Impact of Job Analysis on Job Performance Essay

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Impact of Job Analysis on Job Performance

In western countries human resource management (HRM) research has shown a shift from microanalytical approach (individual performance) to a macro-strategic (organizational performance) perspective but in a country like Pakistan micro level approach is yet to be analysed. Distant from the
traditional personnel role, human resource management (HRM) has recognized new roles in terms of employee champion, change agent and strategic partner (Ulrich, 1997). The question of how HRM policies and practices are linked to organizational performance has been a subject of great interest to both academics and practitioners (Wright et al., 1999). However, linking HRM practices to employee job performance is unexplored and required a great attention particularly in the context of Pakistan public sector organizations. Job analysis, a human resource management practice is a systematic process for collecting and analysing information about jobs. Job analysis data is perhaps the most widely gathered type of organizational information for developing human resource management systems. It forms the foundation upon which many important HR management systems are built (Butler & Harvey, 1988), including recruitment and selection systems, training and development programs, performance management programs and compensation systems.

The importance of obtaining job analysis data and assessing the reliability of such data has become a salient issue to both practitioners and researchers. It has been estimated that large organizations spend between $150,000 and $4,000,000 annually on job analyses (Levine, Sistrunk, McNutt, & Gael, 1988). Earlier research on job analysis focused on methodological aspects of the concept of job analysis. These research efforts made an important contribution to the field of HRM by developing techniques and procedures to generate accurate and practically useful job-related data (McCormick, 1979; Cornelius et al., 1979; Ash and Levine, 1980; Bemis et al., 1983; Gael, 1988). This laid the groundwork that allowed HR professionals to identify and Journal of Diversity Management – Second Quarter 2010

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examine several possible applications of job analysis information. Currently, some researchers in the west have moved a step forward by stressing the importance of job analysis as a strategic HRM practice with potential contribution to organizational performance (Cascio, 1998; Bowin and Harvey, 2001). With increasing recognition of the HR–performance linkage, it has been suggested that organizations that actively pursue job analysis as a Human Resource Planning (HRP) strategy are likely to gain competitive advantage (Anthony et al., 2002; Dessler, 2003). In Pakistan impact of job analysis on employee job performance is yet to be explored. Continuing this line of analysis, this study examines the impact of job analysis on job performance with survey data collected from the 568 employees of public sector organisations particularly regulatory authorities and organizations regulated by these authorities of Pakistan. Pakistan is a developing country in the South-Asia region.

Apart from having ample natural resources, Pakistan is widely known as an open and forward-thinking country, willing to test with innovative management practices and development models that will assist it in seeking an effective diversification of its economy. With invasion of multinational companies over the past decade, particularly under the umbrella of Regulatory Authorities, Pakistan has achieved an inspiring mix of domestic and foreign companies. The growing competition in a large market (with a little over 165 million population) has made both domestic and foreign companies intensely productivity cognisant. This, in turn, has generated a strong interest and enthusiasm among organizations, particularly in the public sector, to search vigorously for the best management practices in all fields of HRM to improve their productivity and overall performance. Thus, Pakistan offers an appropriate setting to examine how a basic HR practice, such as job analysis, which has received considerable attention in Western countries as a useful HR planning tool, affects employee job performance in a developing country.

The current study may also be seen as an opportunity to validate and extend the findings of HR– performance studies conducted in Western countries to a non-Western context. This study was designed to elaborate this linkage theoretically and test it with an empirical data obtained from a survey of 568 employees from 6 (Six) regulatory authorities in Telecom, oil and gas, power, media, security exchange and banking sector and 9 (Nine) organisations related with these regulators. Present study has three potential contributions to research and practice.

First, Human resource planning in the public sector organizations, secondly impact of job analysis on employee job performance and lastly to examine the moderating effects of recruitment process with job performance. Empirical research studies have found a significant relationship between HRM practices and organizational outcomes such as employee turnover (Arthur, 1994; Huselid, 1995; Sivasubramanyam and Venkataratnam, 1998) By including job satisfaction and retention in job performance in the hypothesized frame work, it is hoped that present study would open a new line of inquisition into the affective roles of job analysis in job performance. It is also expected that by collecting data in a South Asian context, a greater variety of research contexts and results would be available for synthesis in the future. HR PRACTICE–PERFORMANCE MODEL Researchers have presented some conceptual models in the past. Beer et al., (1984) identified competence, commitment, congruence and cost effectiveness as an intermediary variables.

Becker et al. (1997); Becker and Huselid (1998) have proposed that intervening variables such as employee skills, employee motivation, job design and work structure link operating performance, which in turn influences profits and market value. Boudreau (1998) has found capability, opportunity and motivation as intermediary variables for individual performance, which results in organizational success. In this study an effort has bee made to explore the intervening role of recruitment process in the context of skill, knowledge and abilities for better job performance. An analysis of previous research works on HRM has identified some immediate effects of HRM practices, known as HRM outcomes. Such HRM outcomes include knowledge, skill and abilities or competence (Schuler, 1989; Becker et al., 1997; Pfeffer, 1994; Barney, 1991; Lengnick-Hall 1999; Sandberg, 2000; Beer et al., 1985; Lado and Wilson, 1994), Gaining a lead from the concept of the self insight which is skill, knowledge and abilities and job insight, human resource practices, like job analysis , tasks and responsibilities conceptual models and immediate HRM outcomes identified by prior researchers, it is possible to develop an integrated HR practiceemployee job performance model. 18

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A CONCEPTIONAL MODEL FOR HR PRACTICE– EMPLOYEE JOB PERFORMANCE LINKAGE There are diverse stakeholders attached with an organization, the major strategic
goal of an organization is higher performance (Becker and Huselid, 1998). Major two types of performance are financial and operational. Financial performance of an organization depends upon a large extent on effective operational performance of their employees. Function of employees, processes and technology comes under the operational performance of an organization. (Curtis et al., 1995). Effective and efficient interaction of employee with the technology and processes is only possible if the employees in the organization are competent enough, with the required knowledge, skill and abilities (Huselid, 1995; Barney and Wright, 1997). Knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA) or Competence of an individual is an important factor which decides operational effectiveness in terms of providing quality performance within a short time (Brooks, 1987; Wynekoop and Walz, 2000).

