The dynamics of Christian mission: history through a missiological perspective. Pasadena, Calif. : William Carey International University Press, 2009. Pocock, Michael, Gailyn Rheenen, and Douglas McConnell. The changing face of world missions: engaging contemporary issues and trends. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2005.
Rainer, Thom S.. , and Lewis A.. Drummond. Evangelism in the twenty-first century. Wheaton, Ill. : Shaw Publishers, 1989. Stephens, Samuel. “Indigenous Movements in Africa, Latin America and Asia – an Overview. ” 2012. Tippett, Alan R.. Introduction to missiology. Pasadena, CA: William Carey Library, 1987. Wagner, C. Peter. Frontiers in missionary strategy,. Chicago: Moody Press, 1971. APPENDIX PRACTICAL APPLICATION The reading and preparation for the Essay have been closely related to my ministry and naturally aligned with the dissertation topic that is under consideration for the D.
Min program. The present study and focus is on The Indigenous Church which is growing at a rapid pace in India. The organization and the ministry I lead have been instrumental in the planting of a significant number of small churches that would fit into this category. This indigenous church does not have a past history or a past Christian tradition. Two significant theories that I have stumbled upon during this past semester through my readings in preparation for the Essay are “Great Traditions and little Traditions” and “subaltern”.
They are beginning to answer questions that I have wrestled with in relation to the Indigenous church in India, my ministry and my leadership role. Why is there response from just one segment of people? What are the factors that have contributed to the growth? Why aren’t the higher castes accepting the Gospel? What is my leadership role? I have come to understand that people of the little traditions are also part of the “subaltern” segment within India. They are the lower castes, the Dalits or so-called untouchables and the Tribals. They are followers of more of a folk religion.
They comprise a significant percentage of the Indian population. The Church is growing among them. I am able to see how the Christian Faith is meeting their need to be liberated, transformed and emancipated. This led me to ask the question: Is the church growing because it is indigenous? Or is the church becoming indigenous because it is growing? Issues to be addressed: a. How can this growing Church become healthy? a. What is church health? b. What will a healthy church look like? That will be the next stage of the study. Originally I had intended at least to define church health as a concluding part of the first essay.
But there was the need to study more on the subject of indigeniety of the church since it was quite relevant. The first stage of my reading and field research was to see if the term ‘indigenous’ could be adequately defined. That proved to be an interesting and exciting pursuit for me and a necessary one. Much more clarity has been gained on how the church from the days of early foreign missions has evolved from being indigenized by the missionaries to become indigenous. Where next, and what next will be the stages in the process will be the questions for the future.
The reading and the essay in themselves have taken me deeper in the study at the first level. on indigeniety. There will probably be another stage before I get to define church health and steps to ensure church health. Other readings and online discussions with the Cohort on Social Theory, Leadership theory and practice, History of the Social Media and Theology have enhanced my overall understanding and continue to contribute to the research and final dissertation. ——————————————– [ 2 ]. Conversations with guests and remarks in visitors book [ 3 ]. Luke 7:22,23 [ 4 ]. Confirmed by Rev.
Vasanthraj Albert, Executive Director, Church Growth Research Center of India, in conversation [ 5 ]. In discussion with Dr. Prabhu Singh Ph. D. , and Dr. Atul Aghamkar Ph. D. , South Asia Institute for Advanced Christian Studies [ 6 ]. Robert Redfield in his work on culture theory (1973) defined the great tradition” of the reflective few as one which is consciously cultivated, refined and handed down in a formal learning situation and the “little tradition” of the largely unreflective many as one which keeps itself going, is taken for granted and is not put under much scrutiny or deliberate refinement and improvement.
[ 7 ]. “Post-colonial theory studies the power and the continued dominance of Western ways of knowing, of intellectual enquiry. The work of Edward Said on Orientalism conceptually addresses the oppressed subaltern man and woman, to explain how the Eurocentric perspective of Orientalism produced the foundations — and the justifications — for the domination of The Other, by means of colonialism. ” http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Subaltern_(postcolonialism) [ 8 ]. “Subalterneity in South Asian studies refers to the subordination of South Asian society under British colonial rule.
It also means the power of the indigenous elite over other sections of the populations. Subaltern groups are those assigned inferior rank by the dominant group. ” (Hedlund, The Quest for Identity – India’s Churches of Indigenous Origin 2000, 8) [ 9 ]. Paul G. Hiebert, “Missiological Education for a Global Era” in Missiological Educationfor the 21 st Century edited by 1. Dudley Woodberry, Charles Van Engen and Edgar J. Elliston; Maryknoll, Orbis, 1996, p. 36. [ 10 ]. David Barrett (ed. ), World Christian Encyclopedia, Oxford University Press, 1982; W.
Biihlmann, The Coming of the Third Church, Orbis, 1978 [ 11 ]. (Hedlund, Christianity is Indian – The Emergence of and Indigenous Community 2004) [ 12 ]. Acts Chapter 2 [ 14 ]. Revelation Chapter 7: [ 15 ]. Lamin Sanneh, Translating the Message: The Missionary Impact on Culture, 1991. [ 16 ]. Ibid. , [ 17 ]. lbid. , p. 45. [ 18 ]. (Stephens 2012) [ 19 ]. Ibid. , [ 20 ]. Bennema, Cornelis and Paul Joshua Bhakiaraj, ed. Papers from the first SAIACS Annual Consultation. Bangalore, Karnataka: SAIACS Press, 2011. [ 21 ]. Barrett, David, ed. World Christian Encyclopedia.
Oxford University Press, 1982. [ 22 ]. [ (Hedlund, The Quest for Identity – India’s Churches of Indigenous Origin 2000, 47) ] [ 23 ]. (Hedlund, Christianity is Indian – The Emergence of and Indigenous Community 2004) [ 24 ]. Ibid. , [ 25 ]. Bennema, Cornelis and Paul Joshua Bhakiaraj, ed. Papers from the first SAIACS Annual Consultation. Bangalore, Karnataka: SAIACS Press, 2011 [ 26 ]. Called “The Builder of Modern India”, she was very prominent as a social activist and radical advocate of women’s rights and egalitarianism along with her evangelistic zeal.
[ 27 ]. An important figure in Indian Christian Theology and devoted to missionary asceticism [ 28 ]. A poet and writer of the Bhakti tradition developed a Christocentric and experiential theology [ 29 ]. Aghamkar, Atul Y. and Padole, Vishwas, Christian Missions in Maharashtra – Retrospect and Prospect. Bangalore, Karnataka: TETRAWPOI, 2010 [ 30 ]. (Hedlund, Christianity is Indian – The Emergence of and Indigenous Community 2004, 223) [ 31 ].
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 8 January 2017
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