This unit is about human resources management. The purpose of human resources management is to recruit, develop and utilise the organisation personnel in the way that is the most appropriate to the achievement of the firm goal and objectives. I will be finding out how human resources management affects Park View Academy and school in general. I will be explaining each sub- category.
* Human resources planning
* Recruitment & selection
* Training & developing
* Performance management
Human Resources Planning
Human resources planning is getting the right people, and developing them in order to meet the goals of the organisation. To recruit best people in the most effective way and to identify any problems that are likely to occur, and come with solutions to the problems identified. It is also about providing for example in recruiting the best people, and then coming departments such as operations and marketing with the correct number of appropriately skilled employees to accomplish their targets. In order to achieve this a long term focus is required. Workforce planning is therefore an integrated process. It requires an overview of the whole operation of the business in order to use human resources successfully to create a competitive advantage. The future position of the firm must be considered. That means the workforce must be put in place, which will allow the strategic plan of the business to be put into effect.
Why is human resources planning important to the school
If the teachers are not motivated and only do the minimum amount of work that is required or if the teachers are keen to do their best and are well trained they are more likely to be committed to aims of the school. It also involves matching up the type of teachers to the need of the school. For example, the skills and competences needed the new employees to have. For example, if schools needed a replacement teacher or within that school teach lessons which were recently not available at that schools e.g. a school gives choice of Spanish &Italian then decides to give the option of French but only has one teacher qualified to teach that subject. Because this teachers will be busy teaching other subjects an new teachers qualified to teach French must be found so the lesson can be taught but if they aren’t available to take this job then French can’t be taught at the school.
Why is human resources planning important to Park View Academy
Human resources is important to Park View because for example, Park View wants the best candidate for English teacher. It needs to find about how many people have these capabilities and able to recruit them and finds ways of training and developing people who meet these skills requirements. Many teachers are looking for good working condition, to be treated fairly by their boss, to know that they are working in a safe environment, and to be treated equally, no matter what their gender or race. Therefore Park View has to attract and retain, high quality teachers and to train and develop all staff to enable them to reach their maximum potential.
Number of teacher’s hired &left Park View in 2001
In 1999 50% of teachers left to due to the school being refurnished & renamed from Langham to Park View Academy this was done to improve the quality of education for its students and has led to the school’s tarnished reputation being almost forgotten and an influx of new & highly qualified teachers. Between 2000& 2002 85% of teachers have been hired in 2000, 105 teachers started and in 2001 and 24 of these teachers left this means that a large amount on the money used fir the training & recruitment process was wasted because when those teachers left the whole process had to be restarted and more money had to be spent on finding then replacement In the summer term 2002, 9-10 teachers will be leaving various department and 9-10 new teachers have already been selected This means that these departments have to spend a large amounts of there allocated budget of on recruiting and selecting new staff.
Why do teachers decide to leave?
Teachers decide to leave teaching and or transfers for many reasons and these can include:
* Not enough pay to live on with their current life style
* Student behaviour
* Tired of teaching
Stopping staff turnover
Staff turnover will only stop when school management makes sure that staff are being treated properly at work and that they have opportunities, for example, for training and promotion they want. Part of this involves motivating staff, this could be getting them to work harder because they want to. If staff can be persuaded to stay, this cuts down on the cost of advertising and recruiting new staff and also on the training of staff. Low staff turnover indicates that the staffs are happy where they are and that the school is happy with its staff.
What is the government doing?
The government is paying ï¿½1000 to anyone who becomes a student teacher and this money will only be presented after successful completion of the first year of training.
Recruitment and Selection
Recruitment & selection is about selecting and keeping the best people to work for the organisation. It also about the job analysis, for example, when advertising a job, it must have clearly explaining what duties and responsibilities of the job will be. The purpose of the recruitment and selection process is to acquire a suitable number of employees with appropriate skills. There are three stages to this process:
* Determining the human resources requirements of the organisation
* Attracting suitable candidates for the vacancy
* Selecting the most appropriate candidate
Why is recruitment & selection important to school
Recruitment & selection is important because the school needs the right teachers for the right subjects. Candidates who match the description that has been required are selected and the candidate is given an interview. It is also important to teachers because teacher’s recruitment is responsible for supporting the school with a successful recruitment of teachers, providing information and advice, training newly qualified teachers and selecting those with potential to train as teachers.