An organization‟s understanding of the available and needed Knowledge, Skills and Abilities (KSA) allow them to plan for the changes to new jobs and recruit the right person required for achieving their organizational goals thereby sustaining them through the indecisive times (Cascio 1995). HRM practices such as job analysis, recruitment and selection, training and development, work environment and performance appraisal may enhance the competence of employees for high performance (Latham and Wexley, 1981; Snell and Dean, 1992; Lado and Wilson, 1993; Terpestra and Rozell, 1993; Koch and McGrath, 1996; Pfeffer, 1998). Apart from interaction with technology and processes, relations with employees working within the departments and the synergy of such effective teamwork decide the operational success (Barney and Wright, 1997). To achieve better results, effective synergic interaction in the working group is a necessary requirement. In view of above, while the potential contribution of the importance and practice of job analysis to employee Job performance has not been systematically investigated, there is enough subjective evidence in the current HR-performance literature to be expecting a positive impact of job analysis on employee job performance.

Sherman et al. claims, the main purpose of job analysis is to improve organizational performance and productivity‟ (1998: 90). Organizational performance, however, depends upon the individual performance. In a culture like Pakistan, human resource practices are being adopted particularly in public sector organizations however, importance of job analysis and practice of job analysis in such organizations and its impact on employee job performance is yet to be tested. Job performance and job satisfaction relation has a controversial history. The Hawthorne studies, conducted in the 1930s, are frequently attributed with making researchers aware of the effects of employee attitudes on performance. After the Hawthorne studies, researchers started taking a significant glance at the perception that a “happy employee is a productive employee.” Most of the previously reviews of the literature suggested a weak and somewhat inconsistent relationship between job satisfaction and employee performance. A literature review in 1985 recommended that the statistical correlation between job satisfaction and job performance was about .17 (Iaffaldano & Muchinsky, 1985). Accordingly, authors concluded that the apparent relationship between job satisfaction and performance was a “management fad” and “illusory.”

This study had an important impact on researchers, and in some cases on organizations, with some managers and HR practitioners concluding that the relationship between job satisfaction and performance was insignificant. Further research, however, does not agree with this conclusion. Organ (1988) suggests that the failure to find a strong relationship between job satisfaction and job performance is due to the slight means often used to define job performance. Organ argued that when job performance is defined to include important behaviours not generally reflected in performance appraisals, such as organizational citizenship behaviours, its relationship with job satisfaction improves. Research tends to support Organ‟s suggestion in that job satisfaction correlates with organizational citizenship behaviours (Organ & Ryan, 1995). In addition, in a more recent and comprehensive review of 301 studies, Judge, Thoresen, Bono, and Patton (2001) found that when the correlations are appropriately corrected (for sampling and measurement errors), the average correlation between job satisfaction and job performance is a higher than .30. In accumulation, the relationship between job satisfaction and performance was 19

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found to be even higher for professional jobs rather than non-professional jobs. Thus, contrary to earlier reviews, it does appear that job satisfaction is, in fact, projecting of job performance, and the relationship is even stronger for professional jobs. Most of the literature on job retention is about full-time employees. The majority of the studies addressed the causes, effects and results of turnover. Several studies found that turnover rate was associated with employees’ demographic and personal characteristics, overall job satisfaction, organization and work environment, job analysis, intrinsic motivation, external labour environment, employees’ perceptions of alternative jobs, absenteeism, lateness and job performance (Pizam & Ellis, 1996; Boles, Ross, & Johnson, 1995). Taking a lead from the increasing literature on HR-performance linkage (Guest, 1997; Wright et al., 1998; Richardson and Thompson, 1999; Truss, 2001;

Greer, 2001) in Figure 1 a conceptual / hypothesized model has been outlined that shall develop and test in this study. In the proposed model, we treat the importance of job analysis and practice of job analysis as an independent variable and recruitment KSA as an intervening variables. With respect to job performance, the present study, in gratitude of the multidimensional nature of the concept, defined performance in terms of achieving superior results in the following six key areas: use of specific skills, performance enhancement, achieving the goals, consistency with goals, financial rewards and appreciation. These performance dimensions are the primary dependent variables in the proposed model. It shows one possible way of explaining how Job analysis can lead to job performance with the moderating role of recruitment.

Independent variable

Intervening variable

Dependent variable Job Satisfaction

Job Analysis JA1
(Knowledge, Skills, Abilities)

Job Analysis JA2
(Practice of Job analysis)

Recruitment KSA

Job Performance

(Importance of Job Analysis)

Job Retention

Figure I Hypothesized HR-Performance linkage model Method

Journal of Diversity Management – Second Quarter 2010 METHOD Sample And Data Collection

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There was no such HRM-performance study has been reported in the Public sector regulatory authorities where there is a possible direct link between employee‟s performance and human resource practices. The regulatory regime has been widely adopted in the public sector of Pakistan. The rapidly expanding Telecom, Power, Media, Oil & gas and banking sector has witnessed a strong demand for qualified personnel in recent years. In general, these organizations are engaged in the human resource management activities more than other public sector organizations. On a more macro level, these sectors have been actively pursued as a major engine for economic growth and productivity improvement in Pakistan in the past one-and-a-half decades. The sample consisted of the regulatory authorities and organizations linked with these authorities in Pakistan. Detail is given in table 1.

Table 1: Employees from Regulatory Authorities and related organisations % (N= 568) Organisations NEPRA (National Electric and Power Regulatory Authority) 7 percent OGRA (Oil and Gas Regulatory Authority) 8 percent PTA (Pakistan Telecommunication Authority) 6 percent PEMRA (Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority) 6 percent STATE BANK 8 percent SECP (Security Exchange Commission of Pakistan) 6 percent IESCO (Islamabad Electric Supply Company) 6 percent OGDCL (Oil and Gas Development Corporation Limited) 6 percent PTCL (Pakistan Telecommunication Company Limited) 6 percent UFONE 7 percent TELECARD 5 percent PTV (Pakistan Television) 8 percent HBL (Habib Bank Limited) 8 percent PICIC ( Pakistan Industrial ) 6 percent KHUSHHALI BANK 7 percent

HRM practice and processes variables, such as job analysis, job performance, recruitment process, job satisfaction and job retention, were studied from the perspectives of employees of middle and top management having the knowledge of human resource practices. Since employees of these organizations were the immediate beneficiaries of HR practices, and the right people to judge their level of competence, satisfaction and productivity from their experience, the job analysis questionnaire were administered to them. It may be noticed that HR professionals have detailed information on HRM policies and practices of the organization and employees were fully aware about these practices. At the same time, it may also be accepted that an HR policy becomes a practice only if it is implemented by the employees at middle and lower levels.

