Hybrid-cars or fuel cells: are they really necessary? Essay
Hybrid-cars or fuel cells: are they really necessary?
I. Introduction In this advance and progressive generation, the automotive industry also goes with the flow where it introduces a new set of cars that are phenomenal and timely for this present condition where everything is inflating specifically the fuel or gasoline that is being used to run cars. The automotive industry is able to come up and produces novel and extraordinary cars that can help the people lessen their expenditures when it comes to fuel maintenance and these innovative cars are called “Hybrid cars/vehicles” (Easterbrook, 2000).
Hybrid vehicles have become the latest and hottest automotive craze in present years. The ground-breaking dual motor system of hybrid vehicle offers a new system that is no longer dependent on gasoline or fuel to run. On every hybrid car, it comprises two engines. The first engine is powered by electricity and the second engine used gasoline to run (Hattam, 2002). The hybrid vehicle also uses its braking system that serves as source of energy that is deposited for the vehicle to utilize.
Even though these new innovations of vehicles are quite ideal but there are still many factors to be considered before every individual makes his decision (Doyle, 2000). The individual must consider the pros and cons of these novel vehicles that must be looked at before an individual makes his final decision. Generally, hybrid vehicles catch the attention of those individuals who are environmentally conscientious because these vehicles are fuel efficient (see Reynolds, Tammi.
“Hybrid Car Pros and Cons). And because hybrid vehicles are operated by electricity and deposited energy, these would simply mean that hybrid vehicles utilize less fuel compared to an ordinary vehicle. At recent time, this new trend of vehicle appeals to the masses because of the increasing cost of gasoline plus the political concerns regarding the dependency of United States government on foreign oil, specifically on Arab countries where the oil comes from (Robinson, 2006).
The intents of this paper are to: (1) understand what hybrid cars/vehicles really are and are they really necessary: (2) learn about the pros and cons of hybrid cars and; (3) figure out how hybrid vehicles work. II. Background With this recent economic problem which our government is facing with regards to oil-price-hike, I would agree and recommend using hybrid cars to economize and help our environment free from pollution and helps avoid or lessens global warming. With this paper, I will lay back all the benefits which customers can get when using hybrid cars and why I am into hybrid cars.
B. Hybrid vehicles Hybrid vehicle is a type of vehicle that uses “an on-board rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) and fuelled source for vehicle propulsion”. Hybrid vehicles are environment friendly because it pollutes less and utilizes less fuel because of its dual engine. The distinctive propulsion power systems could have common components. The hybrid vehicles saves a lot of money because it gives better fuel economy compared to a conventional vehicle because of smaller engine and run at speeds with more efficiency (Maier, 2001).
There are also other methods that can be used in order to lessen waste energy. The word usually pertains to “petroleum-electric hybrid vehicles” that is also called as “Hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV)” which utilize internal combustion engines and electric batteries to operate electric motors. Contemporary mass-produced hybrids lengthen or extend the charge on their batteries using kinetic energy through regenerative braking (see Davis, Jon. Hybrids in Demand Dealers Say Cars Are Flying out of Their Showrooms. October 8, 2004).
Moreover, hybrid vehicles consist of two types of engines that work together and these are the electric motor and the standard gas powered engine operated through a “rechargeable nickel-metal hydride (NiMH) battery pack” (Ruffino, 2007). It is believe that hybrid vehicle provides higher gas mileage and lessen engine exhaust emissions. Hybrid vehicles are predominantly gas powered vehicles having an electrical motor assist. There are hybrid vehicles that are qualified as “Clean Fuel Property” (see “Hybrid Cars: All about Hybrid Vehicles, Hybrid Theory of Operation, Pros & Cons, Tax Credits).
III. Discussion Hybrid cars are really necessary at present. People can economize through this new technology. It won’t demand much gasoline in order to work. Nowadays, people pay higher price for gasoline compared before. If compared to a powered gasoline-vehicle, it has lots of benefits than the disadvantages. A powered-gasoline vehicle can normally drive no less than 300 miles between refueling and refueled quickly but stuck on a traffic jam. However, gasoline-powered vehicles produce air pollution and “get subpar gas mileage” (Ross, 1998).