Why is recruitment & selection important to Park View Academy?
Recruitment & selection is important to Park View because Park View needs to check which applicant best meets the criteria set down for the post, interview and finally select the best candidate. For example, if Park View ends up choosing a n unsuitable candidate for the job, then Park View will be suffering form having poor teachers and teachers will be teaching three different subjects at time. same. This means that Park View will need to put more effort in to the advertisement, so that they could get the right candidate for the department.
How does Park View attempt to encourage recruitment?
It attracts external candidates to vacant posts via an advertisement, placed either directly by the employee or though the agency. However. This not the start of
process of filling the job. Before the advertisement is written, the creation of job description and specification of the criteria against which candidates will be assessed should precede any other part of the process.
Recruitment – Job analysis
Why do job vacancies appear?
New jobs appear within an organisation all the time for a large variety of reasons. These could include the following:
* The organisation expands and new jobs are created this means that new workers will be needed to keep the organisation running at an efficient capacity.
* Companies can merge which can greatly increase the size of the organisation. This could have many different effects within the organisation, can such as
* More employees been needed for currently existing department with the organisation.
* A new department maybe needed and new job will be created.
* Older departments may no longer be needed because this causes a raise in job seekers.
* New workers may also be needed because of skills shortages a when new technologies are invented and existing technologies are improved. New machinery and equipment becomes available and some employers may not want to spend money on training. Therefore employees and turning to hiring new young employees fresh out university trained up on all the new techniques required for the job.
What are job descriptions used for?
A Job description describes what the job is. The job description is written description of the job consists of. It includes the job title, the main purpose and responsibilities of the job.
Why is job description important?
It is important because for example, when a school wants to recruit someone, it will first have to come up with the job description. Therefore when a teacher is applying for that job, the teacher must be capable of what the job description says. Before applying the job, the teacher must sure that they are capable doing that specific job. Then the teacher could write their person specification.
What are person specifications used for?
Person specification describes the ideal person. Person specification is about qualification, experience and skills of the person. It also includes essential criteria and desirable criteria., this means include a description of relent work experience for their job that there are applying for.
Why is person specification important?
It is important because it gives a picture of the ideal candidate for the job and is used to help decide on the most suitable person for that job. Person specification is important to Park View Academy in when recruiting for the school because the school needs to find the right sort of teacher for the job. Therefore the school needs to unsure that the candidate meets following criteria
* Qualification – they need qualified teacher statues, a business studies or ICT degree or equivalent.
* Experience is needed for successful of teaching business and ICT.
* Skills/competencies are in needed of excellent communication and interpersonal skills, and the ability to work collaboratively with other staff.
The job advertisement should outline the purpose of the job, and give an indication of its main area of responsibility. It should also tell candidates what skills and attributes are being saught. Some organisation also believe that describing the benefits the person appointed may help to attract a strong field of applicants. A good advertisement helps candidates decide for themselves whether they meet the requirements.
What is job advertisement used for?
Job advertisements encourage people to apply. The purpose of job advertisement is to get as many suitable people to apply the job. If a school has to decide what the advertisement contains and where it will be put. For example, newspapers, shops and job centres and Some advertisement might include what the pay is.
Why is job advertisement important?
It is important because the job advert should describe the job and the skills required. What training and other benefits are offered, so that Person know is required, before applying, also the job a must explain how person should apply for the job.
The selection is about reading application and short-listing the candidate. The interview may be the only occasion when the candidates meets the organisation and it’s representatives in person. Candidates may meet potential future colleagues, both those they are intended to meet and those they are not. Each contract between the candidate and the organisation contributes to total picture. The candidate may want to do a job that is different from the one required by the organisation. The selection process can be seen as a flow during which both parties exchange increasingly detailed information, so that both can make their decision on an informed basis. The successful candidate can then start their new job.
Why selection is important
It is important for example, when the manager decides which candidate meets the person specification and which don’t. Candidates who are selected will then be asked for a reference from previous work. Then the candidate will have an interview.
Recruitment- the selection process PVA
* A written application enables the schools to decide which candidates0 meet person specification and which don’t. Short listed candidates will have their references taken up. These are statements about the character of the candidate written by someone who knows them. This is often their manager.
