The journal I had chosen is “Minding the gap , identifying performances issues using the Human Performances Technology model (HPT) . ” The purpose of this journal is to main a useful model for identifying and addressing employee performance issues in academic libraries , specifically in a Learning Commons . As we know , assessing and improving employee performance , especially library services are always challenging . However , HPT provides methods for evaluating human performances , such as the performance of employees at a service point , and , and provides method in fixing problems that are identified .
Most of the time , training is always assumed solution for many performances issues , but HPT suggests that the training is not always the answer and provides a variety of the other solutions referred to intervention . The HPT model created by the International Society for Performance Improvement (ISPI , 2010 a ) was used to evaluate employee performance at the service point in a newly created Learning Commons . Various interventions are also discussed the address performances issues in libraries.
The HPT model may help librarians create measurable performance indicators which can be used to set standard of performances for employees. This model is useful for a combination of student workers, paraprofessionals and librarians. The HPT model comes from field of HPT , which is the combination of education , psychology and business . So , HPT is the process of identifying and analyzing the gap between current performances ( where one is ) and ideal performance ( where one wants to be ) using various tools such as models .
Closing the gap can be done through a recommend solution called an intervention.
“Intervention” in HPT refers to a course of action taken to improve performance . Each stage of the HPT process helps one understand the behaviors of people in an organization and of the organization as a whole . HPT aims to analyze observable behaviour both individually and collectively. HPT ensures a through of a variety of areas within an organization in order to understand the performance gap. An analysis of values, norms, culture, structure, performance, and environment is recommended .
Through an organization analysis , environmental analysis , gap analysis , can cause those who using HPT analysis determine the performance problem or opportunity . Without careful analysis , inappropriate intervention could be implemented . Intervention should be long term , evolutionary and progressive. Learning Commons in Randall Library at the University of North Carolina Wilmington (UNCW ) was using HPT model to evaluate employee performance. The Learning Commons provides a variety of hardware and software, a centralized service point is included in the middle of the Learning Commons.
This service point staffed by librarians who are full time faculty members at UNCW and university’s Technology Assistance Center (TAC) student assistant who are hired to work part time at multiple service points , including the Learning Commons service point , in Randall Library . The primary user group of the Learning Commons is UNCW students . The learning Commons applied HPT after three months opens . The performances issues identified after three months after opening .
While some performance issues may ‘work themselves out ‘ overtime , if using the HPT model early in the operation can identify the problems immediately and prevents the problems . Application of the model can helps to identify the root of the causes and helps pinpoint appropriate solution for those issues. An assumption that training is always the appropriate solution for all performances problems can be corrected using HPT . As noted in the HPT model , there are several phases of analysis which are performance analysis , organizational analysis , environmental analysis , gap analysis and cause analysis .
A “cause analysis” follows the performance analysis helps to identify a “lack of environmental support” or a “lack of repertory behaviour”. “Intervention selection ,design , and development” follow all analysis phases . That is because after identify all the gaps or problems , then only can select the appropriate intervention to fix the problem . Main Body and Discussion Human Performance Technology (HPT ) is a systematic approach to improving productivity and competence , it is a strategy for solving problems and for realizing opportunities related to the performance of people .
It uses a wide range of intervention to improve individual and organizational performance . There are three fundamental processes to go through . There are performance analysis ,cause analysis and intervention selection . It can be applied to individuals , small groups ,and large organizations . Without identified the causes of the issues , the appropriate intervention impossible to created . Learning Commons in Randall Library at the University of North Carolina Wilmington (UNCW) was using HPT model to evaluate employee performance at the service point . First stage of the HPT model calls performance analysis .
The “performance analysis” is to determine if a performance problem exists . A performance analysis includes an organizational analysis , an environmental analysis ,and a gap analysis . The first step in the performance analysis , the organizational analysis , calls for an examination of an organization ‘s vision , mission , values ,goals and strategies . It is important to define the boundaries of the organization before performing this phase in the model . It is useful to examine all departments or offices that closely related to the specific area under examination.
The next component of HPT model is environmental analysis . The environmental analysis examines four important factors which are organizational environment, work environment, work, and the worker. In the HPT model, the “Work Environment” refers to the “resources, tools, human resources, and policies” of an organization, or in this case, of the Learning Commons. “Work” is described as “work flow, procedure, responsibilities, and ergonomics”. “Worker” refers to the “knowledge , skill , motivation , expectation and capacity” of an individual .
