Human Resource Management, 12e (Dessler) Chapter 4 Job Analysis

1) Which of the following terms refers to the procedure used to determine the duties associated with job positions and the characteristics of the people to hire for those positions? A) job description

B) job specification
C) job analysis
D) job context
E) job standard
Answer: C
Explanation: Job analysis is the process of determining the duties of a specific job and the characteristics of the people who would be most appropriate for the job. A job analysis produces the necessary information to develop job descriptions and job specifications.

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Diff: 1Page Ref: 116

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
2) The information resulting from a job analysis is used for writing ________. A) job descriptions
B) corporate objectives
C) personnel questionnaires
D) training requirements
E) mission statements
Answer: A
Explanation: A job description is a list of what a job entails, and it is derived from a job analysis. Job analysis is the procedure through which you determine the duties of job positions and the characteristics of the people that should be hired for the positions.

Diff: 1Page Ref: 116

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
3) All of the following types of information will most likely be collected by a human resources specialist through a job analysis EXCEPT ________. A) work activities
B) human behaviors
C) performance standards
D) human requirements
E) employee benefits options
Answer: E
Explanation: Work activities, human behaviors, work aids, performance standards, job context, and human requirements are the types of information typically collected through a job analysis. Information gathered through a job analysis is used to develop job descriptions and job specifications. Managers use job analysis for the purpose of recruitment, compensation, training, and performance appraisal but not for assessing employee benefits options. Diff: 2Page Ref: 116

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
4) A manager uses the information in a job analysis for all of the following EXCEPT ________. A) assessing training requirements
B) complying with FCC regulations
C) determining appropriate compensation
D) recruiting and selecting individuals for a job
E) providing accurate performance appraisals
Answer: B
Explanation: Managers use information gathered from a job analysis for many activities including providing performance appraisals, recruiting, determining compensation, and assessing training requirements. Job analysis plays a major role in EEO (Equal Employment Opportunity Commission) compliance but not with FCC (Federal Communications Commission) regulations. Diff: 2Page Ref: 117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
5) Which of the following most likely depends on a job’s required skills, education level, safety hazards, and degree of responsibility? A) employee compensation
B) organizational culture
C) annual training requirements
D) OSHA and EEO compliance
E) telecommuting opportunities
Answer: A
Explanation: Compensation in the form of salaries and bonuses greatly depends upon a job’s required skills, education level, safety hazards, and level of responsibility. Managers use the job analysis to determine the relative worth of a specific job and the most appropriate compensation for an employee. Diff: 2Page Ref: 117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
6) In order for Hollis Construction to be in full compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, the manager needs a ________ for each position to validate all human resource activities. A) performance appraisal

B) compensation schedule
C) workflow system
D) quality control clerk
E) job analysis
Answer: E
Explanation: A job analysis is needed for each job at a firm to ensure compliance with the EEOC. According to the U.S. Federal Agencies’ Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection, a job analysis is needed to validate all major human resource activities. A firm that is in compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, for example, should know the essential job functions of each job which requires a job analysis. Diff: 2Page Ref: 117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Application
7) Managers use ________ to uncover essential duties that have not been assigned to specific employees. A) work activities
B) job specifications
C) job analysis
D) performance standards
E) job context
Answer: C
Explanation: Job analysis can help reveal duties that need to be assigned to a specific employee. Job specifications are generated by a job analysis, but they typically focus on the type of person that is most suitable for a specific job. Work activities, performance standards, and job context are the types of information that are provided through a job analysis, but they do not necessarily uncover unassigned tasks. Diff: 1Page Ref: 117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
8) The ________ lists a job’s specific duties as well as the skills and training needed to perform a particular job. A) organization chart
B) job analysis
C) work aid
D) job context
E) job description
Answer: E
Explanation: Job descriptions list the specific duties, skills, and training related to a particular job. Organization charts show the distribution of work within a company but not specific duties. A job description is created after a job analysis has been performed. Diff: 1Page Ref: 117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
9) How many steps are involved in the job analysis process?
A) two
B) four
C) six
D) eight
E) ten
Answer: C
Explanation: Six steps are involved in the job analysis process. Step 1 involves deciding how the information will be used, and step 2 involves reviewing relevant background information. Step 3 requires selecting representative positions, and step 4 calls for analyzing the job. Verifying the job analysis information occurs in step 5, while developing a job description and job specification occurs in step 6. Diff: 1Page Ref: 117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
10) What is the first step in conducting a job analysis?
A) deciding how the gathered information will be used
B) collecting data on job activities and working conditions
C) selecting representative job positions to assess
D) reviewing relevant background information
E) writing job descriptions and job specifications
Answer: A
Explanation: The first step in performing a job analysis is deciding how the job analysis will be used because this determines the data that will be collected and how it will be collected. Collecting data, selecting which job positions to analyze, reviewing background information like organization charts and process charts, and writing job descriptions are additional steps in the job analysis process. Diff: 2Page Ref: 117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
11) Reviewing relevant background information such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions is the ________ step of performing a
job analysis. A) first
B) second
C) third
D) fourth
E) fifth
Answer: B
Explanation: The second step of the job analysis process involves reviewing relevant background information. Organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions are types of background information that are useful in developing or revising a job analysis. Diff: 1Page Ref: 117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
12) Which of the following data collection techniques would be most useful when writing a job description for a software engineer? A) distributing position analysis questionnaires
B) interviewing employees
C) analyzing organization charts
D) observing employees
E) developing a job process chart
Answer: B
Explanation: Interviewing employees to determine what the job entails is an effective method of collecting data for writing a job description. Observing employees is typically only effective if a job involves physical tasks, and software engineering involves more thought and discussion than physical activity. Position analysis questionnaires are useful for compensation purposes rather than for writing job descriptions. Diff: 2Page Ref: 117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Application
13) Which of the following is a written statement that describes the activities, responsibilities, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities of a job? A) job specification
B) job analysis
C) job report
D) job description
E) job context
Answer: D
Explanation: A job description is a written list of a job’s duties, responsibilities, reporting relationships, working conditions, and supervisory responsibilities, and it is the result of a job analysis. Job specifications focus on the human requirements for a particular job, such as personality and education. Job context refers to the physical working conditions or work schedule associated with a job. Diff: 1Page Ref: 117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
14) Which of the following refers to the human requirements needed for a job, such as education, skills, and personality? A) job specifications
B) job analysis
C) job placement
D) job context
E) job descriptions
Answer: A
Explanation: Job specifications are the human requirements needed for a particular job like education, skills, and personality. A job description is a list of the job’s duties and responsibilities. Both job descriptions and job specifications are products of a job analysis. Diff: 1Page Ref: 117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
15) All of the following requirements are typically addressed in job specifications EXCEPT ________. A) desired personality traits
B) required education levels
C) essential skills
D) necessary experience
E) working conditions
Answer: E
Explanation: Working conditions, responsibilities, and job duties are addressed in a job description rather than the job specifications. Job specifications focus on the human requirements for a job, such as personality, education, skills, and experience. Diff: 2Page Ref: 117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
16) Which of the following indicates the distribution of work within a firm and the lines of authority and communication? A) job analysis
B) process chart
C) employee matrix
D) organization chart
E) corporate overview
Answer: D
Explanation: Organization charts show the organization-wide distribution of work with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show who reports to and communicates with whom. Organization charts are useful when performing a job analysis, which is a process of determining the duties and skills associated with a specific position. Diff: 1Page Ref: 117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Application
17) A(n) ________ shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a job being analyzed. A) organization chart
B) process chart
C) value chain
D) job analysis
E) job description
Answer: B
Explanation: A process chart is a work-flow chart that shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a particular job. In the second step of
performing a job analysis, background information such as process charts, organization charts, and job descriptions are reviewed. Diff: 1Page Ref: 118