Huselid et al. (1997) argue that HRM research has to take into account the effective practices rather than documented policies. Ideal respondents to measure the existence of an effective practice may be the beneficiaries of such practices, i.e. employees. Potential participants were identified from among full-time employees working in these organisations and they were fully briefed about the questionnaire and human resource practices mentioned therein. A total of 750 questionnaire were distributed and 588 five hundred and eighty eight were returned, yielding a response rate of 78.4 percent. Twenty questionnaires were incomplete and discarded. The final sample consisted of 568 cases. The questionnaire was written in English. The sample comprised 25.9 percent females and 74.1percent males which indicates the male dominated participation in jobs due to quota system in public sector organizations. Quota for women, districts, and tribal population though defensible under certain considerations, are non-the-less pernicious to the principle of merit-based recruitment. This has already devastated the civil
service, apart from affecting the quality in general, it has fuelled factionalism within the civil service on regional, sexual and/ or other grounds. 21

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More than 65 percent participants have attained their master degree level. Although more than 60 percent are permanent employees but there is till trend of contractual employment. Majority of employees is directly recruited which is 67.2 percent which shows slow and less promotions as most of the employees have a service under 10 years.

More than 60 percent are on the same position within five years of service. Recruitment and other personnel matter are dealt by the Human Resource Department to the extent of 77 percent which indicates and justify a separate HR department to look after HR issues and implement HR strategies and practices, whereas recruitment matters of the most of the public sector organizations are being dealt by the Federal Public Service Commission (FPSC) at federal level and Provincial Public Service Commission at province level. Profile of respondents is mentioned in table 2 Table 2: Profile of Respondents ( N= 568 ) Variables Male Female Below 25 years 25-35 years 35-45 years 45-55 years 55-60 Above 60 PhD Masters Degree B.Sc. Engineering Graduation Intermediate Matriculation Permanent Contractual Deputation Daily wagers Technical Managerial/Admin Any other Top Middle Supervisor Non-managerial Direct Promotion Deputation Less than 1 1-2 3-5 6 – 10 Over 10 Less than 1 1-2 3-5 6 – 10 Over 10 HR Department Any other

Gender Age

Educational level

Job Status

Job Category

Job Level

Mode of appointment

Number of years In present Organization

Number of years In present position

Recruitment Matters dealt by

Percentage (%) 74.1 25.9 21.0 47.0 16.7 12.7 2.5 0.2 1.2 66.4 5.6 18.3 6.9 1.6 64.6 31.0 2.8 1.6 28.7 47.5 23.8 4.9 44.9 23.2 26.9 67.6 28.2 4.2 12.7 26.1 32.9 10.2 18.1 25.9 28.9 31.0 6.0 8.3 77.5 22.5

Journal of Diversity Management – Second Quarter 2010 MEASUREMENT OF JOB ANALYSIS

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There was no prior instrument available to measure Job analysis from the viewpoint of public sector professionals, a new instrument was developed on the basis of an exhaustive review of literature on Human Resource Management and people management practices (Curtis et al., 1995; Agrawal, 1999). Face validity has been established after a thorough review by experts in the field (Three academicians, five practitioners and two consultants). Job analysis was measured in two items separately, Importance of Job analysis and practice/ frequency of job analysis .

Importance of job analysis was measured on 6-point Likert scale having responses ranging from 0 (Not performed) to 5 (when it is felt essential). Unidimensionality was assessed using factor analysis. The twenty statements, forming the human resource practices scale, were analysed for principal factors and the extracted factor matrix was analysed with Principal Component Analysis , rotation
method , Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization. (Huselid, 1995). Four factors with an eigen value higher than 1.360, accounting for 21.51 per cent of the variance, emerged. (Appendix- 1) Internal consistency of the scale was tested by computing Cronbach alphas and alpha value was found to be higher than 0.70 in all factors except one variable which was less than .60. The complete instrument consists of twenty five items spread over the six dimensions, such as importance of job analysis, practice of job analysis, job performance, job satisfaction and job retention.

MEASUREMENT OF PRACTICE / FREQUENCY OF JOB ANALYSIS Regular practice of job analysis serves as an invaluable source of feedback for employees and their supervisors. HR managers can use this feedback to develop such useful documents like job description and programmes as job rotation, job enlargement and job enrichment to achieve a better match between job demands and employee skills and abilities. These programmes allow more effective management of employees‟ job-related complaints and grievances, and can help forge amore favourable organizational climate (Ivancevich, 1998). Practice of Job analysis for this study was measured on 6-point Likert scale having responses ranging from 0 (Not performed) to 5 (when it is felt essential) Since the present study was interested in the frequency or regularity with which organisations perform job analysis, the survey participants were requested to report as to how often their organizations conducted job analyses. The responses were recorded as „not performed‟, „every year‟, „every two years‟, „after every three years‟, „after four-to-five years‟ and „when it is felt essential‟. MEASUREMENT OF JOB PERFORMANCE In this study, job performance was measured in two dimensions.

Operational performance and financial performance. Operational performance was defined in terms of employee retention, achievement of the goals of organization, employee productivity and objectivity of performance evaluation system. Financial performance was measured in terms of monetary and non-monetary benefits of the employees. Job performance was measured with 6 items on a 5-point likert scale, respondents were asked to respond to the different aspects of their jobs like performance enhancement on job, objective achievement, consistency with the goals of the organization, objectivity of the performance evaluation system, monetary and non-monetary benefits. The measure has good reliability properties.

