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There are many different theories when it comes to the life span of human development. Some of the theorists are, Sigmund Freud whose theory deals with psychosexual, Erik Erikson’s theory is psychosocial and Jean Piaget’s theory is the developmental stage. I will be discussing how these three theories related to human development, the aspects of life span perspective, and how heredity and environment have an impact on human development.
Human development starts when the child is conceived until the day that they die.
Erik Erikson has eight different stages which are all based on different life crises. First is trust versus mistrust happens when you are born till you are about two years old. In this stage, you learn what and who to trust with your essential needs such as food, attention, and comfort. Autonomy versus shame is the stage when the child will start doing activities independently and become aware of the things they can’t do without help.
Initiative versus guilt is when the child is age three to five years old. In this stage, the child will make their own choices based on their caregiver’s nurture. They may also experience guilt if they are ever judged on their actions. Industry versus inferiority occurs when the child has learned new life skills, identity versus role confusion happens when they learn who they are as a person or become confused about their identity.
The next stages are intimacy versus isolation when you seek companionship or fear of being alone.
Generativity versus stagnation is when you start working or starting a family of your own. The last stage of Erik’s theory is integrity versus despair which is when you learn the purpose of your life (University of Phoenix,). Sigmund Freud’s human development theories are based on the instincts of the human body. He has five stages which are Oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. Oral is the first stage when the baby focuses on sensations such as feeding or sucking. Anal which deals with potty training, phallic is the start of genital stimulation. Latency happens between the ages six and eleven this is when the child puts their time and focus on their chosen sports activity and their schoolwork. Genital is the last stage and in this stage is when you’re focused on pleasurable needs and stimulation in relationships (University of Phoenix,). Jean Piaget’s theory is based on the developmental stage and how children learn as they explore the world around them. When they are exposed to their environment and task that surround them they are more likely to grow their knowledge.
Multidirectional, multi contextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, and plastic are all aspects of human life spans perspective. Multidirectional is when the induvial has an understanding of the changes that we experience in each step of development. An example would be knowing that you won’t grow an inch every time you measure yourself, sometimes you might have grown and sometimes you will show no growth. Multicontextual perspective deals with family contexts and socioeconomic status and how they have an impact on human development patterns of cognitive and physical in their everyday life tasks. Multicultural is when there are many different types of cultures that have an impact on induvial’s development. Multidisciplinary has a lot of different aspects in a human’s development such as; education, biology, religion, neuroscience, and much more. Then there is plastic which includes people’s traits and how they can change at any time in their development.
Heredity is the nature of human beings such as the genes and the traits that they have inherited from their family. The environment comes from the society around them including family and their friends. The environment is the nurture meaning who cares for you and helps you to grow as an induvial (“A Student of Psychology: A Walk Through the Human Mind,” 2013).
We all have patterns in the way we grow and learn and the way we do that is determined by both of our environment and heredity. Heredity and the environment has a huge impact on our development since the environment helps our personality and how we behave, or social traits, and mental and physical traits. Heredity helps us with our emotions, instincts, and even our knowledge.
As you can see, there are many different types of theories that are related to human development and how we grow as individuals. There are also many different influential theorists and the three I have mentioned who are Erik Erikson, Sigmund Freud and Jean Piaget have their owns ways of how human development works and what happens in each stage of life. The development of a human’s life span includes its heredity, environment, traits, and genes.
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