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
18) During the job analysis process, it is important to ________ before collecting data about specific job duties and working conditions. A) test job questionnaires on a small group of workers
B) confirm the job activity list with employees
C) select a sample of similar jobs to analyze
D) develop a job description outline
E) assemble the job specifications list
Answer: C
Explanation: The third step of the job analysis process involves selecting representative positions to analyze. If there are too many similar jobs in a firm, it is best to select a representative sample. After representative positions have been chosen, analysis of the job can occur, which may include interviewing employees or using questionnaires. Job descriptions and job specifications are not developed until the final step of the job analysis process. Diff: 3Page Ref: 118

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
19) The fourth step in conducting a job analysis most likely involves collecting data about all of the following EXCEPT ________. A) necessary employee behaviors
B) required employee abilities
C) typical working conditions
D) employee turnover rates
E) specific job activities
Answer: D
Explanation: The fourth step in analyzing a job requires collecting data
about job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. Interviews, questionnaires, and observations are the most popular methods for gathering data. It is unlikely that data regarding employee turnover rates would be gathered during a job analysis. Diff: 2Page Ref: 118

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
20) While performing the fifth step of a job analysis, it is essential to confirm the validity of collected data with the ________. A) EEOC representative
B) HR manager
C) union leader
D) legal department
E) worker
Answer: E
Explanation: According to the fifth step of a job analysis, collected data should be confirmed with the worker performing the job and his/her immediate supervisor. Although HR managers play a role in the job analysis process by observing workers, it is the worker and his/her immediate supervisor that provide direct knowledge of the duties involved in a specific job. Diff: 2Page Ref: 118

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
21) During the job analysis process, the primary purpose of having workers review and modify data collected about their current positions is to ________. A) confirm that the information is correct and complete

B) provide a legal benchmark for employer lawsuits
C) enable participants to understand their job strengths
D) encourage employees to seek additional job training
E) validate the job specification list provided by HR
Answer: A
Explanation: Allowing employees to review and modify the information collected about their current positions provides the opportunity to confirm that the data is correct and complete, which may help gain employee acceptance of the job analysis data and conclusions. Job specifications and job descriptions are created after employees review the collected data. Diff: 3Page Ref: 118

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
22) What is the final step in conducting a job analysis?
A) conducting an exit interview of all participants
B) writing a job description and job specifications
C) validating all of the collected job data
D) collecting data on specific job activities
E) reviewing relevant background information
Answer: B
Explanation: The final step in the job analysis process involves developing a job description and job specifications, which are the two tangible products of a job analysis. This step occurs after job data has been collected and validated, and background information has been reviewed. Exit interviews are not conducted. Diff: 2Page Ref: 118

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
23) Murray, Inc. emphasizes a desire for detail-oriented, motivated employees with strong social skills as indicated in the firm’s job ________. A) specifications
B) analysis
C) reports
D) descriptions
E) context
Answer: A
Explanation: Job specifications summarize the personal qualities, traits, skills, and background required for getting a job done. Murray, Inc. wants detail-oriented, motivated employees, which would be described in the firm’s job specifications. Job descriptions address the activities and responsibilities of a job. Both job descriptions and job specifications are products of a job analysis. Diff: 2Page Ref: 118

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Application
24) The primary drawback of performing a job analysis regards the ________. A) unverifiable data a job analysis typically provides
B) certification required to conduct a job analysis
C) amount of time a job analysis takes to complete
D) redundant information gathered during a job analysis
E) costs associated with the technology needed for a job analysis Answer: C
Explanation: Conducting a job analysis can be time-consuming because it may take days to interview multiple employees and their managers, which is why an abbreviated version is often used by managers. The information gathered through a job analysis is typically verifiable and useful, and the main cost is time rather than money. Although management training may be necessary to perform an adequate job analysis, it is unlikely that certification is required. Diff: 3Page Ref: 118

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
25) Which of the following guidelines is recommended to managers conducting a job analysis? A) Use one tool for gathering information to maintain the validity of the results. B) Rely on the human resource manager to complete questionnaires and verify data. C) Conduct group interviews without supervisors present to ensure accuracy. D) Collect information from employees performing the same job in different departments. E) Develop complex questions using technical jargon specific to the organization. Answer: D

Explanation: If several employees perform the same job in different departments, a manager should collect job analysis information from each of them because the manner in which an employee with a particular job title spends his or her time most likely varies from department to department. Several tools should be used to gather information rather than only one, and employees and supervisors typically complete questionnaires rather than HR managers, who instead observe workers performing their job duties. Supervisors should be included in group interviews, and questions should be clear rather than complex. Diff: 3Page Ref: 119

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
26) Which method for collecting job analysis information is considered best for quantifying the relative worth of a job for compensation purposes? A) electronic log
B) group interview
C) worker diary
D) observation
E) questionnaire
Answer: E
Explanation: Questionnaires are particularly useful for quantifying a job’s worth for the purpose of compensation. An interview is most appropriate for collecting job analysis information that will be used to create a list of job duties or a job description. Direct observation is useful when jobs involve mostly physical work. Logs and diaries can provide detailed information about a worker’s activities, but the tendency of some employees to exaggerate makes logs/diaries less appropriate for quantifying the worth of a job. Diff: 2Page Ref: 119

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
27) Which of the following will most likely be used by a manager gathering
job analysis information when a large number of employees perform similar work? A) individual employee interviews
B) direct observation of all employees
C) interview with the HR manager
D) group interview with a supervisor
E) telephone surveys of all employees
Answer: D
Explanation: When a large number of employees perform similar or identical work, conducting a group interview is a fast way to gather information. In most cases, the workers’ immediate supervisor attends the group session. It would be costly and time consuming to conduct individual interviews with each worker and to observe each worker. Diff: 3Page Ref: 120

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Application
28) Which of the following is the primary disadvantage of using interviews to collect job analysis data? A) Interviews are a complicated method for collecting information. B) Employees may exaggerate or minimize some information.

C) Interviews provide only general information about a worker’s duties. D) Employees may reveal minimal information about their daily activities. E) Interviews may require managers to reveal the job analysis function. Answer: B

Explanation: The primary disadvantage of conducting employee interviews for the purpose of gathering job analysis data is the distortion of information. Employees may misunderstand the purpose of the interview and either purposely or mistakenly provide incorrect information. Interviews are considered a simple method for collecting detailed job information especially regarding uncommon but important employee activities. Diff: 3Page Ref: 120

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
29) Interviews for the purpose of collecting job analysis data will most likely address all of the following topics EXCEPT ________. A) hazardous conditions
B) primary work duties
C) required education
D) necessary experience
E) personal hobbies
Answer: E
Explanation: Typical questions for job analysis interviews address subjects such as the job’s major duties, hazardous conditions, performance standards, and required experience and education. It is less likely that an interviewer would ask an employee questions not related specifically to the job, such as personal questions about the worker’s hobbies and free time. Diff: 1Page Ref: 120

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
30) Job analysts collecting information through observations and interviews benefit from the use of a(n) ________ to guide the process and ensure consistency. A) structured list
B) electronic diary
C) job description
D) organization chart
E) position analysis questionnaire
Answer: A
Explanation: A structured list or checklist is useful for guiding an interview or performing a personal observation. Electronic diaries are completed by the worker and would not be used for observations or interviews. Some questionnaires are highly structured checklists that an employee completes in writing or online. Diff: 1Page Ref: 120

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
31) Which of the following is the primary disadvantage of using questionnaires to gather job analysis information? A) Questionnaires are the most expensive method of collecting data. B) Supervisors are required to verify all collected questionnaire data. C) Firms lack the technology to generate electronic questionnaires. D) Questionnaires are too open-ended to provide statistical information. E) Developing and testing questionnaires is time-consuming.