Cronbach‟s alpha value was .77 MEASUREMENT OF JOB SATISFACTION Job satisfaction was assessed from the respondents indicated the degree to which they were satisfied with the six factors inner satisfaction, respect, sense of fulfilment, peer support, cared by the organization. A five point likert scale was used. 1(strongly disagree), 2(disagree), 3(neither agree nor disagree), 4(agree) and 5(strongly agree). Cronbach‟s alpha was calculated to test the reliability of the data and was found to be .72

Journal of Diversity Management – Second Quarter 2010 MEASUREMENT OF JOB RETENTION

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Retention was measured with 6 items, respondents were asked to respond, on a 5-point likert scale, 1(strongly disagree), 2(disagree), 3(neither agree nor disagree), 4(agree) and 5(strongly agree). The measure has moderate reliability properties. Cronbach‟s alpha value was .57 MEASUREMENT OF RECRUITMENT KSA Recruitment KSA was measured with 5 items on a 5-point likert scale, respondents were asked to respond to the different aspects of their skills, knowledge and abilities. The measure has good reliability properties. Cronbach‟s alpha value was .73 RESULTS Descriptive statistics Table 3 provides means and standard deviations of all the variables under study. Table 4 shows the bivariate correlation of HR practices, intervening variable and dependant variable. Table 3 Means and standard deviations Number of Mean items JA1 Importance of job Analysis 1 2.83 JA2 Practice of job analysis 1 2.19 Job Performance 6 3.68 Recruitment ( KSA ) 5 4.06 Job Satisfaction 6 3.71 Job Retention 6 3.17 Variable

Standard Deviation 1.00 2.14 0.65 0.52 0.57 0.60

Table 4 Correlations Variables Mean Std. Deviation 1 1. JA1 Importance of job
Analysis 2.83 1.00 2. JA2 Practice of job analysis 2.19 2.14 0.063 3. Job Performance 3.68 0.65 .193(**) 4. Recruitment ( KSA ) 4.06 0.52 .218(**) 5. Job Satisfaction 3.71 0.57 .217(**) 6. Job Retention 3.17 0.60 -0.043 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). * Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

ESTABLISHING A LINKAGE BETWEEN HR PRACTICES AND JOB PERFORMANCE Figure 2 shows the significant and non-significant relationships found in the HR–performance model tested. HR practice job analysis 1 have positive correlations with job analysis 2, intervening variable, recruitment KSA, job performance and job satisfaction but has a negative correlation with retention.

In the same way, job performance has shown a strong significant correlation with job analysis 1, recruitment, job satisfaction, job retention but a weak correlation with job analysis 2. As mentioned earlier the relationship between job satisfaction and job performance has a controversial history. A weak and somewhat inconsistent relationship between job satisfaction and performance have been shown. A review of the literature in 1985 suggested that the statistical correlation between job satisfaction and performance was about .17 (Iaffaldano & Muchinsky, 1985). Correlation
between job satisfaction and job performance in this study was .52 which does not support to the previous findings. This study had an important impact on researchers, and in some cases on organizations, with some managers and HR practitioners concluding that the relationship between job satisfaction and performance was trivial. 24

Figure 2 HR-Performance linkage tested model

In addition, in a comprehensive review of 301 studies, Judge, Thoresen, Bono, and Patton (2001) found that when the correlations are appropriately corrected (for sampling and measurement errors), the average correlation between job satisfaction and job performance is a higher .30. This finding is supportive of present study sampling and measurement as results of job satisfaction and job performance (.52) is a higher than .30 Thus, contrary to earlier reviews, it does appear that job satisfaction is, in fact, predictive of job performance and the relationship is stronger.

The results showed that the job satisfaction have a highly significant influence on job performance. Specifically, the more satisfied a job holder is with his/her job, the more important he/she regards the organizational skills and cognitive skills as in the job, and the higher level of technological skills, organizational skills and cognitive skills he/she displays at job. In a similar seam, the higher level of affective commitment a job-holder has to his organization, the more important he/she regards the cognitive skills as in the job, and the higher level of cognitive skills the job-holder exhibits at job. Also, the more involved a job-holder becomes in his/her job, the more important he/she regards the organizational skills and cognitive skills as in the job, and the higher level of the above two skills he/she reveals at work. This study has explored a strong relationships showing highly significant correlations between job performance and job satisfaction (r=.52) This positive highly significant relationship is the addition to the literature on human resource management specifically in the context of Pakistan a non-western country.

Journal of Diversity Management – Second Quarter 2010 TEST FOR MODERATING EFFECT OF RECRUITMENT

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In order to explore the extent to which Recruitment KSA moderated the job analysis–job performance relationship, regression analysis was conducted. A moderating effect is present if the multiplicative interaction term is statistically significant. Using hierarchical regression analysis (SPSS 12 ), the importance of job analysis JA 1 and Practice of Job Analysis JA 2 were entered in step one, and the Recruitment KSA moderator in step two. Table 5 presents B, SE B , R2 change and standardized beta coefficients. As may be seen from Table 5, all interaction effects were positive and in the predicted direction. It may be noted here that, since the coefficients of both the multiplicative interaction terms and the moderator variables are statistically significant, the moderator should be seen as quasi-moderators rather than pure moderators.

It is also noteworthy from R2 change, that job analysis and the moderating variables together explained a much larger proportion of the total variance on dependent variable. However, the relatively stable standardized beta coefficients generated by job analysis with recruitment, indicating its unique impact, independent of moderators, support the central argument of this study that a job analysis practice is an important HR strategy to achieve superior job performance results. Table 5 Moderating effect of recruitment process KSA B SE B β Step 1 3.302 .085 Constant .125 .027 Job Analysis 1 .013 .013 Job Analysis 2 Step 2 1.148 .195 Constant .058 .025 Job Analysis 1 .026 .011 Job Analysis 2 .570 .048 Recruitment Note: All beta values significant at .05 or higher level of significance. .191 .042 .194 .089 .084 .453 .089

R2 Change .039

DISCUSSION This paper discusses the link of an important human resource management (HRM) practice, job analysis, with the employee job performance by exploring the impact of job analysis on job performance. Role of recruitment as moderator in this HRM-Performance link has also been
examined. A hypothesized model in this connection has been presented and tested. The result of this study has been derived from the survey of employees of regulatory authorities of Pakistan and organizations working under the umbrella of these authorities. This makes the conclusions more sectors oriented. Results indicated that Job analysis, a vital human resource management practice has a direct impact on employee job performance and its outcomes, viz., job satisfaction and job retention Current finding is in conformity with previous studies carried out in the western countries (Pfeffer, 1994; 1998; Huselid, 1995) to a non-western country Pakistan. The specific aim of this research study was to examine the impact of job analysis on employee job performance with the relation of recruitment process in public sector regulatory authorities of Pakistan.