The “Gap analysis” requires an examination of the actual performance versus the optimal , or desired performance . The information collected through the organizational and environmental analysis . The HPT model shows that the gap falls between the “Desired workforce performance” and the “Actual state of workforce performance”. It is important to identify the gaps , then analyze the causes of those gap happens. In Learning Commons , there has a temporary service desk was constructed , new furniture was not yet installed and a formal staff training program was not yet implemented .
The performances of Learning Commons service was not optimal and causes a “gap” between optimal and desired performances . Next is causes analysis . As the HPT model suggests , after the performances gap was identified ,the “cause analysis” should be completed . The cause analysis can determine why the performance gap exists . Once a cause is identified, one or more interventions can be selected that will be able to close the performance gap . There are some causes for the performances issues . First , data , information and feedback .
Initial training and communication of clear roles , responsibilities and expectations were not provided when the Learning Commons initially opened . Second , environment support , resources and tools . Detailed in Learning Commons employee did not exist . The conflict among workers will be happened . Third , consequences , incentives , reward . There were no consequences , incentives or rewards related to performance at the Learning Commons service point . Forth , skill and knowledge . A deficiency in general knowledge of the library services and the role of the librarians at the service point existed among TAC student assistants .
Fifth , motivation and expectations . It is unclear what motivates Learning Commons employees and what they expect from themselves . After knowing the causes of the issues , intervention selection , design and development is needed . Closing the performances gap can be done through recommended solutions called interventions. HPT suggests that training is not always the appropriate solution because training will not solve issues related to motivation and expectation . However , an incentives and rewards will address motivation . There are some interventions existed after knowing the causes .
There are job description intervention , document and standards intervention , training intervention , performance appraisal intervention . A job description specifically for employment in the Learning Commons would define each position’s duties , responsibilities , working conditions , and job activities , which would help employees understand their own job and the role of the other employees at the Learning Commons services point . Besides that , to remedy problems related to lack of information for job duties and procedures , the recommendation is a documents and standards intervention .
The standard operating procedures(SOP) manual would include the job description , expectations , policies , guidelines , and procedures for each position at the service desk . Training intervention is training librarians and TAC students . Training employees would provide expectations for each employee . Performance appraisal intervention show staff that there will be consequences for poor performance and rewards for good performance . On the other hand , feedback should be encouraged in Learning Commons . Positive feedback should be provided and given from all the employees .
Negative feedback is also important to correct everyday issues . After implemented all the intervention that suggested, must evaluate their success based on further analysis of performance . In my opinion , HPT is a very good tool to evaluate the individual performance or organizational performance . As we see the problems in Learning Commons , HPT had given a good solution for it in fixing the problem . HPT begins with a comparison of the of the present and the desired levels of individual and organizational performance to identify the performance gap.
Once the performance gap and the causes have been determined, the appropriate interventions are designed and developed. These may include measurement and feedback systems, new tools and equipment, compensation and reward systems, selection and placement of employees, and training and development. The interventions are then implemented and the change process managed. After implemented all the intervention , The employees in Learning Commons will clear about their roles , responsibilities . At the same time , The Learning Commons is already providing to be a great resource at UNCW .
HPT model must be applied cyclically and systematically over time to evaluate employee performance . However , I do not agree that HPT is always the best tool in solving problem . This is because it might identify wrong data or information during performance analysis . If it is wrong in the beginning of the process , inappropriate intervention might created . This will make the decision maker make the wrong decision . While doing wrong analysis , there might insert a high cost and it’s will be a waste of time if the analysis is wrong .
Moreover , HPT has mentioned a few intervention to fix the problems . It’s hard to implement all those intervention at the same time . If cannot implement successfully , the more problem might exists . But if whole process is running smoothly , nonetheless , HPT is a very tool in solving problem . I had compared two models which are HPT model and ADDIE model . The ADDIE model is a systematic instructional design model consisting of five phase which are analysis , design , development ,implementation and evaluation phase .
