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Other terms used to refer to the “Urinary System” include the “Renal System” and the “Genito-urinary System”
Besides removing waste from bloodstream, the urinary system preforms several other functions as well. They are as follows:
Regulation of blood volume: Kidneys control the minds of the weak and volume of interstitial fluid and blood under direction of certain hormones produced in your body. Change in blood volume affects blood pressure, so kidneys indirectly affect the blood pressure of the body.
Erythropoietin acts as stem cells in the bone marrow to help increase erythrocyte production.
Functions of the Kidneys:
The kidneys secret renin, which activates the angiotensin-aldosterone pathway.
Examples of waste products from metabolic reactions within the body include ammonia (from the breakdown of amino acids), bilirubin (from the breakdown of haemoglobin), and creatinine (from the breakdown of creatine phosphate in muscle fibres). Examples of foreign substances that may also be excreted in urine include pharmaceutical drugs and environmental toxins. Functions of the Ureters: 1. There are two ureters, one leading from each kidney to the urinary bladder. Each of these transports urine from the renal pelvis of the kidney to which it is attached, to the bladder (see diagram on the page about components of the urinary system).
Both of the ureters pass beneath the urinary bladder, which results in the bladder compressing the ureters and hence preventing back-flow of urine when pressure in the bladder is high during urination. This prevention of back-flow is important because when it is not operating correctly cystitis, which is inflammation of the ureter / urinary bladder, may develop into a kidney infection. Functions of the Bladder:
Micturition involves the actions of both voluntary and involuntary muscles. Lack of voluntary control over this process is referred to as incontinence. Functions of the Urethra:
Explanation: Your body takes nutrients from food and uses them to maintain all bodily functions including energy and self-repair. After your body has taken what it needs from the food, waste products are left behind in the blood and in the bowel.
The urinary system works with the lungs, skin, and intestines—all of which also excrete wastes—to keep the chemicals and water in your body balanced. Adults eliminate about a quart and a half of urine each day. The amount depends on many factors, especially the amounts of fluid and food a person consumes and how much fluid is lost through sweat and breathing. Certain types of medications can also affect the amount of urine eliminated.
Problems in the urinary system can be caused by aging, illness, or injury. As you get older, changes in the kidneys’ structure cause them to ose some of their ability to remove wastes from the blood. Also, the muscles in your ureters, bladder, and urethra tend to lose some of their strength. You may have more urinary infections because the bladder muscles do not tighten enough to empty your bladder completely. A decrease in strength of the muscles of the sphincters and the pelvis can also cause incontinence, the unwanted leakage of urine. Illness or injury can also prevent the kidneys from filtering the blood completely or block the passage of urine.
Renal (kidney) failure esults when the kidneys are not able to regulate water and chemicals in the body or remove waste products from your blood. Acute renal failure (ARF) is the sudden onset of kidney failure. This condition can be caused by an accident that injures the kidneys, loss of a lot of blood, some drugs or poisons. ARF may lead to permanent loss of kidney function. But if the kidneys are not seriously damaged, they may recover. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the gradual reduction of kidney function that may lead to permanent kidney failure, or end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
You may go several years without knowing you have CKD.
Bladder cancer occurs in the lining of the bladder and is the sixth most common type of cancer in the U. S. Symptoms:
Kidney cancer forms in the lining of the small tubes inside your kidneys. Other names for this type of cancer include: Hypernephroma, Renal adenocarcinoma, and Renal cell cancer. Symptoms:
Treatments: Depends on age, overall health and how advanced the cancer is in each particular patient. It can include:
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