Answer: E
Explanation: The primary drawback of questionnaires is the time required to develop questionnaires and test them to ensure that workers understand the questions. Questionnaires can be structured or open-ended, and many are a combination of the two. Questionnaires are less costly than interviews and can be completed online. Diff: 3Page Ref: 123

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
32) For which of the following jobs is direct observation NOT a recommended method for collecting job analysis data? A) assembly-line worker
B) accounting clerk
C) attorney
D) nurse
E) salesperson
Answer: C
Explanation: Direct observation is particularly useful when jobs consist mainly of observable physical activities, such as with nurses, accounting clerks, assembly-line workers, and salespersons. Observation is less appropriate when a job involves mostly mental activity such as with lawyers and design engineers. Diff: 2Page Ref: 123

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Application
33) One of the problems with direct observation is ________, which is when workers alter their normal activities because they are being watched. A) flexibility
B) constancy
C) falsification
D) reactivity
E) diversion
Answer: D
Explanation: Reactivity occurs when a worker changes what he or she normally does because observation is taking place for the purpose of job analysis. Knowing that they are being watched may cause some workers to alter their normal work behaviors either on purpose or accidentally. Diff: 1Page Ref: 123

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
34) A ________ is the time it takes to complete a job.
A) specification
B) work cycle
C) work week
D) shift
E) duty
Answer: B
Explanation: A work cycle is the time it takes to complete a job, which may be one minute for an assembly-line worker or weeks for an engineer. Managers collecting data for a job analysis may observe a worker on the job for a complete work cycle and take notes of the worker’s activities. Diff: 1Page Ref: 123

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
35) Which data collection method is most frequently used in conjunction with
direct observation? A) interview
B) questionnaire
C) diary
D) electronic log
E) survey
Answer: A
Explanation: Managers frequently combine direct observation with personal interviews to gather job analysis information. Often, managers observe the worker for a complete work cycle to gather as much information as possible, and then they follow up with an interview to gain clarification. Another option is to observe and interview at the same time by asking the worker questions as he or she works. Diff: 2Page Ref: 123

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
36) Which of the following requires workers to make daily listings of the activities in which they engage as well as the amount of time each activity takes? A) flowchart
B) agenda
C) outline
D) table
E) log
Answer: E
Explanation: A diary or a log requires workers to make daily listings of the activities in which they engage as well as the amount of time each activity takes. Diaries and logs can be useful in the job analysis process because they often produce a complete picture of the job, especially when used in conjunction with an interview. Diff: 1Page Ref: 126

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
37) Joaquin records every activity in which he participates at work along with the time it takes him to complete each activity. Which of the following
approaches to job analysis data collection is most likely being used at Joaquin’s workplace? A) diaries

B) interviews
C) direct observations
D) questionnaires
E) supervisor verification
Answer: A
Explanation: Joaquin has been asked to keep a diary or a log of his work activities. With diaries and logs, an employee records every activity and the time spent on each in a log, which provides a complete picture of the job. Diaries and logs are often used in conjunction with interviews, observations, and questionnaires. Diff: 2Page Ref: 136

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Application
38) Pocket dictating machines and pagers have replaced traditional diary/log methods in many firms. Which of the following problems have the modern methods most likely eliminated? A) poor penmanship skills among employees

B) work time required to fill out forms and surveys
C) employee forgetfulness regarding daily activities
D) costs associated with copying and filing paperwork
E) employee frustration towards bureaucratic requirements
Answer: C
Explanation: Some firms provide employees with pocket dictating machines and pagers to keep diaries and logs. At random times during the day, the employee is paged. The employee then dictates what he or she is doing. With this method, employers do not have to rely on workers to remember what they did hours earlier when they complete their logs at the end of the day, which was the main problem with paper/pencil diaries. Diff: 3Page Ref: 126

AACSB: Use of IT
Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
39) Purrfect Pets is a local pet supply store with a following of loyal customers who appreciate the personal service the store’s employees provide. After a very profitable year, Purrfect Pets is expanding by opening two more stores. Before hiring employees for the new stores, the manager is considering the idea of conducting a job analysis for each position.

Which of the following, if true, would best support the argument that the manager should conduct group interviews to gather job analysis information? A) The supply manager at Purrfect Pets has been with the company for three years. B) Purrfect Pets is an excellent place to work because of the positive work environment. C) Most of the young employees of Purrfect Pets would feel awkward during a one-on-one interview. D) Employees at Purrfect Pets work well with their colleagues, and few staffing conflicts occur. E) Numerous employees at Purrfect Pets perform similar tasks during the work day. Answer: E

Explanation: When a large number of employees perform similar or identical tasks, then a group interview is a quick and inexpensive way to gather job analysis information. The work environment or age of the employees are not important factors in deciding whether a group interview is appropriate. During group interviews, the immediate supervisor is usually present, but the length of time that the supervisor has worked at the company is irrelevant. Diff: 3Page Ref: 120

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Critical Thinking
40) Purrfect Pets is a local pet supply store with a following of loyal customers who appreciate the personal service the store’s employees provide. After a very profitable year, Purrfect Pets is expanding by opening two more stores. Before hiring employees for the new stores, the manager is considering the idea of conducting a job analysis for each position.

Which of the following, if true, would best support the argument that the manager should use a position analysis questionnaire to collect job analysis information? A) Compliance with EEO laws requires businesses to compile quantitative data. B) Management wants to develop a pay scale for all employees at Purrfect Pets. C) Purrfect Pets managers are unfamiliar with the typical routines of most employees. D) Managers believe that some Purrfect Pets employees are overlooking important daily tasks. E) The larger staff size now makes the business eligible for a cost effective health insurance plan. Answer: B

Explanation: The primary reason to use a position analysis questionnaire is to gather quantitative data that enables managers to compare jobs for pay purposes. Although a PAQ provides quantitative data, businesses are not required by EEO laws to use them. Interviews or observations would be more appropriate for uncovering overlooked tasks or becoming familiar with an employee’s duties. Diff: 3Page Ref: 126

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Critical Thinking
41) Purrfect Pets is a local pet supply store with a following of loyal customers who appreciate the personal service the store’s employees provide. After a very profitable year, Purrfect Pets is expanding by opening two more stores. Before hiring employees for the new stores, the manager is considering the idea of conducting a job analysis for each position.

Which of the following, if true, undermines the argument that the Purrfect Pets manager should observe workers in order to gather job analysis information? A) Purrfect Pets lacks the technology to perform quantitative job assessments. B) Part-time and seasonal workers fill most of the positions at Purrfect Pets. C) Most positions at Purrfect Pets include some element of physical activity. D) The tasks of most Purrfect Pets employees vary widely from day to day. E) During the morning, business at Purrfect
Pets typically slows down. Answer: D

Explanation: Observation is an inappropriate tool for collecting job analysis information if employees only occasionally participate in certain tasks. If the tasks vary on a daily basis, one day of observation would fail to gather the necessary information. An interview might be the best way to find out what an employee does in this situation. Observation is most appropriate for jobs requiring physical activity, so Choice C supports rather than undermines the use of observation. Diff: 3Page Ref: 123

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Critical Thinking
42) What is the primary benefit of using a position analysis questionnaire to gather data for a job analysis? A) providing the opportunity for employees to vent job frustrations B) monitoring and improving workplace safety and health

C) sorting information for government statistics and records D) classifying jobs for the purpose of assigning salaries
E) uncovering important yet infrequent job tasks
Answer: D
Explanation: The primary benefit of using a PAQ is classifying jobs based on scores in the five different categories. With this data, a manager can quantitatively compare jobs relative to one another and then assign pay for each job. Interviewing often allows employees to vent frustrations and often leads to the discovery of important yet infrequent tasks. Diff: 3Page Ref: 126

