1) Situation number one: – someone you have been dating has a birthday coming up, so you call the florist and order flowers for the occasion, two days later the person is cold and distant. Hypothesis number one: – maybe the birthday never existed; the person was just joking to you. >these were the first days of dating this person, and therefore it is possible that the lied to you. This person discovered late that you had taken the lie for real, and in a move to play smartly, decided to respond coldly to you to discourage you.
Hypothesis number two: – the person may have been spending time with you when she/he was bored (not having other important things to do). >This person may have been going out with you because she/he had no other important thing to do at that time, and not really, because you meant anything to her/him. This reasoning follows that the person in question has not been dated for along time.
Maybe now that she/he has a birthday it is likely that his/her truel friend will be around and hence has no time for you. Hypothesis number three: – maybe the person is a double dealer (with other friends).
>This hypothesis can be justified by the fact that the person is having a once a year event and therefore his/her many friends will likely show up, to proof that they are ready to be there for her/him in times of joy and bitterness.
In her /his wit full moves to keep a clean image to all those friends, she/he decides to respond coldly to all of them so that no one attends the party and discovers the long roster of rivals. >Although how he/she will convince them after the party, into buying the excuse given, is not known.
Hypothesis number four: – this person maybe playing it smart by putting you in a test to see whether you can still hold on to her/him, even after behaving coldly to you. > People sometimes do put others under tests too see whether they can hold on or just call it quits. It does not make sense to invite someone to your birthday party and all of a sudden decide to turn cold unless you have something big behind your sleeves. 2) Situation number two: – after settling in a new location, you buy some seeds for a flower garden. When they come out they are stunted and of poor quality.
Hypothesis number one: – the variety of the seeds may have been of poor quality although harvested from known good specie. >The method of storage may affect the quality of seeds a lot, for instance they may have been attacked by borers and therefore reducing the endosperm which acts as food for a germinating seed. This reduced food supply may result to a stunted plant and hence a poor quality plant. >The duration seeds take from the time they were harvested to the time they are planted matters a lot, old seeds may produce unhealthy plants.
Hypothesis number two: – this new location may be having unfavorable climatic conditions for the healthy growth and survival of this particular specie of flowers. >The reasoning behind this hypothesis is that climatic factors which includes rain, temperature, and humidity affects the growth of plants (flowers) directly. It therefore follows that this flower species was not favored by this new locations climate. > Again, the location may have been experiencing seasonal climatic changes and that the flowers were planted during the hostile (dry) season.
Hypothesis number three: -the method of planting may have been poor. >This can be justified through many ways; firstly, some seeds need to be put in a seedbed to become strong and resistant to pests, diseases, and competitition from other plants before they can be transplanted. So if the above seeds were of this type then this explains for their stunted growth. >Other seeds need to be planted with manure/fertilizer to grow and thrive in a healthy manner. Therefore, if they are not planted with manure then this may be the reason for their poor quality and stunting.
3) Situation numbers three: – on a windy day, you pick up a phone to call a friend but you find that the line is dead. You live in a house with a roommate whom you share the telephone expenses with. Hypothesis number one: – the dead phone maybe due to a fallen telephone post in some place due to the strong wind. > Strong wind may cause the falling of telephone line posts and therefore occasioning communication breakdown. This is because of the wires overstretching and subsequently breaking . >Two, a tree or an obstacle of any kind may have fallen on the telephone line due to the strong winds and equally cause a breakdown
Hypothesis number two: – the dead phone may be due to the other roommates’ failure to pay the telephone charges if it was his turn to do so. >Telephone bills needs to be paid regularly if services are to continue being offered. Putting in mind that the phone expenses were paid equally by the two roommates then it is also obvious that they did so in turns. The other roommate might have forgotten or failed to pay the bill in good time and hence the disconnection. Hypothesis number three: – the dead phone may equally have been occasioned by the roommates’ deliberate disconnection.
>This may have resulted from a habit from this person of making too many calls. This is possible because they both shared the expenses equally and hence one may feel cheated especially if he is making fewer calls as compared to the other. >Alternatively, even his roommate may have accidentally disconnected the phone and failed to reconnect it because he was in hurry or something else similar. 4) Situation number four: – after driving for miles in a dusty road, you park your car near the banks of a river and take a hike through the woods.
