Human Population Essay
Census Bureau of the United States has estimated that the current world human population is about 6,818,500,000 people. In 2009 the United Nation estimated the world human population to be around 6,800,000,000. This is an indicator that the human population is growing at a very alarming rate with an annual birth rate of approximately 134 million per year against 57 million deaths (Freeman. 1974). The alarming increment in the number of human on earth has raised queries as to whether the planet earth is becoming over populated.
The human population is experiencing scarcity of resources due to the overpopulation. In order to them to counter this problem they have come up with ways that have in turn threatened the ecosystem. For instance there planet earth is warming up, the air is being populated, and the levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide have risen (Freeman. 1974). It is estimated America enjoyed a low population of less than 100 million in the years 1950s. During this period there was a series of epidemics that were believed to have been introduced by their encounter with the explorers from Europe leading high death rates.
Evidences provided by archaeologists indicated that most deaths of the current world were cause by diseases by the old world such as influenza, smallpox, and measles. However, with time the natives developed immunity towards these diseases (Collinson. 2002). The life expectancy for children increased tremendously in the 18th Century and so did the human population due to introduction of vaccines, effective medication, and improved sanitation. As a result the United Kingdom alone is said to have doubled in every 50 years population. India’s population has since grown from 125 million in 1750s to 1. billion.
The 20th Century recorded the highest increment in human population worldwide. This is also attributed to increased agricultural produce and improved medical knowhow (Collinson. 2002). Researchers have indicated that the rate of population growth has decreased except in the Middle East, Latin America and Sub-Saharan. However some countries such as Eastern and Central Europe and experiencing negative factors as a result of decrease in population. Japan and Western Europe are said to fact similar threats in the near future as a result of change in fertility pattern.
A study done by the United Nation in 2006 showed that the drop in population growth was as a result of demographic transition. The report also indicated that should this pattern of growth remain unchanged, there might be zero rate of growth by the year 2050. Research indicates that Asia has the largest number of people of approximately 3. 8 billion, which is 60% of the world human population, while Africa has 12% (Zuckerman. 1996). Prediction The rapid increases in human population lead Thomas Malthus to predict in 1798 that the world would run short of food supply by the mid 19th Century. Paul R. Ehrilich, in 1968 predicted that famine would occur in 1970s and 1980s.
However various economists challenged them as various measures had been put in place to counter the foreseen problem. For instance, the massive awareness of green revolution lead to increase in food production whose increment has been concurrent with the rapid growth of the population. Analysts have however warned that despite the increase in food production, the prices are sky rocketing making its accessibility to those who have the means, and thus a larger number of human population experiencing malnutrition (Collinson. 002). Green Revolution The introduction of Green Revolution lead a 250% increase in food production for the year 1950 to 1984. However, the green revolution being supported by fuel irrigation among other things such as pesticides and fertilizers lead to acute prices of food. Therefore, despite the discovery saving the continent from dire famine, it has not entirely addressed the accessibility of food by the poor. United Nation reported that as at 2005 approximately 850 million people were facing malnutrition due to lack of purchasing power of food.
The high production of oil is an indicator that oil is crucial for daily survival. Farming is now mechanized where by bio-fuel is required which has had an effect on the prices of the farm produce (Freeman. 1974). Overpopulation Overpopulation is said to be a serious threat for the next generation. Generally is a state whereby there are more humans on earth than the earth can handle; in terms of provision of enough resources that would make them live happily and live it a fit place for the next generation users. However some countries provide incentives for people to increase their birth rate.
This is said to have an impact of the growth of the economy and military security. Other critics have challenged such countries saying that the world is overpopulated and that failure to control birth rate is in fact increasing death rate by default. On one hand, some politicians call for countries, especially MDCs to increase their population size to maintain their economic growth and military security. On the other hand, critics denote that one out of five people living here today is not properly supported and believe that the world is already limited in resources (Freeman. 974). Causes of Rapid Human Population Growth The world has seen a rapid increase in human population due to low death rate and increased birth rates. Above all the high skilled science and technological advancement have contributed in reduction of death rates. These innovations lead to increment in production and supply of food, the public health sector has been able to provide clean water and sanitation as well as introduction of effective antibiotics and vaccines which have contributed to prolonging human lives. In the past developing countries way of life was wanting.
However, there has been the processes of education and global interactions that has lead to enhancement in their standards of living, and thus longitivity of lives. These innovations have seen discovery of treatment for diseases that once killed so many people such as measles, malaria, and flu (Zuckerman. 1996). Food Production and Distribution There also has been innovation in the agricultural sector, the biggest break through being genetically modified food as well as irrigation. For instance in the United states there was an increase in production from 631 million tones to 1. 65 billion tones between the years 1950 and 1984.
This is an indicator that the amount of food produce increased tremendously that can cater for increasing human population (Hutchinson. 2008). These technologies has also allowed new breed of seeds, fertilizers and modern machinery which in turn has lead to expansion of agricultural sectors across the globe. Studies indicate the production of food has increased by 24% in the last 10 years. However, these expansion in food produce has not been witness evenly particularly in African Countries. Researchers have also confirmed that there is no food shortage in the world, but equitable distribution should be considered.
There are very many people particularly in African countries that do not have sufficient cash to buy food (Collinson. 2002). Public Health Survival of daily living is depended on basic needs such as safety shelter, food, and clean water. Initially inaccessibility of clean water would contribute to wiping out children from cholera. Studies indicate that in the year 1990, less than 50% of the human populations were capable of getting access to safe drinking water, however there has been in increase of accessibility of clean water to 75% afterwards.
It was forecast that the accessibility to clean and safe drinking water was to increase by 14% in the year 2000 throughout the world (Hutchinson. 2008). Housing Due to the rapid increase in human population, there has been the need to expand on housing. This has therefore resulted in evolution of urban centers which are highly populated. Due to high demand in housing, accommodation has become very expensive. As a result there has emerged high class, middle class, and low class societies.
The poor are forced to live in slums, whereby women and children are exposed to threats such as rape and exploitation. There have been strategies by various governments throughout the world to eradicate poverty in vain. Cheap housing schemes have been designed by some governments; unfortunately the number of the poor is appalling (Collinson. 2002). Consequences Studies have confirmed that the poorest countries have the largest number of human population. Research has also confirmed that there is a correlation between poverty and fertility as well as high child hood mortality rate.
Therefore the people who enjoy high standards of living have low fertility rates, these people also have a longer life span as opposed to the poor as well as lower infant mortality rate. In a nutshell poverty and overpopulation are associates of increase of death and diseases. This is because lack of adequate sanitary housing and clean drinking water lead to health issues (Freeman. 1974). Developing countries have the highest number of human population as opposed to the developed countries. For instance one in every five persons in the Soviet countries live below the poverty line, as opposed to one of every eight person in America.
Poverty is said to have been caused by the acute increase in population after the end of the 2nd World War. Poverty has the lead to death of mankind. Instead of allowing poverty to persist, it is important to limit our number be-cause in dense populations too many lack adequate food, water, shelter, education and employment. High fertility, which has been traditionally associated with prosperity, prestige, and security for the future, now jeopardizes chances for many to achieve health and security (Hutchinson. 008). Many governmental and non governmental organizations have been set up to ensure that the projected population in the coming years will be concurrent with production of food, water, heath care, technology, and education. For instance the development countries have put in efforts to ensure that both the social and economic conditions are at par. Programmes such as World Food Programme have been designed to ensure equitable distribution of food especially in developing countries.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 23 September 2016
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