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
43) A(n) ________ is used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs. A) electronic diary/log
B) group interview
C) position analysis questionnaire
D) direct observation
E) Internet-based survey
Answer: C
Explanation: A position analysis questionnaire is used to collect quantifiable data concerning the duties and responsibilities of various jobs. A PAQ contains 194 items that are based on five PAQ basic activities: having decision-making/communication/social responsibilities, performing skilled activities, being physically active, operating vehicles/equipment, and processing information. Diff: 1Page Ref: 126, 127

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
44) Experts at the ________ performed the earliest form of job analysis and published the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. A) EEOC
B) DOL
C) BLS
D) DHS
E) PAQ
Answer: B
Explanation: The Department of Labor performed the earliest work in job analysis which resulted in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The book contained detailed information on nearly every job in America based on ratings of data, people, and things. The DOL work eventually led to the development of position analysis questionnaires (PAQ). Diff: 1Page Ref: 126

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
45) What are the three main categories used in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles to rate, classify, and compare different jobs? A) reasoning, language, mathematics
B) skills, communication, education
C) tending, serving, data
D) data, people, things
E) people, skills, reasoning
Answer: D
Explanation: Data, people, and things are the three worker function categories used in the Department of Labor procedure that was compiled into the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. The DOL method describes what a worker must do with respect to data, people, and things. Serving is an example of people functions, while tending is categorized under things. Diff: 1Page Ref: 126

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
46) The Department of Labor procedure uses a set of standard basic activities known as ________ to describe what a worker must do with respect to data, people, and things. A) worker functions
B) employee duties
C) job procedures
D) worker purposes
E) job requirements
Answer: A
Explanation: With the DOL procedure, standard basic activities known as worker functions are used to describe what a worker must do in a specific job with respect to three main categories–data, people, and things. Each worker function is given an importance rating for coding purposes. Diff: 1Page Ref: 126

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
47) All of the following categories are assessed in a functional job analysis EXCEPT ________. A) judgment
B) reasoning
C) verbal skills
D) mathematical skills
E) industry standards
Answer: E
Explanation: A functional job analysis is similar to the DOL method. Like the DOL method, a functional job analysis rates a job on data, people, and things, but it also rates a job on the extent to which performing the task requires specific instructions, reasoning and judgment, mathematical ability, and verbal and language facilities. Industry standards are not a factor in a functional job analysis. Diff: 1Page Ref: 128

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
48) What has been the most significant impact of modern technology on job analysis methods? A) The Internet has enabled the Department of Labor to update data in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles to reflect trends in the high-tech industry. B) Extensive use of the Internet by HR managers enables more people to telecommute from locations far from corporate headquarters. C) Corporate use of the Internet and intranet has enabled HR managers to distribute and collect job analysis surveys to employees in multiple geographic locations. D) Worker functions have changed as a result of modern technology, so the DOL procedure for data collection has been modified and categories have been altered. E) The ability to falsify information on Internet surveys has led to an increase in interviews and observations by HR managers to collect accurate job analysis information. Answer: C

Explanation: The greatest impact of modern technology on job analysis methods has been the ability of HR mangers to use the Internet and intranet to distribute and collect job analysis data to geographically dispersed employees. Face-to-face interviews and observations are difficult and time consuming, especially for a global firm, so questionnaires distributed online are more frequently used. The DOL’s dictionary has been replaced by Internet-based tools, so Choice A is incorrect. Although falsifying information is always a problem with job analysis, it is too costly for HR
managers to perform more interviews or observations. Diff: 3Page Ref: 128

AACSB: Use of IT
Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Application
49) The most important consideration when developing an online job analysis is to ________. A) require employees to be monitored by supervisors
B) make questions and the process as clear as possible
C) provide monetary rewards for timely completion
D) limit the number of questions to less than twenty
E) ask open-ended questions to ensure honest responses
Answer: B
Explanation: Removing the ambiguity from both questions and the job analysis process will greatly improve the validity of online results. The purpose of collecting data online is to save time and money, so minimal intervention and guidance should be necessary. Although supervisors and employees are involved in the process, a supervisor does not necessarily need to monitor an employee. The number and type of questions is less important than the clarity of the questions. Diff: 3Page Ref: 129

AACSB: Use of IT
Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
50) Most job descriptions contain sections that cover all of the following EXCEPT ________. A) job summary
B) performance standards
C) working conditions
D) responsibilities
E) required overtime
Answer: E
Explanation: Most job descriptions contain sections that cover job identification, job summary, responsibilities and duties, authority of incumbent, performance standards, working conditions, and job
specifications. Although information regarding salary and/or pay scale may be included, it is less likely that the amount of overtime required in the position will be included. Diff: 2Page Ref: 130

Chapter: 4
Objective: 3
Skill: Concept
51) Which of the following is the primary source of information an employer uses to write a job specification? A) job summary
B) work functions
C) job description
D) performance standards
E) personnel replacement charts
Answer: C
Explanation: A job analysis is used to produce a job description, which is then used to write a job specification. A job summary is one of the elements typically found in a job description, but the entire job description serves as the source for a job specification. Personnel replacement charts indicate the performance and promotability of internal candidates for positions. Diff: 1Page Ref: 130

Chapter: 4
Objective: 3
Skill: Concept
52) What type of information is contained in the job identification section of a job description? A) job title
B) job summary
C) relationships statement
D) major functions or activities
E) standards of performance
Answer: A
Explanation: The job identification section of a job description includes the job title, FLSA status, and date. The job summary sections describe the major functions and activities of a job. The standards of performance is a separate section of a job description. Job descriptions that have
relationships statements showing the job-holder’s relationships with others inside and outside the organization will include such information in a section other than the job identification section. Diff: 1Page Ref: 130

Chapter: 4
Objective: 3
Skill: Concept
53) Which of the following is identified by the FLSA status section of a job description? A) whether the employer is a non-profit organization
B) whether a job is exempt or nonexempt
C) whether a job includes health benefits
D) whether the employer is a private or public firm
E) whether a job requires a college degree
Answer: B
Explanation: The FLSA status section identifies a job as exempt or nonexempt. According to the Fair Labor Standards Act, certain positions, mostly administrative and professional, are exempt from the act’s overtime and minimum wage provisions. Diff: 2Page Ref: 130-131

Chapter: 4
Objective: 3
Skill: Concept
54) The ________ classifies all workers into one of 23 major groups of jobs that are subdivided into minor groups of jobs and detailed occupations. A) Department of Labor Procedure
B) Position Analysis Questionnaire
C) Standard Occupational Classification
D) Federal Professions Classification System
E) Dictionary of Occupational Titles
Answer: C
Explanation: The Standard Occupational Classification classifies all workers into one of 23 major groups of jobs that are subdivided into minor groups of jobs and detailed occupations. The SOC replaced the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, which was used for many years as a source for standard job descriptions. Diff: 1Page Ref: 134

Chapter: 4
Objective: 3
Skill: Concept
55) According to the ________, an individual must have the requisite skills, educational background, and experience to perform a job’s essential functions. A) SOC
B) DOL
C) ADA
D) FCC
E) SIC
Answer: C
Explanation: The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) was enacted by Congress to reduce or eliminate discrimination against disabled individuals. According to the ADA, an individual must have the requisite skills, educational background, and experience to perform a job’s essential functions. Diff: 1Page Ref: 135

AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity
Chapter: 4
Objective: 3
Skill: Concept
56) An employer is required to make a “reasonable accommodation” for a disabled individual in which of the following situations? A) if a disabled person has the necessary skills, education, and experience to perform the job but is prevented by the job’s current structure B) when an employer fails to provide a job description for a position that a disabled person would most likely be able to perform C) if making changes would present the employer with an undue hardship D) each time that a disabled individual applies for a position E) if the job function is essential