Soon you become lost, in one direction you see a stream, and in the other, a trail .Hypothesis number one: – this loosing of direction maybe caused by the sight of the two confusing phenomenon’s i. e. , a stream and a trail. >The fact that he walked through woods, which were along the banks of the river, explains that this was a thick forest. Therefore getting lost was not something hard to happen to someone. >The sight of the two confusing things, a stream and a trail compounded this loss of direction and therefore it was hard to choose which one to follow and the confusion and subsequent loss of direction.
Hypothesis number two: – the long dusty journey may have contributed to the loss of memory, as to the forgetting of path followed into the woods. >This fellow was tired both physically and mentally due to the long and tedious driving through a dusty road and therefore this might have made him/her to easily forget the path he had used to get into the woods. >The long drive also is an indicator that this person had reached a far, and a strange land, a possibility that he did not understand the geographical layout of this area and hence the loss of direction.
Hypothesis number three: – this loss of direction in the woods may have been occasioned by the denseness of the woods. >It is known that the woods were along the banks of a river and therefore they must have been thick (dense). Due to this denseness, losing ones direction was possible. >Again, the thick woods may have caused this person to fail to notice any change of bearing he made. The trees were tall and therefore this person could not use objects like sun to guess the bearing in relation to the place he left his car.
5) Situation number five: – on a rainy evening, you return to your ground floor apartment and find that you have been burglarized. You cannot believe it, because you are certain you locked the door when you went out. You share an apartment with a roommate. Hypothesis number one: – the apartment is on the ground floor and hence many people pass near it especially those from the upper floors. >In most cases, ground floor apartments are too vulnerable to cases of burglary, because many people pass near them on their way to the upper floors or even to other places if they border paths or are not fenced.
This frequent movement of people past them(apartments) may contribute to their vulnerability, because potential burglars may get a glimpse of their interior as they pass by and hence be tempted to breaking in. >Again, it is very easy for a burglar to escape from a ground floor apartment when caught than it is in upper floors. Hypothesis number two: – the other roommate might have forgotten to lock the door. >The fact that the apartment is on a ground floor makes it very easy for anybody to know that the door was not locked, and if that person happened to be a burglar then it explains how a break-in was possible.
>The roommate may have been a floor away visiting a friend and hence did not see any danger of not locking the door. Hypothesis number three: – the burglary may have been occasioned by the rainy weather. >It follows that this burglar took advantage of that it was raining and at the same time, it was dark to break in the apartment and successfully carry out his criminal acts and walked out without being noticed. This is because the streets were clear of people due to the rainy evening weather. >The rainy weather made any commotion coming from the breaking of the doors not to be heard by neighbors from upper floors.
6) Situation number six: – you are the manager in a departmental store, and although business has been brisk lately, your chief accountant informs you that the store is losing money. Hypothesis number one: – the sales people may be bringing home less money than the expected in relation to the stock sold. >Some sales persons may be making undue losses on a daily basis, this happens when no clear-cut measures have been put into place. >Others may decide to issue credit facilities to increase their sales volume to earn more commission.
>Others still may be too smart as to connive with the stock issuers to take more stock than the recorded one, this excess stock value is shared between them and the stock issuers. Hypothesis number two: – the expenses may be overblown. >This is possible in that, the chief accountant and other employees may connive to include “ghost” expenses. This is one of the “legal” ways of siphoning money from a business without leaving back evidence. These abnormal expenses will subsequently cut down the net profit and therefore money will have been lost “legally”.
Hypothesis number three: – the loss of money could have been caused by the stores huge debts. >The store maybe having huge, “artificial” debts which milks the stores sales and profits dry. A business cannot operate without incurring debts, these genuine debts when compounded by the “artificial” ones makes the above problem to arise. >Internal debts also may contribute a lot to the mysterious disappearance of money, since in most cases employees do not pay promptly.
1) This orders instructions, about hypothetical reasoning.