Moreover, electric vehicles produce less pollution but can only drive from 50 to 100 miles between charges. A hybrid vehicle composes of an electric motor, a gasoline engine, a generator and a set of batteries. In a hybrid vehicle, the gasoline engine is smaller and utilizes advanced technologies to lessen emissions. The car utilizes, too, the engine so that it can increase power and efficiency. In addition, the electric motor can pull energy from the batteries in order to speed up the vehicle and then “return energy to the batteries” (see Chiapaikeo, Kathy. “How Things Work: Hybrid cars”. Volume 101, Issue 7, October 16, 2006).
This would mean that the brake pedal and the gas pedal are both significant because the hybrid vehicle utilizes “regenerative braking” in order to recover energy and deposit it in the battery. The picture below shows the components of a hybrid vehicle (see http://www. physorg. com/news10031. html). A. Pros of owning hybrid vehicles Every individual would like to save gas and lessen the dependence of United States on oil from foreign nations and maintain the air pure and safe. And one way to fulfill that is to have a new hybrid vehicle.
Moreover, hybrid vehicles have more advantages that disadvantages. Hybrid vehicles are:?“run cleaner”. This would mean that it is environment friendly and lessen air pollution. Toyota declares that “their cars are up to 80 percent cleaner” compared to conventional gas engines (see“Hybrid Cars: All about Hybrid Vehicles, Hybrid Theory of Operation, Pros & Cons, Tax Credits”). ? environmentally friendlier compared to concventional gas engine vehicles (see “Hybrid Cars: All about Hybrid Vehicles, Hybrid Theory of Operation, Pros & Cons, Tax Credits”).?
Normally “get 8-year warranties on the hybrid vehicle system” (see “Hybrid Cars: All about Hybrid Vehicles, Hybrid Theory of Operation, Pros & Cons, Tax Credits”).? there will be “tax deductions/credits for clean fuel property” (see “Hybrid Cars: All about Hybrid Vehicles, Hybrid Theory of Operation, Pros & Cons, Tax Credits”). ? if there are more individuals use hybrid vehicles, the oil consumption will decrease that will cause OPEC to lessen the prices (see “Hybrid Cars: All about Hybrid Vehicles, Hybrid Theory of Operation, Pros & Cons, Tax Credits”). ?
In other states, “driving a hybrid vehicle earns you the perk of being a single occupant vehicle in the HOV lane, no more tickets” (see “Hybrid Cars: All about Hybrid Vehicles, Hybrid Theory of Operation, Pros & Cons, Tax Credits”).
In other words, hybrid vehicles have their own lanes that no longer require tickets. ? Hybrid vehicles are lighter compared to electric vehicles because the batteries utilized in the vehicles are lighter compared to electric cars (see “Features or Advantages for Hybrid Cars”). ? the government promote these type of vehicles and because of that, they give tax deduction, “free entry to a car pool lanes, free parking” (see “Features or Advantages for Hybrid Cars”). This promotion is sponsored by the overnment in order to encourage the people to use hybrid vehicles for economic and environmental reasons.? can save money due to less “fuel consumption for vehicles” (see “Features or Advantages for Hybrid Cars”). ?
If you have hybrid vehicle, you only go to gasoline station occasionally compared to your conventional vehicle (see “Features or Advantages for Hybrid Cars”). B. Cons of Hybrid vehicles It is a fact that hybrid vehicle provides numerous advantages yet they are hampered because of their cost. Hybrid vehicles are very costly to construct because the maker needs to develop and set up two motors instead of one motor (Hall, 2001).