Answer: A
Explanation: Employers are required to make a “reasonable accommodation” when a disabled person has the necessary skills, education, and experience to perform the job but is prevented from doing so by the job’s current
structure. Employers are not required to make reasonable accommodations if doing so would present an undue hardship on the employer. Employers are not required to have job descriptions, but they are advisable if a discrimination complaint ends up in court. Diff: 3Page Ref: 135

AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity
Chapter: 4
Objective: 3
Skill: Concept
57) According to the ADA, job duties that employees must be able to perform, with or without reasonable accommodation, are called ________. A) primary job activities
B) job requirements
C) essential job functions
D) work activities
E) job specifications
Answer: C
Explanation: According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), essential job functions are the job duties that employees must be able to perform, with or without reasonable accommodation. Most ADA legal actions center on the concept of whether a job function is essential or not. Diff: 1Page Ref: 135

Chapter: 4
Objective: 3
Skill: Concept
58) Which of the following Web sites was developed by the U.S. Department of Labor and serves as a source for managers who need to write job descriptions? A) bls.gov
B) opm.gov
C) usajobs.gov
D) onetcenter.org
E) job description.com
Answer: D
Explanation: O*NET is a Web tool that was developed by the U.S. Department of
Labor to allow managers, workers, and job seekers to see the essential characteristics of various occupations. Managers use the site to develop job descriptions. Jobdescription.com is also used by managers to develop job descriptions, but it is not sponsored by the DOL. Diff: 1Page Ref: 136

AACSB: Use of IT
Chapter: 4
Objective: 3
Skill: Concept
59) Janice, a department store manager, is in the process of writing job descriptions using O*NET. Janice has already reviewed the company’s business plan, so what should she do next? A) interview employees

B) compose a list of job duties
C) develop an organization chart
D) observe employees performing their duties
E) develop a list of human requirements for the job
Answer: C
Explanation: The first step in using O*NET is to review the firm’s business plan, which is followed by developing an organization chart that addresses both the current and future structure of the firm. After having employees complete brief questionnaires, obtaining a list of duties from O*NET, and listing the human requirements for the job, a manager is ready to finalize the job description. Diff: 3Page Ref: 136

AACSB: Use of IT
Chapter: 4
Objective: 3
Skill: Application
60) When a sales job is being filled by an untrained individual, the job specifications list will most likely include ________ as a way to predict which candidate will perform the job well. A) age and gender

B) length of previous service
C) past job performance
D) relevant certification
E) personality traits
Answer: E
Explanation: When filling jobs with untrained people that the employer intends to train, the employer will most likely specify qualities like physical traits, personality, interests, or sensory skills that imply some potential for performing or for being trained to do the job. Age and gender should not be elements of a job specification list. Certification, previous service, and past job performance are less likely to predict the success of a person’s job performance in an area for which they have never received training. Diff: 2Page Ref: 140

Chapter: 4
Objective: 4
Skill: Concept
61) According to research, each of the following work behaviors is considered important in all jobs EXCEPT ________. A) thoroughness
B) attendance
C) experience
D) schedule flexibility
E) industriousness
Answer: C
Explanation: According to research, industriousness, thoroughness, schedule flexibility, and attendance are job-related behaviors that are important to all jobs. Experience is not a behavior, and in many entry-level jobs, experience is not necessary. Diff: 2Page Ref: 140-141

Chapter: 4
Objective: 4
Skill: Concept
62) Job ________ means assigning workers additional same-level activities. A) shifting
B) enrichment
C) assignment
D) enlargement
E) rotation
Answer: D
Explanation: Job enlargement refers to assigning workers additional same-level activities. For example, a worker who previously only bolted the seat to the legs of a chair might attach the back as well. Job rotation refers to systematically moving workers from one job to another. Job enrichment refers to redesigning jobs to empower workers and allowing them opportunities to grow and be recognized. Diff: 1Page Ref: 142

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept
63) Which of the following terms refers to systematically moving workers from one job to another? A) Job rotation
B) Job enrichment
C) Job assignment
D) Job enlargement
E) Job adjustment
Answer: A
Explanation: Job rotation refers to systematically moving workers from one job to another. Job enrichment is considered the best way to motivate workers by redesigning jobs to increase worker opportunities. Job enlargement is the process of assigning workers additional same-level activities. Diff: 1Page Ref: 142

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept
64) Which of the following terms refers to redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition? A) Job rotation

B) Job enrichment
C) Job reengineering
D) Job enlargement
E) Job enhancement
Answer: B
Explanation: Job enrichment refers to redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition. Job enrichment is considered by some experts as the best way to motivate workers through worker empowerment. Job rotation refers to systematically moving workers from one job to another. Job enlargement is the process of assigning workers additional same-level activities. Diff: 1Page Ref: 142

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept
65) Who argued that the best way to motivate workers is to build opportunities for challenge and achievement into their jobs via job enrichment? A) Adam Smith
B) Frederick Taylor
C) Frederick Herzberg
D) Abraham Maslow
E) Milton Friedman
Answer: C
Explanation: Psychologist Frederick Herzberg argued that the best way to motivate workers is to build opportunities for challenge and achievement into their jobs via job enrichment. Herzberg said that empowered employees would do their jobs well because they wanted to, so quality and productivity would rise. Smith believed that specialized jobs improved efficiency. Diff: 2Page Ref: 142

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept
66) Jack is an employee at a Best Western Hotel. Some weeks he works with the catering group, and other weeks he assists the reservations clerk or the parking attendant. This is an example of ________. A) job enlargement

B) job rotation
C) job enrichment
D) dejobbing
E) job specialization
Answer: B
Explanation: Job rotation refers to systematically moving workers from one job to another, so when Jack moves from department to department he is participating in job rotation. Job enlargement would occur if Jack was given additional same-level activities, such as washing both sheets and towels as part of his housekeeping duties. Job enrichment occurs when a worker’s opportunities are increased to enhance feelings of responsibility and recognition. Diff: 1Page Ref: 142

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Application
67) The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in performance is called ________. A) job redesign
B) reengineering
C) process engineering
D) job enlargement
E) outsourcing
Answer: B
Explanation: Reengineering, or business process reengineering, refers to redesigning a business process so that small multidisciplinary self-managing teams complete a task together. This differs from the typical business process which is similar to a relay race where one person completes a step and then passes the task to another person. Diff: 1Page Ref: 142

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept
68) Which of the following describes a job in terms of measurable and observable behaviors that an employee doing the job must exhibit to do the
job well? A) competency-based job analysis
B) Department of Labor procedure
C) functional job analysis
D) Standard Occupational Classification system
E) high-performance work matrix
Answer: A
Explanation: A competency-based job analysis refers to describing a job in terms of measurable, observable, behavioral competencies that an employee doing the job must exhibit to do the job well. This method contrasts with traditional job analysis that describes jobs in terms of job duties and responsibilities. Competency-based analysis is worker-focused. Diff: 1Page Ref: 143

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept
69) Which of the following questions will most likely be addressed by a manager who is writing a job description based on a competency-based job analysis? A) What are the typical duties associated with this job?

