Human motivation Essay
Success is not what we get, success is what we achieve and this success we get from Motivation, whether you are appearing for final exams, you are a player or a singer or in Army fighting battles in the field, you will reach the pinnacle of success only if you are motivated. Motivation is your desire and your impulse, which can make you break the icebergs. The word Motivation was derived from the Latin word “movere”, meaning to move. (Romando, 2007). There are many theories describing the human’s tendency towards motivation; but here I am dealing with five theories, which influences and determines the human behavior.
• Self Determination Theory • Humanistic Theory • Instinct Theory • Cognitive theory • Need Theory Every human being needs motivation to grow, which he attains from several sources like his own self -realization, listening to music, nature, Society etc. The influence of Society motivates the person towards actualization of their goals and allows them to make decisions. The self-determination theory has been into practice since last three decades and constitutes set of four mini theories, cognitive evaluation theory, organismic integration theory, Causality orientations theory and basic needs theory.
(Faculty at the University of Rochester, 2007). As Shapiro in 1981 said, “ The key issue for self-direction, is flexibility in psychological structures-the flexibility that allows ones attitudes to direct action towards the active achievements of one’s aims”. (Deci, M Ryan, 1985) Self Determination theory deals with the extent to which the inner tendencies of humans impel them for psychological growth and development, take most challenging tasks and integrate their life experiences for their satisfaction and fulfillment of their self.
Although, these are natural tendencies, which determine and motivate humans but are only fulfilled by influence and support of the social environment. It is the society, which provides an individual healthy environment, nutrients and basic psychological needs enabling him or her to think and make choice independently and rationally. (Beck, 2003) Self- Determination permits the person to positively involve taking risks and incorporating in the social fabric of society. Especially for the persons with disabilities, self-determination acts as a medicine boosting their self-esteem.
(Faculty at the University of Rochester, 2007) Another aspect to this theory is the value of risk taking. The self determined humans are also not devoid of risks too, their over confidence can take them on the downward slide of career path. External coercion, without giving independent thought too may affect humans psychologically and mentally. Humans also go by their instinct to accomplish a task or to move ahead in the journey of their life. Sigmand Freud and William James brought forth the instinct theory to capture the intricate nature of human beings. The inclination of humans to act and think emerges out from their soul.
Their decision comes what their inner perception and inner self directs him to, for e. g. all the tastes and preferences of the humans come from their inner voice, which directs and helps the person to make choice. Scientists and Researchers have not yet come into any concrete evidence to support the instinct theory, yet it is true. Human beings going by the instinct avoids considering the cost of risk they might be subjected to. People neither make calculated move nor consider pros and cons rather they just jump into action what their inner instinct tells them too, which may not come out to be true.
The value of risk taking is very high to the persons who are motivated by the inner instinct and its best example is death instinct theory propounded by Freud in 1920, whereby he stated that humans with their instinct go to the extent of loosing their will to survive. According to Freud, humans have two instincts: one is life-favoring instinct Eros, which in Greek means love and another instinct is Thanatos, which in Greek means death. It clearly shows that instinct theory is also risky. (Kastenbaum, 2007). If someone believes that “Perception is everything”, this means that he is cognitivist.
(Heffner, 2004) Perception means to reorganize what the senses perceive into practicality. Your thoughts are your determining factor to take practical decisions and mould your emotions, behaviors and your whole personality. Cognitive theory depends on this perception. The theory states that by changing the thoughts, a person can change the moods, reduce tensions and anxiety and can develop good relationships. But thoughts can be deceptive too, and as said by Leon Festinger in 1957, “There are always conflicts and discrepancies between thoughts and actions or between belief and actions and we will act to resolve conflict and discrepancies.
”(Huitt, 2001) The value of risk is imbalance between our thoughts and actions for e. g. persons’ thoughts would pronounce that smoking is detrimental to health, still he smokes this means he is conflict with himself. Every human being is born with his own personality and grows with his personality and has certain needs to be fulfilled, which motivates them towards the self-realization of their goals and for over all growth and development. The theory, which revealed this very perplexing nature, so intricately woven in humans is known by researchers and psychologists as Humanistic theory.
Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) who came out with this theory too states that, “All human beings has “Hierarchy of needs to fulfill before becoming a self-actualized, fully able person”. (Mercury, 1999). Even Carl Rogers (1902-1987) echoed the views of Maslow and further stated that for development, a person requires an environment, which can give him ample scope for self-disclosure, recognition and understanding and without these even the healthy human being will fade, just like a tree which cannot grow without sunlight and water.
The risk is as Rogers says people may face anxiety when they face the real situation, which can be contradictory. According to Critics, The humanistic theories are very optimistic, vague and are unscientific. (Mercury, 1999). Among all the theories, the most determining factor for the human beings are their needs, and the priority that humans show on their needs motivate them to lead their fruitful life. Maslow came up with a “Hierarchy model” on the basis of needs theory. These needs are psychological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs and self-actualization needs, according to this hierarchy.
(Huitt, 2001) Once one need is fulfilled, it will lead to another need. But according to the critics this theory has several drawbacks. One person can have several needs at the same time, and can over lap. It is not necessary that fulfillment of one needs may actually motivate a person, as it is a human tendency that fulfillment of one need instigates the person to pursue in the quest for the acquirement of another need, and in this pursuit many persons may resort to anti-social activities harming the society.
All theories came out with the one basic fact that it is the individual himself only, who in true sense is a force behind his own success and failure. All motivation comes from within individual himself, which is real essence of human motivation.
WORKS CITED Becks Robert, (2003), Motivation: Theories and Principles (5th edition), Prentice Hall. Edward L. Deci, Richard M. Ryan, (1985), Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination in Human Behavior, Springer, Inspirational. Richard Romando, Motivation Theory, Enzyne Articles, http://ezinearticles.com/?
Motivation-Theory&id=410700 Faculty at the University of Rochester (Last Updated: 2007) Self Determination Theory: An Approach to Human Motivation and Personality. Retrieved June 30, 2007 from W. W. W: http://www. psych. rochester. edu/SDT/theory. html Heffner L. C. (Last Updated: 2004). I think therefore I have a Personality. In Cognitive Theory. Retrieved on June 30, 2007 from W. W. W: http://allpsych. com/personalitysynopsis/cognitive. html Huitt, W. (2001). Motivation to learn: An overview.
Educational Psychology Interactive. Retrieved on June 30, 2007 from W. W. W: http://chiron. valdosta. edu/whuitt/col/motivation/motivate. html Kastenbaum Robert (Updated 2007) Death Instinct. Encyclopedia of Death and Dying. Retrieved June 30,2007 from W. W. W: http://www. deathreference. com/Da-Em/Death-Instinct. html Mercury M. F. (1999) Humanistic Theory. bbc. co. uk: The Guide to Life, The Universe and Everything. Retrieved on June 30, 2007 from W. W. W: http://www. bbc. co. uk/dna/h2g2/A147151.