As stated by McCormick, 1976, Job analysis is generally regarded as a foundation for human resource management and further studied by Sanchez and Levine, 2000 in human resource management practices such as recruitment and selection, training and performance appraisal. Inaccurate job analysis affects other human resource activities based on it. Job analysis as a management technique was developed around 1900 in the west and it became one of the tools by which managers understood and directed organizations. This important human resource practice however, could not be kept in practice in Pakistan till 2000 (one hundred years gap) In the field of human resource management the importance of job analysis cannot be denied, as all decisions in the employment process rest upon job analysis. Later, Brannick and Levine in 2002 described job analysis as a systematic process whereby one discovers the nature of a job. This is accomplished by dividing the job 26

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into smaller units, where the process results in one or more written products. Some researchers Cascio, 1998; Bowin and Harvey, 2000 have emphasized the importance of job analysis as a strategic HRM practice with potential contribution to organizational performance but in the present study, practice of job analysis has been taken into the account with respect to employee job performance. In fact the impact of jo analysis is examines at micro level whereas organization performance may be seen at macro level. Individual job performance ultimately will leads toward the organizational performance.

Anthony et al., 2002 and Dessler, 2003 further studied that with the growing identification of the HR–performance linkage, it was recommended that organizations which actively pursue job analysis as a human resource planning strategy are likely to gain competitive advantage upon the organization which are not using job analysis. Despite an increasing detection of the central role of job analysis in all human resource activities, there is little empirical research that specifically links job analysis to job performance. Drucker (2002) and several other researchers , Towers, 1992; Pfeffer, 1998; and Greer, 2001 suggested that the success of organizations in the present competitive environment largely depends upon the caliber of their human resources and innovative employee management programmes and practices.

In Pakistan no such empirical research was available which links job analysis with job performance. There is enough evidence in the current HR-performance literature to expect a positive impact of job analysis on job performance. Certain organizations have benefited from job analysis due to the positive link between job analysis and job performance in the west. Sherman et al. (1998). claimed „The ultimate purpose of job analysis is to improve performance and productivity‟ The practice of job analysis has the potential to make this contribution to job performance both directly and interactively with other key human resource practices. Frequency of job analysis practice can help an organization in creating a proper infrastructure by defining the tasks to be performed as well as the timelines for performing them.

Regular job analysis contributes not only to the employees but to the organizational performance by promoting job attitudes and working environment. In addition, job analysis can be used to identify factors that form employee‟s motivation and job satisfaction. Timely and accurate information on job tasks and responsibilities as well as level of performance required to achieve results provides employees with clear direction and definite targets to pace their job performance efficiently. This reality is extensively acknowledged that `human resources’ is the paramount organizational resource and the means to accomplish exceptional performance.

At a general level, results generated by
this study are largely consistent with results obtained in studies of Job Analysis- job performance conducted in other geographical settings (Becker and Huselid, 1998). However, results of the present study add to the available empirical evidence and suggested that such declaration have some credibility. Outcome of the study put forward an indication of the positive relationship between job analysis and job performance. Significant positive correlations were found of job analysis 1 (importance of job analysis) with job performance r=.19, whereas correlation with other variables remained within small effect as with job analysis 2 (practice or frequency of job analysis) r=.06 recruitment r=.22 and job satisfaction r=.22 There was a negative correlation (-0.043) with job retention only. These results indicates positive relationship of job analysis not only with the job performance , dependent variable but also with job satisfaction except job retention which clearly indicates that importance of job analysis has nothing to do with employee job retention. Correlation of importance of job analysis, JA 1 was found weak with job analysis 2 (practice or frequency of job analysis).

This indicates that job analysis 2 (practice or frequency of job analysis) may be used as moderator between JA 1 and job performance to ascertain the frequency of the job analysis. Job analysis 2 has also a weak relationship with job performance r=.05 One of the avenue for future research may be the moderator role of the JA2 between JA 1 and Job performance with or without existing moderator recruitment. Further analysis of data through regression results shows that job analysis 1 and job analysis 2 correlates positively with Job performance. R-squared value was found .039 which explained 3.9 percent of the total variance for dependent variable job performance relating to job analysis, Adjusted R- squared was .036. The adjusted R2 has given an idea of how well hypothesized model generalizes and ideally its value should be the same, or very close to, 27

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the value of R2. So in this study value of adjusted R2 is close to the value of R2. B value for job analysis 1 was .125 and .013 for job analysis 2 with
standard error of .027 and .013 respectively. p-level of job analysis 1 is .000 and t value is 4.614 and p-level of job analysis 2 is .309 and t value is 1.017 In multiple regressions the model takes the form of an equation that contains a coefficient (b) for each predictor and these b values indicate the individual contribution of each predictor to the model. b values also explains about the relationship between dependent variable and each predictor.

Positive value reflects that there is a positive relationship between the predictor and the outcome whereas a negative coefficient represents a negative relationship. Each of b values has an associated standard error indicating to what extent these values would vary across different samples, and these standard errors are used to determine whether or not the b value differs significantly from zero. In this study all the values are positive t-test associated with a b value is significant hence predictor job analysis is making a significant contribution to the model. The smaller the value of Significance .000 and the larger the value of t = 4.614 is showing the greater contribution of JA1. In JA 2 value of Significance is .309 and the value of t = 1.017 which is not showing the greater contribution. Beta value for job analysis 1 was .191 whereas job analysis 2 has shown a value of .042. The standardized beta values ( β ) tell us the number of standard deviations that the outcome will change as a result of one standard deviation change in the predictor.

The standardized beta values ( β ) are all measured in standard deviation units and so are directly comparable, therefore, they provide a better insight into the „importance‟ of a predictor in the model. It is to mention here that regression analysis was carried out by taking in account the value of intercept. Although impact of job analysis 1 is significant but again poor results have been reflected by the job analysis 2 which reflects that in public sector organizations job analysis is not being carried out regularly. Job analysis has a vital role and practice of job analysis is indeed an effective HR strategy to achieve desirable organizational outcomes, such as greater administrative efficiency, organizational climate, and stronger relative job performance in the organization. A job analysis approach may be seen as a foundation of competitive advantage in its own right. In fact, public sector organizations particularly regulatory authorities seem to be more in tune with recent developments in human resource management, and actively seek and implement result-oriented strategies already tested by larger and grown-up organizations (Thompson and Strickland, 2001; Dessler, 2003).

The significance of job analysis as an independent predictor is consistent with the emerging view that regards human resource planning as a prerequisite for high performance in the present highly competitive organizational culture (Towers, 1992; Greer, 2001). The interaction of HR involvement and job analysis suggests that, if HR planning is guided by more concrete information on employee‟s strengths and limitations and active participation of Human Resource professionals in strategic decisions, it is more likely to produce measurable outcomes. The results mentioned above clearly illustrate the value of strategic role to HR professionals, as advocated to a great extent of the current HR literature.