B) What are the working conditions and safety issues related to this job? C) What opportunities for advancement are available to an employee in this job? D) What should the employee be able to do in order to competently perform this job? E) What machines or equipment is the job holder responsible for operating on a daily basis? Answer: D

Explanation: The focus of a competency-based job analysis is the skills of the worker rather than the duties , equipment, or working conditions of the job. Traditional job-analysis is more job-focused while competency-based analysis is more worker-focused. Diff: 3Page Ref: 144

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Application
70) Which of the following best supports the argument that jobs should be described in terms of competencies rather than duties? A) New employees in high-performance work systems receive extensive job skills training for their specific positions. B) Managers in global firms are empowered to implement job rotation, job enlargement, and job enrichment in order to maximize productivity. C) In high-performance work systems, employees serve as team members rotating among various jobs. D) Globalization and telecommuting require workers to be able to self-manage and perform duties without close supervision. E) Firms in the high-tech industry require workers who are industrious, flexible, experienced, and ambitious. Answer: C

Explanation: Competency-based job descriptions are more appropriate than traditional job descriptions when high-performance work systems are the goal. In a HPWS, workers are encouraged to serve as team members and to rotate freely among jobs, so competencies should be the focus rather than a list of specific job duties which might hinder employee flexibility. Diff: 3Page Ref: 144

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Critical Thinking
71) Job analysis produces information used for writing job descriptions and job specifications. Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Job analysis is the procedure used to determine the duties of specific jobs and the human characteristics needed for those jobs. Information gathered from a job analysis produces the material necessary to write job descriptions and job specifications. Diff: 1Page Ref: 116

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept

72) The information gathered during a job analysis is primarily used to ensure that firms are in compliance with the EEO, OSHA, and all state
governments. Answer: FALSE
Explanation: The primary use for information gathered in a job analysis is writing job descriptions and job specifications. Although job analysis is required for EEO compliance, job analysis is not required by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or all state governments. Diff: 1Page Ref: 116-117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept

73) Organization charts show the division of work throughout the organization, how a job relates to others, and where a job fits in the organization. Answer: TRUE
Explanation: An organization chart shows the organization-wide distribution of work, with titles of each position and interconnecting lines that show who reports to and communicates with whom. During the job analysis process, it is important for a manager to review organization charts to gather background information about a job. Diff: 1Page Ref: 117

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept

74) A process chart provides relevant background information during the job analysis process by indicating job titles and lines of communication. Answer: FALSE
Explanation: An organization chart indicates job titles and lines of communication, while a process chart provides a detailed picture of the work flow. A process chart shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from a job being analyzed. Diff: 2Page Ref: 118

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept
75) Conducting the job analysis is the sole responsibility of the HR specialist. Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Job analysis should be a joint effort by a human resources specialist, the worker, and the worker’s supervisor. The HR manager may observe the worker and then have the supervisor and worker fill out questionnaires. Diff: 2Page Ref: 119

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1
Skill: Concept

76) Informal interviews provide quantitative job analysis information, which is why they are frequently used by managers who need to determine the relative worth of a job for pay purposes. Answer: FALSE

Explanation: Informal interviews with open ended questions provide qualitative rather than quantitative information for a job analysis. Position analysis questionnaires are best for quantifying a job’s worth for pay purposes. The two methods are often used together to gather a well-rounded amount of information about a job. Diff: 2Page Ref: 119

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept

77) The immediate supervisor of a group of workers being interviewed for job analysis purposes is not allowed to attend the session due to concerns about workers failing to provide honest responses to questions. Answer: FALSE

Explanation: As a rule, the immediate supervisor of a group of workers should attend an interview session for job analysis purposes. If the supervisor is unable to attend, then he or she must be interviewed separately so that the interviewer can gather that person’s perspective on the job’s duties and responsibilities. Diff: 2Page Ref: 120

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept

78) Studies suggest that employees are more likely to describe their job duties in the form of simple task statements instead of as ability statements during job analysis interviews. Answer: FALSE

Explanation: During job analysis interviews, employees are more likely to describe their job duties in the form of ability-based statements, such as “ability to record phone messages” rather than as simple task statements like “record phone messages.” The most likely reason is that employees exaggerate their duties and responsibilities during interviews especially if they believe the interview is for the purpose of a compensation change. Diff: 2Page Ref: 120-121

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
79) Questionnaires developed for the purpose of job analysis are always structured in the form of checklists so that the information can easily be entered into a database. Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Questionnaires range from being highly structured to open-ended, and most fall between the two extremes. Most questionnaires include several open-ended questions as well as structured questions. Diff: 2Page Ref: 123

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept

80) Observation as a job analysis data collection method is most appropriate for jobs that involve physical activities. Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Observation is an appropriate method for collecting job analysis information when a job involves physical rather than mental
activities. Jobs like assembly-line worker, mechanic, and accounting clerk can be directly observed by an HR manager. Lawyers and design engineers spend more time with mental activities, so it would be less appropriate to use observation in these types of positions. Diff: 1Page Ref: 123

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept

81) Some employers collecting job analysis information provide employees with pocket dictating machines and pagers to record activities at random times of the work day. Answer: TRUE
Explanation: In the past, diary/logs required employees to write down their activities at the end of the day, which was problematic due to forgetfulness. However, pagers can now be used to remind employees to speak into their pocket dictating machines about the work activities in which they are currently involved. Diff: 1Page Ref: 126

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept

82) Quantitative approaches for collecting job analysis data are more appropriate than qualitative approaches when a manager seeks to compare jobs for pay purposes. Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Qualitative methods like interviews and questionnaires are not suitable when a manager needs to compare jobs for pay purposes. Quantitative ratings as generated by the position analysis questionnaire and the Department of Labor approach are the best tools to use when assessing the monetary value of a job. Diff: 2Page Ref: 126

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
83) No significant differences exist between the functional job analysis
method and the Department of Labor method. Answer: FALSE
Explanation: The functional job analysis is similar to the DOL method, which rates jobs based on data, people, and things. However, the functional job analysis also assesses the extent to which performing the job requires four additional skills–specific instructions, reasoning and judgment, mathematical ability, and verbal and language facilities. Diff: 2Page Ref: 128

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept
84) A standard format for writing a job description does not exist. Answer: TRUE
Explanation: There is no standard format for writing a job description, although most cover similar information. The way in which information is presented varies, but job descriptions typically include the following sections: job identification, job summary, responsibilities and duties, authority of incumbent, standards of performance, working conditions, and job specifications. Diff: 2Page Ref: 130

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept

85) The FLSA status section of a job description permits quick identification of a job as exempt or nonexempt from overtime and minimum wage provisions. Answer: TRUE
Explanation: The FLSA status of a job description is usually included in the job identification section. According to the Fair Labor Standards Act, certain positions, primarily administrative and professional, are exempt from the act’s overtime and minimum wage provisions. Diff: 2Page Ref: 130-131

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Concept

86) Experts advise the inclusion of statements such as “performs other assignments as required” in all job descriptions to ensure the flexibility of the job’s duties and responsibilities. Answer: FALSE

Explanation: Although it is common to include such statement as “other duties, as assigned,” many experts think such ambiguous phrases leave open the nature of the job and the people needed to staff it. Despite the inclusion of such statements, it is advised that they be avoided. Diff: 2Page Ref: 133

Chapter: 4
Objective: 3
Skill: Concept
87) The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires that organizations have job descriptions that list the essential functions of all jobs. Answer: FALSE
Explanation: The ADA does not require job descriptions, but they are advisable in case a discrimination complaint ends up in court. Most ADA legal actions revolve around the questions, “What are the essential functions of the job?” Diff: 2Page Ref: 135

Chapter: 4
Objective: 3
Skill: Concept

88) O*NET has become an increasingly popular Web tool for creating and distributing position analysis questionnaires to employees who are located throughout the world. Answer: FALSE
Explanation: O*NET is a popular Web tool for writing job descriptions, not for creating and distributing PAQs to global employees. O*NET was developed by the U.S. Department of Labor, and it allows users to see the most important characteristics of various occupations. O*NET provides a streamlined approach for managers who need to write job descriptions. Diff:
2Page Ref: 136

AACSB: Use of IT
Chapter: 4
Objective: 3
Skill: Concept

89) The statistical analysis method for developing job specifications is more defensible than the judgmental approach because equal rights legislation forbids using traits that a firm cannot prove distinguish between high and low job performers. Answer: TRUE

