______ were the upper class in early Rome; _____ were the lower class.
The power of the consuls in Rome was checked by the _____.
The concept of humanitas, which the Romans borrowed from Greece, emphasized _______ in education.
The Punic Wars were fought against ______.
The Romans admired the culture of ______ but had contempt for the citizens’ squabbling, commerce, and perceived weakness.
Tenant farmers who replaced most agricultural slave labor
Who were coloni?
Tiberius Gracchus pressed for land-reform legislation as a way to ______.
Patricians to exploit the plebians
After the Twelve Tables were published, it became more difficult for _______.
most of the cities remained loyal allies
Because the Romans did not destroy the Latin cities after defeating them in 338 BCE, ______.
In battle between Octavian and Mark Antony
How did the civil war following Julius Caesar’s death finally end?
After overthrowing their king, the Roman elite established their state as a ______.
For 200 years, through the Struggle of the Orders, plebians slowly acquired rights that had previously been the sole province of _____.
_____ defeated Rome in battle multiple times but lost his war when Carthage was attacked in his absence.
Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey formed a private political alliance known as the First ______.
Gaius Octavius, who adopted the name C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, is referred to by modern scholars as Octavian, and eventually would be known as _____>
Octavian became the undisputed ruler of Rome following the Battle of ______.
According to Cicero, laws should be ______.
_______ was a cruel and vicious emperor whose bizarre actions made many suspect he was insane.
“Circuses” were named for their ________.
in perpetual war between good and evil
Manichaeans, whose faith combined elements of Zoroastrianism, Christianity, and Judaism, believed the world to be ______.
Faith, fundamental to Christian belief, and reason, the foundation of classical education, were reconciled in the wrightings of _____.
_______, the great 18th century scholar of Roman history, suggested that instead of asking why Rome fell, “we should rather be surprised that it had subsisted so long.”
on a peninsula
Constantinople was easily defensible, because of its location ______.
Divisions within Christian worship
The debate that resulted in the Nicene Creed is proof that, although the Christian emperors hoped to unite the empire behind a single religion, there were ________.
to satisfy his own perverse desires
According to Tacitus, why did Nero, in 64 CE, kill a number of Christians in particularly horrific ways?
_____ believed in a world of divine and natural law, and his writings were read well into the Middle Ages and Renaissance.
Although he was arguably reflecting the society around him, ______ was exiled for writing that was considered out of step with Augustan ideals of morality.
Although Latin was the language of the Roman Empire, eastern provinces continued to use ______.
Diocletian divided the empire into four parts, led by a quartet known as the ______.
Born in Africa, _______ was one of the great early theologians, known for his books Confessions and City of God.
Which emperor first divided the Roman Empire into east and west?
The word “Muslim” is Arabic for _____.
the nature of Christ
The key disputes between the eastern and western Christian churches concerned _____.
The Merovingian Dynasty was founded by the warrior chieftain _____.
the Papal States
The Frankish kings who defeated the Lombards gave the pope the lands surrounding Rome, to be known as ______.
Land nobility retained vassals to populate their armies by supplying them with ______.
In the early Middle Ages, the three-field system was used, combining crop rotation and the use of _____.
brought the Benedictines economic and political power
Benedict wrote a plan that dictated every activity a monk should undertake each day. This discipline and organization _____.
Carolingian minuscule (a style of handwriting)
Charlemagne developed the intellectual center of Aachen to patronize scholars and promote classical and Christian education. One result of his efforts was _____.
Without a strong central government, freeman would entrust themselves to local magnates, offering to contribute to local fighting units in return for protection. This service was known as _____.
_____, with his wife Theodora at his side, expanded the Byzantine Empire and ruled it with a strong hand.
The end of the Byzantine Empire came with the conquest of ______ in 1453 by the Ottoman Turks.
Kaba (mispelled but close enough)
One of the requirements of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca to visit the ______, a black meteorite that was worshiped by pagans and incorporated into Islamic practice.
_____ is defined as the opposition to the use of images in Christian worship.
A medieval lord expected service from his vassals and granted them _____ so that they could provide those services.
(Roman) Pragmatism without a strict moral code leads to?
Who defeated Hannibal at Zama?
Which Punic War had Hannibal cross the Alps to attack Rome?
Ovid wrote a love story between a _____ and _____. This is thought to be an accurate description of the Roman idea of love.
Herod should be known as the great _____.
He was known to kill his family members out of fear of losing his kingship?
He sided with the Romans in the Jewish revolt and became king?