Keeping in view the job analysis approach, the current study provides some initial evidence on the value of the competency-focused approach. As shown by the results, when a competency-based approach which seeks data on special skills and competencies of employees (Anthony et al., 2002) is converted into an organization-wide regular job analysis practice, it can certainly provide some additional benefits in the form of higher job performance results. This interaction of job analysis practice and the approach used to obtain pertinent data indicates the need to recognize the potential value of modifying the job analysis approaches to incorporate competency factors.

Rapid technological advancements and increasing competitive pressures are making several jobs obsolete. Thus, organizations must constantly review the skills, knowledge and abilities of their employees and recruitment strategies to achieve an effective match between job requirements and employee skills (Clifford, 1994; Mondy et al., 2002). A realistic approach of Job Analysis ensures maximum congruency between job content and job context which is supportive for the recruitment process. The flaws in public sector‟s recruitment system occur when they independently deal with job content and job context. The preference is given to job content as it is taken as a 28

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benchmark for organization during recruitment and selection while HRM based recruitment requires interdependent criteria both for job content and context. The job content and context together determine the functions and functionality of a job. They are best understood as intermingled growing process rather than a linear progression of steps. Many organizations therefore carry a job re-design as a component of the ongoing process of Job Analysis. An effective Job analysis can be conducted after the job has been designed, the employees have been trained and the work has been performed. It has been observed that in public sector, if job is analysed after the job is assigned and continues with certain practices for a long period of time while HR best practices gives an extensive picture of different extensions of Job Analysis.

Cherrington (1995) identifies three occasions when Job Analysis is normally carried out: first, when the organization commences, secondly, when a new job is created, and third when a job is changed significantly as a result of new methods new procedures and new technology. If third point is particularly considered it needs recruitment on the basis of constantly changing knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA) needs as new procedures or technology requires potential employees to handle them effectively.

The results of the present study support the role of Job analysis for both increasing individual job performance and reducing intentions to leave the organization. Individuals with higher levels of knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA) tend to be better job performers. Extensive job analysis should be conducted on each job to identify the major job tasks that comprise the position. Jobs will also need to be analyzed for the nature of the job performed, the nature of the relationships encountered in the job, and job outcomes in terms of what is formed as a result of performing the job. Human resource professionals play a vital role in the recruitment process because they have to communicate information about the job in the form of job description and job specification which are based on the job analysis. Source of information about the job influences like person–job fit and subsequent attraction (Rynes, Bretz, & Gerhart, 1991) and retention (Barrick & Zimmerman, 2005). The basic assumption is that accurate and realistic job information enables applicants to assess the degree of similarity between their knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA) and the job requirements (Breaugh, 1992; Breaugh & Starke, 2000; Wanous, 1977, 1992). Organizations can endeavor to increase level of performance by matching job insight (job description and job specifications) with person insight (Skill, knowledge and abilities).

Organizations can choose to assess self insight during the pre-hire phase of the employment relationship using recruitment and selection processes. Self insight can also be assessed and developed in current employees in the post-hire phase of employment using career planning and progression activities as well as job design activities. In the present study positive correlations of recruitment was found with job performance r=.47 but low relations were reported with the job retention r=.08 Correlation between recruitment and job satisfaction was also found low r=.19 According to Meglino, Ravlin, & De Nisi, 2000; Phillips, 1998 accurate job description during recruitment and selection is associated with positive job performance outcomes like job satisfaction and low turnover.

Results supports for job performance but job satisfaction and job retention have not fully supported. Applicants who perceive a fit between their KSA and the job requirements are likely to remain in the selection process and accept a job offer. Moderator role of recruitment was tested in the model in between job analysis and job performance. R 2 change value in job analysis 1(JA 1) and job analysis 2 (JA 2) in step 2 was .19, job satisfaction .14 and Job retention .20 which indicates that inclusion of recruitment helps in explaining the additional 19 % variance in the job performance.

Before inclusion of recruitment, JA 1 and JA 2 accounted for .039 or 4 %, job satisfaction accounted for .268 or 26.8 % and job retention accounted for .053 or 5.3 % variance (R 2 value ) in job performance. When organizations with well developed, recruitment and selection process pursue job analysis as an organization policy, they gain a level of superiority in human resource management and application of HR practices that other organizations lacking such resources can hardly match. On examining the complete model R2 change value in Job Analysis 1, Job Analysis 2, job satisfaction and job retention step 2 is .101 This indicates that inclusion of recruitment KSA helps in explaining the additional 10.1 % variance in the job performance. The p- value for testing significance of correspond F change is .000 this means that inclusion of recruitment KSA significantly improves model to predict job performance. 29

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According to McConnell, 2003 job performance is defined as an action that can be observed and measured. Several variables influence job performance including age (Wright& Bonett, 2002), non-financial rewards like recognition of achievement (Cronin & Becherer, 1999; Fort & Voltero, 2004) and job satisfaction (McConnell, 2003; Tzeng, 2004) All these variables would positively influence employee job performance. In the present study job performance was found highly significant correlated with the job satisfaction (r=.52) which support the wok of McConnell, 2003 and Tzeng, 2004.

Core competencies are typically derived using various job analysis methods within the organizational psychology literature (Visser et al. 1997), Job analysis methods are systematic procedures widely used within organizations to identify the critical aspects of a job and what knowledge, skills, abilities and other characteristics are required to perform the job successfully. The positive correlations of job analysis 1( importance of job analysis) with job performance r=.19 was found showing within small effect size whereas correlations of job analysis 2 (practice of job analysis) with job performance was r=.05 showing low effect size. This indicates organizations although recognize the importance of job analysis but practice of job analysis is not a regular activity, productivity of such organizations may be low. The professional human resource literature is currently dedicated to measure and reporting upon, the measurable link between an organization‟s human resource management (HRM) practices and its performance ( P ) – referred as the HRM-P link. The government too is interested in this link (Kingsmill, 2003). The model presented in this study is based on HRM-P link where performance ( P ) is related with the employee job performance.

The question of how HRM policies and practices are linked to organizational performance has been a subject of great interest to both academics and practitioners (Wright et al., 1999). However, linking HRM practices to employee job performance is unexplored and required a great attention particularly in the context of public sector organizations.