Explanation: Using a statistical analysis method for developing job specifications is more defensible than using educated guesses. Equal rights legislation forbids using traits that a firm cannot prove distinguish between high and low job performers. For example, hiring standards that discriminate based on sex, race, religion, national origin, or age may have to be shown to predict job performance. Diff: 2Page Ref: 141

Chapter: 4
Objective: 4
Skill: Concept

90) Job enlargement refers to redesigning jobs in a way that increases responsibility and achievement. Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Job enlargement refers to assigning workers additional same-level activities. For example, a worker who previously only bolted the seat to the legs of a chair might attach the back as well. Job enrichment refers to redesigning jobs to increase responsibility and achievement. Diff: 1Page Ref: 142

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept
91) Job analysis plays a significant role at the Daimler plant in Alabama
where employees are organized into work teams and job descriptions are written in broad terms. Answer: FALSE
Explanation: Job analysis plays a reduced role at the Daimler plan because employees are organized into work teams and encouraged to dedicate themselves to continuous improvement. There are few job descriptions, and the ones that exist are fairly broad. With detailed descriptions, it’s easier for employees to move from job to job within their teams. Diff: 2Page Ref: 142

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Application

92) In reengineered business processes, workers tend to become collectively responsible for overall results rather than individually responsible for just their own tasks. Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Business process reengineering involves redesigning a business process so that small multidisciplinary, self-managing teams get a task done together, all at once. Such a system leads to workers becoming collectively responsible for overall results rather than merely focused on their individual tasks. Diff: 2Page Ref: 142

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept

93) Many job analysts and employers assert that in today’s work environment, job descriptions based on lists of job-specific duties inhibit the worker flexibility that companies need. Answer: TRUE

Explanation: The specific duties associated with jobs in today’s work environment change on a daily basis, so employers and job analysts think that compiling a list of job duties is counterproductive. As a result, more firms are creating job descriptions based on employee competencies rather than lists of specific job duties. Diff: 2Page Ref: 142-143

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept

94) Competencies are observable and measurable behaviors, and organizations are required to define competencies based on quantifiable standards developed by the Department of Labor. Answer: FALSE

Explanation: Although competencies are observable and measurable behaviors, organizations are not required to use any specific competencies. O*NET, the DOL Web site, lists various skills associated with different jobs, and the site is a source for competency-based job analysis. Diff: 2Page Ref: 143

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept
95) Functional-based job analysis means describing the job in terms of the measurable, observable, behavioral competencies that an employee doing that job must exhibit to do the job well. Answer: FALSE

Explanation: Competency-based job analysis means describing the job in terms of the measurable, observable, behavioral competencies that an employee doing that job must exhibit to do the job well. This method contrasts with describing jobs in terms of job duties and responsibilities. Diff: 1Page Ref: 143

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept

96) Competency-based job analysis is more worker-focused than traditional job analysis. Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Competency-based analysis focuses on the behaviors of the worker, while traditional job analysis focuses on the duties of the job.
With competency-based analysis, a firm asks, “What must these employees be competent to do in order to perform this multi-skilled job?” Diff: 1Page Ref: 143

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept

97) Competency-based job analysis focuses on the knowledge, skills, and behavior of a worker rather than the tasks associated with a particular job. Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Competency-based job analysis focuses on the knowledge, skills, and behaviors of workers rather than the duties of a specific job. Workers need to be flexible in modern work environments, so employers are focusing more on competencies and less on tasks. Diff: 1Page Ref: 143

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept

98) Typical categories used in competency-based job analysis include general competencies, leadership competencies, and technical competencies. Answer: TRUE
Explanation: Although competencies are determined by individual organizations, general, leadership, and technical competencies are common categories. General competencies include reading, writing, and mathematical reasoning. Leadership competencies include strategic thinking and teaching others. Technical competencies include more job specific skills like programming in xtml or writing advertising copy. Diff: 1Page Ref: 143

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept
99) British Petroleum implemented a competency-based skills matrix for its employees. As a result, employee training, appraisals, and rewards relate to
the skills and competencies a worker needs to accomplish the goals of the firm. Answer: TRUE

Explanation: BP shifted from job-duty based job descriptions to a skills matrix based on competencies. The focus for BP is developing the skills employees need for their broader and more empowered responsibilities. Salary, training, and bonuses are based on worker competencies. Diff: 2Page Ref: 144

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Concept

100) ABC Widgets, Inc. wants to develop a high-performance work system, so its HR department should develop traditional job descriptions rather than competency-based job descriptions. Answer: FALSE

Explanation: With high-performance work systems, the goal is to encourage employees to work in a self-motivated manner, which is why competency-based job descriptions are the most appropriate. Traditional job descriptions focus more on individual tasks than team playing, so ABC needs to develop competency-based job descriptions instead. Diff: 2Page Ref: 144

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Application

101) How does job analysis support human resource management activities? Briefly describe one of the methods commonly used for gathering job analysis data. Answer: Job analysis provides information for recruitment and selection by laying out what the job entails and what human characteristics are required to perform these activities. This information helps management decide what sort of people to recruit and hire. Job analysis information is also crucial for estimating the value of each job and its appropriate
compensation. A performance appraisal compares each employee’s actual performance with his or her performance standards. Managers use job analysis to determine the job’s specific activities and performance standards.

Job analysis interviews are one of the most commonly used methods for gathering job analysis data. They range from completely unstructured interviews to highly structured ones containing hundreds of specific items to check off. Managers may conduct individual interviews with each employee, group interviews with groups of employees who have the same job, and/or supervisor interviews with one or more supervisors who know the job. Diff: 2Page Ref: 116-117, 119-120

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Chapter: 4
Objective: 1, 2
Skill: Synthesis
102) What are the steps involved in the job analysis process? Briefly discuss the methods available for collecting job analysis information. Answer: There are six steps in doing a job analysis. Step 1 is to decide how one will use the information. Step 2 is to review relevant background information such as organization charts, process charts, and job descriptions. Step 3 is to select representative positions. Step 4 is to analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job. Step 5 is to verify the job analysis information with the worker performing the job and with his or her immediate supervisor. Step 6 is to develop a job description and job specification.

There are various ways (interviews, or questionnaires, for instance) to collect information on a job’s duties, responsibilities, and activities. In practice, you could use any one of them, or combine several. The basic rule is to use those that best fit your purpose. Thus, an interview might be best for creating a list of job duties and job description. The more quantitative position analysis questionnaire may be best for quantifying each job’s relative worth for pay purposes. Interviews, questionnaires, observations,
and diary/logs are the most popular methods for gathering job analysis data. They all provide realistic information about what job incumbents actually do. Diff: 2Page Ref: 117-119

Chapter: 4
Objective: 1, 2
Skill: Synthesis

103) What time-saving options are available to a busy manager who needs to conduct a job analysis and write job descriptions? Explain your answer in a brief essay. Answer: Job analysis can be a time-consuming process. It might take a few days to interview five or six employees and their managers, and to explain to them the process and the reason for the analysis. The department manager wouldn’t have the time for that. An abbreviated but still useful process would take just several hours. The steps might include: 1. Greet participants. 2. Briefly explain the job analysis process and the participants’ roles in this process. 3. Spend about 15 minutes interviewing the employees to get agreement on a basic summary of the job. 4. Identify the job’s broad areas of responsibility, such as “accounting” and “supervisory.”

