Humans and Animals Difference
Humans and Animals Difference
More than 100 million animals every year suffer and die in cruel chemical, drug, food and cosmetic tests, biology lessons, medical training exercises, and curiosity-driven medical experiments
Define and explain animal testing. Is there a need for medical research to be carried out using animal experimentation or are there alternatives to using animals in medical research?
What is Animal Testing? Animal testing can also known as animal experimentation or it is also known animal research. Animal research is a fundamental part of scientist and medical process. Animal research has had a vital role in many scientific and medical advance. It is also continue to aid our understanding of various diseases. Animal research is where animals are being used in research projects, and they are also being used as a part of a range of scientific techniques. All these have stated above have included in human trials, cell culture, computer modeling and others. Besides that, animal testing also known as in vivo testing. In vivo testing, they use the non-human animals to experiment. On the other hand, it is also can explain as experimentation that using living organism as opposed to a dead organism.
Having animal research are necessary in many areas. Consideration about medical research on animals, it is an important aspect or a key to discovering and develop new treatments in the medical field. Besides that, by doing animal testing, we also can find out the lasts solution in medical research. It is necessary to have animal testing because some of the animals have the certain characteristic that have similarity to human beings. And only by doing medical research on animal we can find out the way to make a better improvement on human’s health.
Animal studies are highly informative part of biomedical research. And animal research might be one of the important ways to answer the question that further our understanding of biology. Thus, they consider that using animals is the only way we can test the effect of a genetic mutation, or cancerous cell on the whole body. However, they believe that doing animal research will always help to discover ways to help people and perhaps on others animal in the future.
Some of the animal that can immune to diseases which humans can contract and when an efficient amount of testing is done, they will apply all those traits on humans. To determine which preventive solution to be use on human, there is necessary to have research on animals.
Humans and animals have more in common than the differences of both of humans and animals have. Like mice, mice share over 90% of their genes with humans. They have the same organs like humans, they doing the same things in the same places. Besides mice, fish and tadpoles also share enough of characteristic with human beings. Even flies and worms also been used in doing research and have come out with a breakthrough.
And since animals have an extraordinary of complex systems that have a huge amount of similarities with human beings, and a computer hasn’t been invented to have a power to reproduce all the complex interaction. Thus, we cannot reproduce a beating heart in a test tube or stroke on a computer. Hence, to have animal testing is necessary in order them to discover safe drugs or to achieve in medical progress that can save human lives or perhaps to improve millions of lives throughout this experimentation on animals.
As the Department of Health has stated, animal research has contributed to almost every medical advance for the last century. Without animal testing, medical that we know it nowadays wouldn’t be existing. Animal research has help us find different treatments for different kind of cancer, illness, surgery for injuries, antibiotics and vaccines to prevent those most deadly and debilitating viruses. In the other hand, The Federal Law also did requires as long as the test are to be tested on human beings, it will be necessary all the procedures and test will be tested on animals at the first place for scientific advancement and for human well beings. Besides that, it also mentioned that, animals can be used in doing research where there is no better or suitable alternatives methods are available.
Of course, some animal research really have a great breakthrough in medical science, but it does not mean that all the animals research have, some of those breakthrough might also have been carried out through non animal experimentation if they had been equally well funded.
However, animal testing or animal research is sometimes unreliable as a guide for human biology. It is because different kind of species animals might have different reaction towards the drug that had been testing on them. There’s also a problem on information they have gleaned from animals in the labs. Like what have applied to the dogs, mice or monkeys, there might not necessarily applied on human beings.
For example, HIV, is deadly to human beings but it is not for the most laboratory animals. So by searching for the cures of HIV on different species of animals may not produce the result that is applicable on humans. Anyhow, still human-center research invariably gets more accurate, effective and safe results. Like what had Andre Menache from Animal Aid said, “An animals provide data, yes of course they do provide data; but it might be the wrong data.
This is also what she means by, the experimentation results maybe it can applies to monkey, but that does not mean it can also apply on human beings. So which means by the end of result, whatever that you have discover on animals, you will have to discover it again by testing it on humans. Hence, not only the animals do suffer in these experiments but the first few patients whom use these treatments will suffer too. In fact, there are 700 treatments for stroke that had worked in laboratory animals but only have one that works in humans. And even the one treatment is controversial.
Scientist and government state that animal testing should cause as little suffering to animals as possible, and since that animal testing should only be performed where there are no others alternatives. An alternative technique is a type of testing method that without using on animals. There are viable alternative that can be used instead of vertebrate animals. And here is one of the alternative called In vitro alternatives. In vitro alternatives are some of the most common types of tests that are being used nowadays. These tests require the use of isolate tissue and cell cultures, and this is which can be harmless and easy to obtain. Besides of vitro alternative, there is also other alternative called micro dosing, in which the basic reaction of drugs are assessed by using human volunteers to receiving well dose below those expected to produce whole body effects.
In addition, another alternative that exists to prove the viability of non-animal testing methods and to improve the treatments of using animals testing, and the alternative are known as the three R’s. By using the three R’s, that animals live can be spared. The three R’s stand for: Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement. Firstly, Replacement refers to avoid the using of animals in animal research. Which is possible to replace the living animals to others non-animals method such as tissue culture and computer simulation, where it is possible to achieve the same scientific aim. Secondly, Reduction refers to reduce the number of using animals in medical research.
Researchers should use as less animals in an experiment as they can. But of course, that should also have to obtain the same levels of information from among the fewer animals. Anyhow, they also have to be sure if it is necessary to have animals testing. Lastly, Refinement refers to decrease the suffering and distress on animals. Which also mean by making improvement on animal lives that being used in medical research. In addition, if the researchers want to do an experiment using animals, then they must improve the living condition of the animals they used in doing research.
However, animals testing have led to remarkable breakthroughs in medical field. Hence, using the alternative method does not really work well as using animal testing. Therefore, some of the times we have to agree the use of animals in medical research to get the best available model for the solution. And the scientist can also choose which animals experiment should be carried out or should not be carried out.
In conclusion, using animals in medical research are remains essential. However, animals testing in medical are unpleasant and no one will never really like to do it. But as a part of the safety tests for new medicines in futures, of course they are requiring to have animals testing before they are tested in humans. Thus, at the end, they believe that using animals in medical research will reduce massive human suffering.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 30 November 2016
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