However, some researchers have moved a step forward by stressing the importance of job analysis as a strategic HRM practice with potential contribution to organizational performance (Cascio, 1998; Bowin and Harvey, 2001). With increasing recognition of the HR–performance linkage, it has been suggested that organizations that actively pursue job analysis as a Human Resource Planning (HRP) strategy are likely to gain competitive advantage (Anthony et al., 2002; Dessler, 2003). Based on previous human resource research, it was hypothesized that a critical human resource practices job analysis, recruitment as a moderator, job satisfaction and job retention would be positively related to job performance. Findings revealed that importance placed on each of these human resource issues were all areas in which job performance was based.

These findings suggest that these human resource activities do in fact have a positive impact on job performance. Based on the literature and regression results for the hypothesized model for this study a positive correlations of the variables job analysis 1, job analysis 2 and job satisfaction with Job performance has been shown. Job retention shown a negative correlation in the model only. R-squared value was found .434 which explained 43.4 percent of the total variance for dependent variable job performance relating to job analysis 1 and job analysis 2 job satisfaction and job retention. Adjusted R- squared was .426 which is near the value of R2. B value for job analysis 1, (.044) job analysis 2,( .002) , job satisfaction (.155) and job retention ( -.006) with standard error of .002, .010, .052 and .040 . p-level of job analysis 1, (.043) job analysis 2,( .864) job satisfaction (.003) and job retention ( .097) with t value of 2.032, .172, 2.967, and -1.663 All the values were positive t value except job retention with „b‟ value hence predictor job analysis 1, job analysis 2, job satisfaction are making a significant contribution to the model. Beta value for job analysis 1, (.067) job analysis 2,( .006) job satisfaction (.135) and job retention ( -.061) provided a better insight into the importance of job analysis 1, job analysis 2 and job satisfaction in the model.

This study has examined the feasibility of using job analysis method to develop job performance measures for public sector regulatory authorities employees and investigated aspects of the reliability and validity of the job performance measures produced in the study. An important finding of the study is that adaptations of job
analysis 30

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method can be used with non-professionals as well as professionals to develop job performance measures. Furthermore, these job performance measures were adopted to face validity and to be easy to complete. All six performance measures demonstrated adequate internal reliability and test reliability. There were some core competencies identified across the six job performance measures, such as reliability, flexibility and honesty. Currently employee performance is being judged through performance appraisal system in public sector regulatory authorities which influences the competence of employees. Their technical skill is evaluated in the appraisal process through the results attained on job. If appraisal is just to make sure that organization objectives are met, it may not add to organizational commitment. There is no employee participation in the appraisal process which may lead to unfairness and injustice.

Performance appraisal is an opportunity for both the organization and the individual employee to review his current level of skills; knowledge and abilities identify the gaps and take necessary steps to enhance the competence. Performance appraisal, which is linked to the rewards and other benefits, motivates the employee to update his knowledge and skills (Latham and Wexley, 1981).

The appraisal system that balances the growth interests of both the employees and organization can result in higher productivity which might result in achieving organizational goals. Here in this study the job performance is measured by means of on the job enhancement of performance, achievement of organizational objectives, consistency with the goals of organization, financial and non-financial rewards and objectivity of the performance evaluation system. It is an open secret that in Pakistan no empirical work has been done so far in the area of human resource management particularly in this area of research, therefore it is an important and distinctive feature of this study. To sum up, the model, originating from HR practices job analysis 1, job analysis 2 to job satisfaction and job retention all HR practice influences job
performance through recruitment KSA, moderating variable.

This calls for an integrated approach to linking HR practice like job analysis with employee job performance. Mere focus on direct HR–performance linkage may not reveal the mechanism through which HRM system operates. It calls forth a wider vision to see the big picture and the interdependence and interrelationship among HRM practices, intervening variables and dependant variable. Organizations that conducted job analysis on a regular basis (once every year or every two years showed better results on the measures of job performance. Eighty eight per cent of the respondents have shown the importance of the job analysis and 70 percent organizations in the public sector pursued job analysis practice.

The study also shows a relationship between the variables mentioned above amongst the selected regulatory authorities (NEPRA, OGRA, PTA, PEMRA, STATE BANK & SECP). This result indicated that Job analysis 1 ( importance of job analysis )has a positive relationship with job performance in all regulatory authorities except in OGRA where it has a negative relationship. Job analysis 2 (practice / frequency of job analysis ) has shown, however, negative relationship with the job performance in OGRA, PTA,PEMRA and SECP whereas NEPRA and STATA BANK have shown a positive relationship. Negative relationship is due to irregular conduction of the job analysis in these authorities. CONCLUSION The linkage process will enable the HR community to design programmes that will bring forth better operational results to attain higher performance and productivity. The focus of the HR management should be to understand employees job performance process and design HR practices that influence process and outcome variables.

The study has found that, even if a HR practice does not show positive connection, it can significantly influence performance outcomes indirectly. Hence it would be a great mistake to rely only on those practices that have direct link with operational and financial performance. The model might provide enough insights for HR professionals to link their activities with the job performance paradigm. The foregoing analysis reveals varied aspects of in practical operation of human resource management in Pakistan. It shows that human resource planning, the most crucial component of personnel function, is emerging. The task of acquiring sound and credible employees belongs to the Human Resources Management. Since, HRM is a known field under the concept of Management, it is expected that several theories, models and tools have been 31

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developed to promote its manifestations. Among these theories one is Job analysis, which is a systematic study of a job to identify its major components. The job analysis process generally involves observing the job being performed; asking job incumbents and supervisors questions about the job, tasks, working conditions and KSAOs ( Knowledge, skills, abilities and others); examining the outcomes of the job; and reviewing relevant literature about the job. This important aspect of human resource management was being ignored particularly in public sector jobs. Job analysis paves the way for unassailable recruitment process, instead of using traditional methods; the Public Sector has to consider the possibility of employing Job analysis as the primary recruitment tool. The results of this study advance the field of HRM by empirically showing a link between job analysis and job performance.

The strong impact of job analysis on job performance suggests that job analysis is indeed a cornerstone of HR activities and a vital strategic management practice to gain competitive advantage. The significance of the unique effect of job analysis on job performance measures, as revealed by different statistical models used in the study, is particularly noteworthy. On the whole, this research endeavour suggests a substantial positive contribution by job analysis to job performance. In general, the findings of this study are consistent with studies conducted in Western countries on the contribution of HR function to job performance. Thus, the value of present study lies in the fact that it offers a much-needed cross-cultural validation of theoretical models built on the basis of studies of Western organizations.