* Short listed candidate are then invited for interview. Interview are sometimes only one person, but for more seniors jobs it’s usual to have a panel interview, on the whole the candidate is interviewed by two or more people
* Interviews should ask the same questions to all candidates so that the process is fair. They should not ask questions that are irrelevant to the job and unfairly discriminate.
* The interview can help schools assess how confident a candidate is and what the candidate’s social skills are and whether they will be compatible with the school and other workers some firms will give out a test to help them decide instead of an interview.
* Flexible contracts of employment in teaching are made by increasing the use temporary and part-time contracts.
* Wages or earnings are flexible in teaching.
* Ability of teachers to move form one school to another-can increase the flexibility within their labour forces by having the option of moving teachers to different jobs
* Flexibility in school-large number of people are working away from the usual work place.
Training & Development
Training and developing is guiding or teaching someone to do something by providing them with a planned programme of their new job. The purpose of training is that training develops the skills and knowledge of employees to help them do their job better. That gives the employees the chance to have dream of a better job in the future. The purpose of training and developing process is to instruct an individual about how to carry out tasks directly related to his or her current job. Development involves helping an individual to realise his or her full potential.
Types of training
* Induction training is for new employees where they gain learn about the organisation and what types of duties that are expected from them. Schools use a form of this kind of training.
* Mentoring is for new employees to the business in which are they paired with a more experienced worker. Law firms use this type of training. School have started to use this type of training. this is known as NQT, so that problems cane is solved informally. This can improve recruitment. Teachers take this kind of training when they are not that experienced. This kind of training can improve the teachers skills for both the person that is more experienced and the person that is still getting trained, because both sides can learn from each other.
* Coaching is when you are paired with more experienced workers for example supervisors that help coach you, so that you learn new skills from more experienced teachers. Skills can be developed for both parties. This done Park View Academy when there is a new teacher that has just started to teach and needs to be with a teacher that is more experienced. If the new teacher has problem she/he speak to the teacher in confidence instead of the manager because if you speaks to the manager, your job might not last for long. The job may not last for long because the manager cannot have the trust for the new teacher.
* Training provided by the organisation is known an in-house training and is usually associated with large organisation that has established training departments.
* External training is where employees are sent to external courses or they are trained in different ways away from the organisation. In -house training can takes place in Park View Academy when a manager tells a teacher that they are not good at a particular point or skills and the line manager tells you to go on an external course to get trained and improve the particular area that your not good at.
* In teaching this is important because they need to have the right skills in a classroom and they need to know how to control group of students. Without being trained, a teacher may not be able to control a class. The problem with training in a school is that it can have a lot of effect on the students because the teacher is still getting trained and the person can give out wrong information to the students without been sure if it’s the right information that needs to be provided.
* In Park View Academy, training has to be kept up to date so teachers can be trained and trained and have new skills. If teachers are trained, it will allow students to get better grades. Better grades can get the school more student and the students will be more motivated Because teachers like students who are well motivated and get good grades, therefore it could get more teachers teaching in Park View Academy and make them stay longer. If teachers are staying longer in Park View Academy the school doesn’t have to recruit teachers and that would save money to the school as well.
Why is training & developing important to the school?
Training and developing is important because they may introduce new methods equipment or software and all staff will have to be trained. People are more motivated if they continue to learn and develop and staff may be interested in improving and extending their knowledge and skills so that they can undertake more varied work. It is important for teachers to be clear about the distinction between teacher training and teacher development so that the teachers can be fully aware of what kind of course they are attending. For teachers local training it would help the teachers prepare students lesson.
Why is training & developing important to Park View Academy?
Many teachers keen are to engage in training because they see it as adding to their own motivation and enjoyment of work. For example, when there’s a new teacher in Park View, that means introducing them to their place of work, job, and new surrounding and the people they will be working with. Introduction also provides information to help new teachers start work and is generally so that they can fit in. When training as teacher, trainee teachers work with a mentor who is responsible for their early training & development. The student teacher will watch the mentor teach before starting his own teaching. The mentor will then give ongoing guidance to the student teacher on how best to improve his or her performance. This relates to performance management, which is described down below.
Why is training and development need?