In addition, hybrid vehicle comprises a regeneration system that is utilized when the driver breaks, gather the energy generated while the vehicle is about to stop. These components are complex and expensive (see Reynolds, Tammi. “Hybrid Car Pros and Cons”). Hybrid vehicles are: ? “If most of your driving is on open highway at high speeds, you’ll see little benefit to owning a hybrid” (see “Hybrid Cars: Cons of Owning Hybrid Cars”). ? Your savings in gas takes you years before you get back the “additional cost of buying a hybrid vehicle” (see “Hybrid Cars: Cons of Owning Hybrid Cars”).?
If you have hybrid vehicles, you cannot achieve the claimed EPA fuel economy (see “Hybrid Cars: Cons of Owning Hybrid Cars”). ? High cost (see “Cons or Disadvantages of Hybrid car”). ? It is risky in accidents because of its high volt wires (see “Cons or Disadvantages of Hybrid car”). Though there a number of disadvantages for the hybrid vehicles yet it is not strong as its advantages. Therefore, people should patronize hybrid vehicles for the benefit of our country, economy and environment. C. How hybrid vehicles work Hybrid vehicles work through an integration of an electric motor, a high-powered battery and a gas engine.
The battery gives power for the electric motor and is charged again through recapturing energy that usually lost if it is coasting or decelerating. The recapturing of energy is named as “regenerative braking”. There are two categories of hybrid vehicles in order to function and these are the mild hybrids and full hybrids (Ealey, 2002). ? Mild hybrids- Electric Motor only as Assist The gas engine, in mild hybrids, gives the major propulsion and the electric gives assistance if extra power is required. In this procedure, the electric motor cannot function autonomously of the gas engine.
The electric motor can produce electricity intended for the battery or may utilize electricity from the battery but not done simultaneously. This technology is applied by Honda in its 2003-2005 Civic hybrids (see Powers, Eric. “How hybrid Cars Work”). ? Full Hybrids- Gas Engine and Electric Motor can operate independently The full hybrids have the integration of the gas engine; battery and electric motor in order that the electric motor can function independently if a number of conditions are met (see “Wheeling to Consider Purchase of Hybrid Cars.
” Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), July 21, 2006). Compared to mild hybrids, full hybrids are capable to produce and utilize electricity simultaneously. This technology is applied in Toyota Prius, Mercury Mariner Hybrid, Toyota Highlander, Lexus RX, and Ford Escape Hybrid. Furthermore, the Honda Civic Hybrid pressed on into the full hybrid category this year 2006 (see Powers, Eric. “How hybrid Cars Work”). Furthermore, this new invention of the automotive industry really helps us save a lot of money because of its dual engine that can run even without a fuel but uses a battery to function.
Hybrid vehicles keep our country from being dependent from foreign nations that produce oil especially freedom from the OPEC (Hollander, 2003). People should have a hybrid vehicle because it keeps our environment free from pollution and it helps our economy, too, aside from the numerous benefits they can receive from the government as part of their promotion to motivate the people to use hybrid cars. The hybrid vehicle utilizes less fuel and this is the major mark (Berger, 2001). This type of vehicle is an environment friendly that releases fewer emissions compared to conventional vehicles that run on gasoline.
In addition, hybrid vehicles lessen petroleum consumption and increased driving-range even though you will not refuel or recharge it. Hybrid vehicles have substantively longer operating hours for every unit of petroleum in some conditions that the mileage-rated fuel efficiency amounts may indicate because of the reduction of idle-at-rest (Hoogma, 2002). V. Conclusion Hybrid vehicles are the most talk of the town in the automotive industry because of the benefits they provide. Generally, hybrid cars acquire twenty percent better mileage compared to conventional vehicles but it cost USD 3000 more.
A hybrid vehicle is complex and costly. It has two types of engines that work together. Hybrid vehicles provide drivers an efficient, innovative and affordable choice. The new hybrid vehicles have become a reasonable choice for consumers (see“Going Green – and Fast; the Theme at the Geneva Motor Show Is Hybrid Cars That Are Fun as Well as Eco-Friendly. Vaughan Freeman Reports from Switzerland, 2007). Hybrid vehicles have a small fuel-efficient gas engine having an electric motor that supports the engine when speeding up. The electric motor is operated by batteries that will recharge automatically even you are driving.