The present study supports the current efforts seeking to establish HR–performance linkage by way of developing a specific conceptual model to illustrate the process by which the practice of job analysis and performance might be related, and by testing it with empirical data from a non-Western setting. It must be emphasized that the possibility of job analysis–performance linkage has not been extensively explored in the South-Asian context.

LIMITATIONS The present study may be seen as a preliminary attempt to establish the importance of job analysis as a HR management practice. Its findings must be assessed with at least three limitations in mind. First, the study has made an extensive use of self-reported measures of key variables, which are often seen as less desirable than objective measures. While most of the measures developed in the study involved clear and fairly direct indicators, we were constrained in our efforts to obtain more objective information on all variables. The strong relationship between objective and subjective measures as revealed by this study and the previous research, however, should not make us complacent in our search for best possible measures. Second, the present study examined only a selected number of independent, dependant and moderating variables. This means that theoretical formulation of the process by which job analysis influences job performance is far from being exhaustive. Finally, the present study used a relatively small sample, which did not allow to pursue sub-group organisation of organisations in terms of differences in line of business or other similar classifications.

Thus, the findings of the present study may be seen as preliminary in nature, and are intended to stimulate further research interest in the job analysis– performance relationship as conceptualized here. SCOPE FOR FUTURE RESEARCH The strengths and limitations of the present study can serve as a useful guide for future research efforts. One avenue for future research would be to expand the current model with other HR relevant independent variables such as job design, job evaluation, job security and job succession planning .Empirical investigations of the interaction effects of such HR practices, in particular, will help further elaborate the process by which job analysis contributes to job performance.

Another avenue for future research would be to develop and examine the research hypotheses with a case-study and longitudinal designs. The present study may serve as an impetus for HR professionals and practitioners alike to undertake such studies. AUTHOR INFORMATION Muhammad Safdar Rehman is a seasoned Human Resource Professional and member of IPMA-Canada with practical experience of over 20 years in Public Sector Organization, Regulatory authorities and Research & Development organization. Having solid understanding of a diverse range of Office Management applications 32

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Including, Human Resources Management, Recruitment and Selection, HR Policies, Training and Development, Performance Appraisal, Compensation and Project Management. Author has acquired a Master degree in Business Administration from International Islamic University, Pakistan and Professional Diploma in Human Resource Management from NUST. At present his PhD thesis in Management Sciences from National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad is under submission. Dr. Hamid Rafiq Khattak, PhD, is Dean, APCOM and visiting Faculty member, National University of Modern Languages, Islamabad, Pakistan. Author has a vast experience in the area of Human Resource Development.

Dr. Ajmal Waheed, PhD, is Assistant Professor, Department of Administrative Sciences, Quaid-e- Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Allen, N.J. and Meyer, J.P. (1996) „Affective, Continuance and normative commitment and turnover‟, Academy of Management Journal, 37: 670–87. Anderson, N. (2003). Applicant and recruiter reactions to new technology in selection: A critical review and agenda for future research. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, (12), 121–136. Angle, H. (1983) „Organizational Commitment: Individual and Organizational Influences‟, Sociology of Work and Occupations, 10: 123–46. Anthony, W.P., Kacmar, K.M., & Perrewe, P.L. (2002). Human Resource Management: A Strategic approach Arthur, J.B. (1994) „Effects of Human Resource Systems on Manufacturing Performance and Turnover‟, Academy of Management Journal, 37(3): 670–87. Ash, R.A. & Levine, E. (1980).

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HR Magazine, (39), 79–85. Huselid, M.A. (1995). The Impact of Human Resource Management Practices on Turnover, Productivity, and Corporate Financial Performance, Academy of Management Journal, (38), 635–72. Iaffaldano, M. R., & Muchinsky, P. M. (1985). Job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, (97), 251–273. Igbaria, M. and Greenhaus, J.H. (1992) „Determinants of MIS employees‟ Turnover intentions: A Structural Equation Model‟, Communication of the ACM, 35: 35–49. Jackson, S.E., Schuler, R. and Rivero, J.C. (1989) „Organizational characteristics as predictors of personnel practices‟, Personnel Psychology, 42: 727–86. Judge, T. A., Thoresen, C. J., Bono, J. E., & Patton, G. K. (2001).

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Journal of Diversity Management – Second Quarter 2010 APPENDIX 1 Exploratory Factor Analysis Results of Variables Items Items Importance of JA to conduct Frequency of JA Job demands and level of eligibility matched with advertisement Functions match the job position I believe that I have enough knowledge about the job I have abilities for the current duties I have mastery of the specific skills needed to perform the tasks related to my present job Present job gives me the opportunity to enhance my performance on job Present job has a direct impact on organizational objectives My job performance are consistent with goals of org. My good performance is rewarded financial terms My good job performance is appreciated by higher ups The job performance evaluation system is objective My present job gives inner satisfaction I am respected because of my job My job gives me a sense of fulfillment

I can seek my peers help regarding my job I will recommend this job to a friend if it is advertised I feel cared for by my organization I will continue in my job even paid less Had my job met my expectations I would have given it my best I like my job because it totally monotonous in nature I joined this job because I had no other options I can consider changing my job in the next 12 months I like to reach my superannuation in my present organization Eigenvalues Percentage of Variance explained Cumulative percentage of variance explained Note: a. N= 568 b. b. 1 .291 .076 .534 .517 .340 .344 .382 .671 .527 .518 .596 .644 .619 .527 .453 .350 .289 .380 .431 .371 .331 .364 .049 -.122 -.015 5.378 21.512 21.512 2 -.181 .223 -.292 -.280 -.568 -.614 -.589 -.180 -.331 -.463 .079 .136 .103 .396 .116 .297 .196 .251 .300 .303 .071 .475 .356 -.003 .343 2.701 10.806 32.317

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Factors 3 -.178 -.473 -.046 .055 .170 .237 .177 -.225 -.048 .058 -.032 -.095 .056 -.152 -.067 -.172 .116 -.197 -.011 .399 .525 .476 .648 .502 .457 1.775 7.098 39.416 4 .159 .040 .055 .128 -.038 .286 .249 -.225 -.423 -.298 -.402 -.293 .155 .627 .462 .550 .495 .582 .571 -.373 .306 -.093 -.114 -.081 .101 1.360 5.440 44.85

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis. Rotation Method: Oblimin with Kaiser Normalization. Factor 1 = Job Performance Factor 2 = Recruitment KSA Factor 3 = Job Retention Factor 4 = Job Satisfaction

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