Schools have to continually train teachers in skills because new exams and types of course appear quite often this could leave teachers in position were the teachers is unable to teach the lesson effectively. There are many types of training and these include, training programmes that will help teachers develop f the ICT skills that they will need to know for working with about new technologies. Like wise an existing teachers may be promoted to new position and need to be trained to do the new tasks. For example: if a teachers becomes a Head Teacher, then they will need to gain management skills to deal with the increased responsibility.
What are the benefit of training & developing?
When an organisation introduces a training and development programme, it does so in order to ensure the best possible return on its investment in people. It helps a new employee reach the level of performance expected from an experienced worker. It provides a wide range of skills available to the organisation, both for present and in the future. It develops a knowledgeable and committed work force. Training is a tempting option for team leaders in some situations. It is reasonably simple to set up and make sure all team have taken part, in the hope that it will protect you, in some way, from the criticism of employees, employers or clients. Training is not always the most appropriate option.
Problem with training and development
The skills that teachers gain on their training course will be cut short, to make sure they obtain the relevant skills to teach the class but not to get new jobs in the private industry, which can bring in much larger income for teachers. For example, an ICT teacher may not get sent to web designing course because they will be giving them the option then to leave their jobs with the newly found skills that can help them get a much better job. It also includes:
* It will cost money in the short term
* Labour Turnover: cost to recruitment and selection
Training & Development cycle
All of the above leads to sources of motivation for students and teachers learn new skills
Teachers stay longer
Student get better grade
Higher spot in government league table
More students and more teachers want to come
More for the school
Higher quality teachers
Areas of conflict between human resources function:
* The conflict between the training and development and HRM function is that training and development it trains workers and develops they skills and improves their knowledge and human resources management it encourages people to become teachers, doctors etc.
* The conflict between the recruitment and selection functions and performance management function is that the recruitment and selection is that it recruits people and pick out the suitable person for the right job and performance management it identifies how to improve workers skills and how to achieve that skills.
Performance management assesses the needs of individual workers and how their performance can be improved. It defines the concept, which aims to link the work of individuals. It also includes setting objectives, because with in a matter of weeks of starting new job, people should be quite clear about priorities and what they are expected to achieve. It also refers to different strategies designed to get the best of a business work force. Different techniques are employed which attempt to relate performance with pay, promotion or training. Such schemes are not always popular with workers. Well-developed performance management system will include the following:
* A statement outlining the organisations values
* A statement of the organisations objectives
* Individual objects which are linked to the organisation’s objectives
* Regular performance review throughout the year
* Performance-related pay
* Training and counselling.
* In teaching performance management usually relates to the following:
Each member of the school it could be teacher, cleaner or technician should have an objectives that help in the running of the entire school
* Training and counselling for teachers as soon as it is required. Training is usually the required at least to some degree for all teachers when they first start working for the school.
How does PVA do performance management?
Performance management in teaching for PVA is very important because PVA is very important because PVA needs to make sure that the teachers is making his/her teaching criteria in order to teach well. Therefore, when a teacher is not meeting criteria, they have a meeting with their manager to discuss about criteria and it can improve. It also important that school needs to get the best out their employees.
Why is performance management important to PVA and countries?
Performance management is important to Park View because if a teacher is not working to the best of their abilities the student would get bad would cause repercussions in businesses and schools throughout the country because schools teach students how to perform basic tasks in the career they want to pursue. Most courses and careers need maths, English at GCSE level C or above.
College and university teachers and lectures went to school with out good educated teachers the student s at college and universities would also receive a bad education because there teachers were badly educated. This is why performance management is important to all industries starting with school like park view.
Performance appraisal is process of systematically evaluating performance and providing feedback on which performance adjustment can be made. Appraisal regularly records an assessment of an employee’s performance, potential and development needs. The appraisal is an opportunity to take an overall view of work content, loads and volume, to look back on what has been achieved during the reporting period and agree objectives for the next.
Purpose of using performance appraisal at PVA
* Describing the detailed job criteria against which performance will measured
* What needs to be achieved
* Giving explanation and goods reason of rewards given to individuals or groups.
* Giving good explanation of the of the experience that an individual employee will need for herself/himself on going development.
There are two types of appraisal:
* Self-appraisal is about when you’re assessing yourself. is when a teacher in Park View Academy are developing a much clearer picture of exactly what is expected of and what it is they are doing which makes work better. Their boss always says this to the teachers in Park View Academy but it is the teachers’ responsibility to achieve that within performance for it to be self-appraisal.