Moreover, this type of vehicle is tax and money saving. It is money saving because you seldom go to the gasoline station because of its features offered. References 1. Berger, Michael L. (2001). The Automobile in American History and Culture: A.
Reference Guide. Greenwood Press. Place of Publication: Westport, CT. 2. Chiapaikeo, Kathy. “How Things Work: Hybrid cars”. Volume 101, Issue 7, October 16, 2006. http://www. thetartan. org/2006/10/16/scitech/htw 3. Davis, Jon (2004). Hybrids in Demand Dealers Say Cars Are Flying out of Their Showrooms. Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL). 4. Doyle, Jack (2000).
Taken for a Ride: Detroit’s Big Three and the Politics of Pollution. Four Walls Eight Windows. New York. 5. Ealey, Lance A. Tomorrow’s Cars, Today’s Engines: That Fabulous Invalid the Internal-Combustion Engine Is Very Far from Dead. The McKinsey Quarterly, 2002. 6. Easterbrook, Gregg. NOTES & COMMENT – Hybrid Vigor. The Atlantic Monthly, Vol. 286, November 2000 7. Hall, Jane. “In Review How the Environmental Beat Got Its Groove Back. ” Columbia Journalism Review, Vol. 40, July 2001 8. Hattam, Jennifer. Righteous Road Trip: A Gal in a Hybrid and a Guy in an SUV Test-Drive Their Clean, Green Vision. Sierra, Vol. 87, May-June 2002.
9. Hollander, Jack M. (2003). The Real Environmental Crisis: Why Poverty, Not Affluence, Is the Environment’s Number One Enemy. University of California Press. Berkeley, CA. 10. Hoogma, Recmo (2002). Experimenting for Sustainable Transport: The Approach of Strategic Niche Management. Spon Press. New York. 11. Maier, Timothy W. Hybrid Cars Roll to Green Future. Insight on the News, Vol. 17, June 11, 2001 12. Reynolds, Tammi. “Hybrid Car Pros and Cons. http://www. associatedcontent. com/article/23627/hybrid_car_pros_and_cons. html 13. Robinson, Tennille M. Hybrid Hysteria: The Real Deal on Energy-Saving Cars. Black Enterprise, Vol.
36, April 2006 14. Ross, Marc (1998). Wheels of Change: Advances in Automotive Technology Promise Cleaner, More Fuel Efficient Cars. Forum for Applied Research and Public Policy, Vol. 13 15. Ruffino, Norma Carr. The Hybrid Phenomenon: High Gas Prices and Shifting Consumer Sentiment Point to Bright Prospects for Hybrid Cars. The Futurist, Vol. 41, July 2007 16. “Hybrid Cars: All about Hybrid Vehicles, Hybrid Theory of Operation, Pros & Cons, Tax Credits”. http://www. carbuyingtips. com/hybrid-cars. htm 17. “Features or Advantages for Hybrid Cars”. http://www. newcarpark. com/hybrid-cars/hybridcars-advantage-disadvantage. php 18.
“Hybrid Cars: Cons of Owning Hybrid Cars”. http://www. carbuyingtips. com/hybrid-cars. htm 19. “Cons or Disadvantages of Hybrid car”. http://www. newcarpark. com/hybrid-cars/hybridcars-advantage-disadvantage. php 20. Powers, Eric. “How hybrid Cars Work”. http://hybridcars. about. com/od/hybrids101/a/howhybridswork. htm 21. “Wheeling to Consider Purchase of Hybrid Cars. ” Daily Herald (Arlington Heights, IL), July 21, 2006 22. “Going Green – and Fast; the Theme at the Geneva Motor Show Is Hybrid Cars That Are Fun as Well as Eco-Friendly. Vaughan Freeman Reports from Switzerland. ” The Evening Standard (London, England), March 16, 2007.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 21 April 2017
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