Busy managers often turn to the Internet for help writing job descriptions because the process can save a great amount of time. Sites like O*NET and www.jobdescription.com provide managers with important characteristics of various occupations, as well as the experience, education, and knowledge needed to do each job well. Diff: 3Page Ref: 118, 136

AACSB: Reflective Thinking
Chapter: 4
Objective: 1, 3
Skill: Synthesis
104) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using interviews to collect job analysis data? Answer: Interviews are a relatively simple and quick way to collect data. Skilled interviewers can gather information that might otherwise go undiscovered. Some activities might occur only occasionally or
be more informal in nature. Interviews can discover these types of activities. The interview also offers an opportunity to explain the need for a job analysis. The biggest drawback is the chance for information to be distorted either to outright falsification or honest misunderstanding. Diff: 3Page Ref: 120

Chapter: 4
Objective: 2
Skill: Application

105) How has the Internet changed job analysis methods? How has the Internet improved the ability of managers to write job descriptions? Answer: Methods such as questionnaires and interviews present some drawbacks. For example, face-to-face interviews and observations can be time-consuming. And collecting the information from geographically dispersed employees can be challenging. Conducting the job analysis via the Internet is an obvious solution. Therefore, “[t]he use of online methodologies for surveys, including job analysis surveys, has increased dramatically in recent years, and most companies choose to use the Internet or intranet to collect this type of data.” Most simply, the human resource department can distribute standardized job analysis questionnaires to geographically disbursed employees via their company intranets, with instructions to complete the forms and return them by a particular date. Of course, the instructions should be clear, and it’s best to test the process first.

Most employers probably still write their own job descriptions, but more are turning to the Internet. One site, www.jobdescription.com, illustrates why. The process is simple. Search by alphabetical title, keyword, category, or industry to find the desired job title. This leads you to a generic job description for that title—say, “Computers & EDP systems sales representative.” You can then use the wizard to customize the generic description for his position. O*Net The U.S. Department of Labor’s occupational information network, called O*NET, is an increasingly popular Web tool. It allows users (not just managers, but workers and job seekers) to see the most important characteristics of various occupations, as well as
the experience, education, and knowledge required to do each job well. Diff: 3Page Ref: 128-129; 136

AACSB: Use of IT
Chapter: 4
Objective: 2, 3
Skill: Synthesis
106) In a brief essay, compare and contrast job descriptions and job specifications. Answer: The primary function of a job analysis is to develop job specifications and job descriptions. A job description is a written statement of what the worker actually does, how he or she does it, and what the job’s working conditions are. You use this information to write a job specification; this lists the knowledge, abilities, and skills required to perform the job satisfactorily. There is no standard format for writing a job description. However, most descriptions contain sections that cover: 1. Job identification

2. Job summary
3. Responsibilities and duties
4. Authority of incumbent
5. Standards of performance
6. Working conditions
7. Job specifications

The job specification takes the job description and answers the question, “What human traits and experience are required to do this job effectively?” It shows what kind of person to recruit and for what qualities you should test that person. The job specification may be a section of the job description, or a separate document. Diff: 2Page Ref: 130, 139

Chapter: 4
Objective: 3, 4
Skill: Synthesis

107) How does the ADA affect hiring practices? How does an HR manager
determine whether or not a job description complies with the ADA? Answer: Congress enacted the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to reduce or eliminate serious problems of discrimination against disabled individuals. Under the ADA, the individual must have the requisite skills, educational background, and experience to perform the job’s essential functions. A job function is essential when it is the reason the position exists or when the function is so specialized that the firm hired the person doing the job for his or her expertise or ability to perform that particular function. If the disabled individual can’t perform the job as currently structured, the employer is required to make a “reasonable accommodation,” unless doing so would present an “undue hardship.” The ADA does not require job descriptions, but it’s probably advisable to have them. Virtually all ADA legal actions will revolve around the question, “What are the essential functions of the job?” Without a job description that lists such functions, it will be hard to convince a court that the functions are essential to the job. Diff: 2Page Ref: 135

AACSB: Multicultural and Diversity
Chapter: 4
Objective: 3
Skill: Application
108) A human resource manager needs to develop job specifications for a new position at her firm. She can either base the job specifications on statistical analysis or on common sense. Briefly describe each method, and recommend which method the HR manager should use. Answer: Most job specifications come from the educated guesses of people like supervisors and human resource managers. The basic procedure here is to ask, “What does it take in terms of education, intelligence, training, and the like to do this job well?” There are several ways to get these “educated guesses.” You could simply review the job’s duties, and deduce from those what human traits and skills the job requires. You can also choose them from the competencies listed in Web-based job descriptions. In any case, use common sense when compiling your list. Don’t ignore the behaviors that may apply to almost any job but that might not normally surface through a job analysis. Industriousness is an example. Who wants an employee who doesn’t work hard?

The other option is to base job specifications on statistical analysis, which is more defensible but also more difficult. The aim here is to determine statistically the relationship between (1) some predictor (human trait, such as height, intelligence, or finger dexterity), and (2) some indicator or criterion of job effectiveness, such as performance as rated by the supervisor. The procedure has five steps: (1) analyze the job and decide how to measure job performance; (2) select personal traits like finger dexterity that you believe should predict successful performance; (3) test candidates for these traits; (4) measure these candidates’ subsequent job performance; and (5) statistically analyze the relationship between the human trait (finger dexterity) and job performance. Your objective is to determine whether the former predicts the latter. This method is more defensible than the judgmental approach because equal rights legislation forbids using traits that you can’t prove distinguish between high and low job performers. Diff: 3Page Ref: 140-141

AACSB: Analytic Skills
Chapter: 4
Objective: 4
Skill: Critical Thinking

109) What is the difference between job enlargement, job rotation, and job enrichment? Answer: Job enlargement means assigning workers additional same-level activities. Thus, the worker who previously only bolted the seat to the legs might attach the back as well. Job rotation means systematically moving workers from one job to another. Psychologist Frederick Herzberg argued that the best way to motivate workers is through job enrichment. Job enrichment means redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and recognition. It does this by empowering the worker—for instance, by giving the worker the skills and authority to inspect the work, instead of having supervisors do that. Herzberg said empowered employees would do their jobs well because they wanted to, and quality and productivity would rise. Diff: 2Page Ref: 142

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Application
110) What is a competency-based job analysis? Why should firms consider describing jobs in terms of competencies instead of duties? Answer: Job competencies are always observable and measurable behaviors. To determine what a job’s required competencies are, you should ask, “In order to perform this job competently, what should the employee be able to do?” We can say that competency-based job analysis means describing the job in terms of measurable, observable, behavioral competencies (knowledge, skills, and/or behaviors) that an employee doing that job must exhibit to do the job well. This contrasts with describing jobs in terms of job duties and responsibilities. Traditional job analysis is more job-focused (what are this job’s duties?). Competency-based analysis is more worker-focused: Here you ask, “What must these employees be competent to do in order to perform this multi-skilled job?”

There are two reasons to consider describing jobs in terms of competencies rather than (or in addition to) duties. First, traditional job descriptions may actually backfire if a high-performance work system is your goal. Here the whole thrust is to encourage employees to work in a self-motivated way. Employers do this by empowering employees, organizing the work around teams, encouraging team members to rotate freely among jobs, and pushing more responsibility for things like day-to-day supervision down to the workers. Employees must be enthusiastic about learning and moving among jobs. Giving someone a job description with a list of specific duties may simply breed a “that’s-not-my-job” attitude. The important thing is to ensure that each worker has the skills he or she needs to move among the jobs. Second, describing jobs in terms of skills can help the company support its strategic aims. As an example, Canon’s competitive strategy emphasizes miniaturization and precision manufacturing. Encouraging employees to develop their skills in these two areas helps ensure Canon has the skills it needs to execute its strategy. Diff: 3Page Ref: 143-145

Chapter: 4
Objective: 5
Skill: Critical Thinking

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Human Resource Management, 12e (Dessler) Chapter 4 Job Analysis. (2020, Jun 02). Retrieved from http://studymoose.com/human-resource-management-12e-dessler-chapter-4-job-analysis-new-essay

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