* Peer appraisal is about when is sometimes used by students in Park View Academy when they are working as a team. Peer appraisal helps students work together as a team. Without peer appraisal there would be a danger, some students would do all the work while others sit back but still take the rewards. So it is therefore possible to devise forms for students to evaluate each other’s input, for example if students attended meetings? If they carried
* out their share of the research? Etc.
There are a number of rules that help peer appraisal to be a success which are:
* Respect each other
* Trust in each other
* Willingness to take risks
* Listen and give full attention
Many people believe that they are motivated by earning money, but this is not entirely true, because other factors like variety of workplace where people worker. Worker needs to be appreciated for thy work they do.
* The needs to be appreciated for the work they do may be reflected in the prestige attached do their job and while the need for variety workplace may be satisfied by an interesting job.
* A school, which effects motivation, is that every individual has different needs. For example a teacher may prefer to work in his or her own than in friendly team. In order to have good motivation employees needs have to be found. This shows in how lack of motivation equals reduced effort and lack of communication.
Motivation theory at Park View Academy
Types of motivational theory
* The Abraham Maslow- Hierarchy of needs. Maslow’s theories of motivation are based on meeting people in work place.
* A self-actualisation- teacher feels they are achieving something. PVA’s managers should help staff set and reach their own personal targets.
* Esteem needs-Teachers feels that others value them.
* Love needs-Teachers enjoy the company others,
* Safety and health needs-Teacher feel safe and secure from harm. PVA’s manager gives the teachers job security
* Physiological needs- Teachers have food, water and clothing to live with.
(GCSE business studies page 32)
Thought the ages many men have had theories of which factors motivate and demotivated workers and McGregor describe the best one. McGregor theory had two theories called theory x and theory y.
* Theory X says that workers do not enjoy working and will do absolutely nothing unless ordered to by a manager or an other worker who is at high rank than them sellers, for example a team leader. Those workers are just after money and they wait for someone to think for them and tell them what to do.
* Theory Y says that workers don’t like people to think for them and to tell them what to do an order that be followed but theory Y workers want some responsibility this responsibility shows these workers that you trust them and can go long way by motivating them to use their own mind this could allow them to find new more efficient ways of performing takes and give their opinions of wide range of subject around the work area.
(business studies page 235
Motivational theory used in Park View Academy
* Abraham maslow- drew up what he called a hierarchy of needs, with basics needs at the bottom and higher needs at the top. Maslow deemed that people should satisfy their lower level in their job. In Park View Academy teachers can follow the Hierarchy of needs and promote themselves.
Douglas McGregor divided managers into two main parts. Theory X managers tend to have the view that:
* The average person has an inherent dislike of work and so ill avoid it if at all possible.
* Because people naturally dislike work, most people must be coerced, controlled, directed and/or threatened with punishment to get them to work towards business objectives.
* The average person likes to be directed, wishes to avoid responsibility, has little ambition and above all, seeks security.
In Park View Academy Theory X are those teachers that do the work just for money they are not motivated and they have to be told by their manager to meet their objectives. If we look at the Hierarchy of needs the teacher that fits in to Theory X is not motivated enough to go up the Hierarchy of needs because the person is just their to earn money and they don’t have much responsibilities.
* For example, in Park View Academy theory teachers when they have a curriculum team meeting, they wouldn’t suggest anything at all in the meeting and also they wouldn’t be willing to take extra curriculum, for example would go for position like been a head of department.
* Theory Y teachers are more pro-active during they curriculum team meeting and will suggestions about how to improve and change curriculum and in meetings they contribute more They might also set themselves targets and be willing to take an extra responsibility
* For my research I found out that in most secondary school do performance management structure which relates how to teachers get paid and in order to the benefits, the teacher has to pass certain criteria. Their line manager in a performance management review monitors this. During they review they will provide evidence to show the criteria that goes for theory Y teachers and theory x teacher will only do the basic things. This helps theory Y teachers to know that their have met they personal targets
McGregor has proposed an alternative Theory Y. The assumption about human motivation in Theory Y is as bellow:
* Seeking more responsibilities motivates workers.
* They enjoy working
* Have more ambition in there work
AVCE Business Studies, by Dave Needham and Rob Dranfield
Business studies, by Andrew Gillespic and Barry Martin (published 1999)