There are a few similarities between HPT model and ADDIE model . They both use process of analysis to look the problem and seek for the solution as well . However , they have a key different between the model . The ADDIE model addresses the “gaps between desired outcomes or behaviours and the audience’s existing knowledge and skills”. The ADDIE models mainly focus on the individual needs and then design and develop objectives and processes help the individual . Evaluation and implementation do not just happened at the end of the design and development .
They are ongoing to inform the designer . So if there any changes, the necessary solution can be made quickly . The HPT model is different because it more focus on the causes of “performance” gap . The success of the organization is depend on its employees . HPT will look what causes the employees unable to perform the job . HPT’s goal is to increase the bottom line of the company by increasing the individual’s ability to perform the job . In addition , it is important that the HPT is look “ what caused the problem” ,while the ADDIE model looks at “ solving the problem exists ” .
HPT model design seem to also behaviourist approach because the focus is more changing individual behaviour . The HPT model will look at evaluation of the problem and how it was addressed long after the process . The HPT model has its own advantages . In my view , because HPT model is focused on how the people perform on the job . In my opinion , the workers or the people of the organization is the assets for its organization . So , the performance of the individual affect overall success of the organization . This model takes many variables into the account , that there will affect performance .
It humanizes the work place because the individuals are allowed to address their problems. At the same time , it may be necessary to provide training course if the individual unable to perform the work is because of lacking information or unknowledgeable . Beside that , HPT model never ignore the reward or motivation . If they have a good performance , incentive or reward will be given to motivate the employees . Every model has its own disadvantages as well , disadvantage I see is how the technologist ensures lifelong working and the successful using the collected information.
Because they wait a while before evaluating. It would seem to me that the worker would want to know immediately if they are doing better so that changes can be made more quickly. Feedback is so important to workers feeling successful and competent. If there is too much focus on negative feedback, it may have a negative impact on the individual. Where as in the ADDIE model, the worker’s deficiencies or the causes problems are not the major focus, and you get feedback at various stages rather than only at the end of the process.
If I were a human resource professional in any area , I would use HPT model . As I was also a worker before , I see that would be beneficial for all the subordinates or primary worker . If workers feel supported, they’ll do better than if they’re not supported. It provides a guide to helping individuals be successful in their work. I think someone who feels successful and competent in their work is more likely to suffer less burn out than those individuals who have no one in their corner to mentor or help them solve whatever issue is keeping them from doing their best on the job.
I might also use HPT when talking to friends or children about getting jobs and being successful on the job. I can apply it to my own career and be my own trouble shooter as well as look for solutions. This puts a little more power over what I do in my hands because at least I would know that I can change me to help the organization do its job better too. On the other hand , as I mentioned employees are a part of assets of the organization . I think it is the responsibility of the human resource department to choose an appropriate system of performance appraisal .
Effective appraisal system motivate the employees all the time rather than joining training . Conclusion In conclusion, HPT model has been described as the systematic and systemic identification and removal of barriers to individual and organizational performance. Nonetheless ,HPT model is an effective tool for uncovering performance issues . The model can be applied to any area in the library where employees must perform and is not limited to public service . In any new service , some performance issues may “ work themselves out” overtime while some may not .
In some cases , problems left unidentified or unsolved , it may be quite difficult to fix after an extended period of time . It is same like our daily habit or problems , if a parent identified that a child is beginning to pick up a bad habit , it is certainly easier to change the child’s behaviour when the parent first notices their child’s behaviour . If the parents did not take action to stop their child in the beginning , it is hard to stop their child after maintain a long bad habit .
Similarity to any other service , if identify the problems early , then can find out the causes and fix it as fast as possible . The model does require extensive analysis . Without this analysis , a full picture cannot be taken , assumption will be made , and issues or problems cannot be identified . Optimal employee performance is critical in any organization . From the journal , Learning Commons in UNCW is using human performance technology (HPT ) . It is a library . With libraries needing to demonstrate their value and provide assessment data and administration .
The HPT model serves as one more useful tool for libraries to accomplish this . I had read a journal , which is about ADDIE model and I had also compared both ADDIE and HPT model . I found that there have many similarities . But when I go deeper for the journal , I found that there is a big differences . ADDIE model focus more on training building program , while in HPT model , training is only one of the tool . HPT model is not only useful in organization , but also useful for every individual . If did not find out the causes properly , a appropriate solution is impossible to created .