Immune System and New York Essay
Immune System and New York
HIV And Its Effects Elizabeth Grundy Psychology 102 Dr Peggy Peach October 10, 2001 HIV And Its Effects 2 HIV AND Its Effects The effects HIV has on a person, symptoms, risks, history and prevention will be explained. HIV is on a rise among sexually active people. According to Packer (1998), HIV, the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), is a member of a family of viruses. The first member HTLV-I and related to STLV-I researchers believe they both have a common ancestor in Africa. (P.13).
This will be explained in the following questions: 1. What are the symptoms of HIV? 2. What are the risks to getting HIV? 3. What is the history of HIV? 4. What is the treatment for HIV? This research paper on HIV will be focused on these four questions.
1. What are the symptoms of HIV? According to Nash (1997), when a person infected with HIV has symptoms such as fever, night sweats, weight loss, fatigue, and lymphadenopathy (persistent, unexplained swelling of the lymph nodes), but no opportunistic infections (illnesses that healthy immune systems fight off) or Kaposi’s sarcoma, he is said to have AIDS-related complex (ARC). The acronym ARC is not used as frequently as it was in the early years of the epidemic. AIDS is now thought of in term of a HIV continuum. It begins with HIV-positive diagnosis in a person who is not experiencing any symptoms. It continues to a symptomatic stage in which the person has opportunistic infections, HIV and Its Effects 3 andKaposi’s sarcoma, or any of the conditions previously used to define Arc, and the HIV-positive continuum ends with full-blown AIDS diagnosis (p.22).
2. What are the risks to getting HIV? According to Nash (1997) No one is safe if his or her behavior is not safe. You do not get HIV because of a group you belong to; you get HIV from exposure to the virus. HIV can be contracted through unprotected sex with an infected person, by sharing needles when using drugs, or by tattooing or piercing body parts with a needle that has been used on an infected person. (P 24).
According to Draimin (1995) the four common most ways HIV can get into the body, Dirty needles used to inject drugs, unprotected sexual intercourse, mother to fetus or new-born baby, and blood transfusion. (P.11) HIV is transferable through any kind of sexual contact: heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual. The means of transferring the virus is unprotected sex. The safe guards against contracting HIV are to have sex only when you are ready, to know your partner, and to protect yourself from possible infection every time you have sex by using a condom. The HIV virus, like some other viruses cannot live outside the body. It is killed by air. HIV requires a warm, wet place to live and be carried only in blood, sexual fluids, and possibly saliva. Sexual transmission of HIV means that the virus goes from fluid to fluid (semen, vaginal, and blood). The virus has to pass from fluid to fluids to stay alive. (Pp25-26) 3. What is the History of HIV? HIV and Its Effects 4 Hyde and Forsyth (1996) In 1981, when the first mysterious cases of an unusual type of pneumonia began to appear, scientists have accumulated a large body of knowledge about HIV.
The first alarm sounded before aids even had a name, when doctors realized that some formerly rare diseases were becoming common among homosexual men in the United States. The first well-documented cases of what was later called AIDS were found in San Francisco and New York in 1981. A young gay man in San Francisco was found to be suffering from severe fungal infection to which he had little immune reaction. In fact, his immune system did not respond to any disease. Then he developed Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), a type of pneumonia that is caused by a parasite. This disease is usually found only in severely malnourished individuals or people who’s immune have been impaired by drugs such as those used in treatment of cancer. (p.56) According to Nash (1997) In 1982, three non-drug -injecting heterosexual men with hemophilia A developed AIDS and were reported to CDC. Hemophilia A, a blood -clotting defect, requires transfusions of blood-clotting factors derived from whole blood. (p.29) In June 1981 the first report of what AIDS, published by CDC described the new disease as a collection of characteristics symptoms among various population groups.
It was a narrow definition, involving the presence of one or more opportunistic infections or cancers, and signs that general failure of immune system had occurred. (Nash, 1997) 4 What is the treatment for HIV HIV and Its Effects 5 According to Nash (1997) AIDS symptoms typically takes years to develop after the initial infection. Scientists are researching what they call immunotherapy. Vaccines to prevent or stop a disease from taking hold; immunotherapy intervenes before symptoms arise and rids the body of infection. Management drugs have come out such as; Azidothymidine (AZT), this is the first of its kind. It interferes with HIV reproduction inside the cell; it slows the process of AIDS down. An HIV- positive person who takes AZT before AIDS symptoms appear lives longer than those who did not.
Dideoxycytidine (ddC) and dideoxyinosine (ddI) offer another approach to combine therapy. Death rates are lowered when ddC and ddI were taken in combination of ddC and AZT or ddI and AZT then those patients who took AZT alone. Ampligen-, which did not help the patients when administered, alone-used in combination with AZT increase the effectiveness of both drugs. Epivir (3TC) became the first new initial therapy since AZT. The combination therapy of 3TC and AZT lowered the amount of HIV in patients and boosted their immune system. Invirase (protease inhibitor) is designed to cripple an enzyme vital in late stages of HIV reproduction, which is used in combination of other anti-HIV drugs. They reduce the levels of the virus in some people and increase the number of immune cells in some patients previously depleted by the virus. In 1996 Ritonavir, another protease inhibitor was also approved.
HIV and its effects on those we know and love are about learning to manage the illness. People need to practice safe sex and to and to pay attention to safe behavior. HIV and treatment have come along way. Medical science has along time to go before a cure.
HIV and Its Effects 6 References Packer, K. (1998). HIV Infection The Facts You Need To Know. New York: Venture.
Draimin, B. (1ed)(1995). Working Together Against AIDS. New York: The Rosen Publishing group.
Nash, C. (1997). AIDSs Choice for life. Springfield, NJ: Enslow.
: Hyde, M., & Forsyth, E. (1996). AIDS What Does It Mean To You? New York: Walker.