Human Growth And Development Essay
Human Growth And Development
Week One: Themes in Development:
Physical: During this stage the child is learning to crawl and walk. Social/Cultural: The child recognizes his/her parents as safe people. Environmental: Improving socials skills, developing friendships, improving self-confidence, and aiding the care giver. Developmental: A central task of adolescence is to develop a sense of oneself as an autonomous individual. The drive for such autonomy derives from the internal, biological processes marking the transition to a more adult role (puberty and increasing cognitive maturity) and from the shifts in social roles and expectations that accompany these underlying physiological and cognitive changes. Spiritual: It is difficult to identify the infant’s spiritual needs because of their limited ability to communicate on a linguistic level. However, positive experiences of love and affection, and a stimulating environment may foster aspects of spirituality such as hope and security in an infant. Young children encompass the first three stages of Spiritual Development. Intellectual: This stage is essential for determine the learning pattern of the child.
This stage the child also learns problem solving skills. Emotional: Growing in a safe and happy environment is also crucial for your child’s long-term development. The more exposure to these activities, the better developed your child’s brain and neural systems will be in coping with what life has to offer. Overall Reflection: A stage is a period of time, perhaps several years, during which a person’s activities (at least in one broad domain) have certain characteristics in common” (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). This model really says that people develop at different level and stages. Being a teacher I can agree with this theory. I can tell a change with 7th graders that I teach and see some maturity from the beginning of the year to the end of the year. In the incremental model development is seen as a change that is made gradually over time. This is a contrast to the stage model which views change as abrupt. (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010) Both the incremental and the multidimensional model believe that change takes place more gradually and continuously. (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010) I think that the life wheel can help explain how as human throughout our lives we evolve over time throughout our lives. It also can show at different parts of our lives we focus on one or more aspects of the life wheel.
Broderick, P.C., & Blewitt, P. (2010). The life span: Human development for helping professions (3rd ed.).Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Week Two: The Early Years:
Physical: When a child is born they begin developing strength from large muscles to small muscles. When children are young they need to do many activities to strengthen their large and small muscles. Something I realized is that muscle skill development and maintaining healthy body are essential in life later for reading, writing and math. Social/Cultural: In this stage the child develop a sense of self and a sense of belonging to a family. They begin interacting with other children and they also play in stages (playing alone, playing near others but not really playing with them, not wanting to share, playing and sharing, and playing with a purpose). This stage is also were the child also learn to respect the rights and feelings of others. Environmental: A child’s environment plays a big role in their development. Exposure to different forms of activities that exercise the analytical and creative sides of the brain are important. Developmental: (Week 1-3 only: Reflection may include characteristics of this stage) Spiritual: The pre-stage is infancy before & language and conceptual thought. Sometime between two and seven a child enters intuitive/projective faith marked by the rise of imagination, but lacks logic for questioning perceptions or fantasies.
Next, children progress into mythic/literal faith. Here the child develops a way of dealing with the world and making meaning that now criticizes and evaluates the previous stage of imagination and fantasy. Intellectual: When a child is the brain is ready to learn and receive information. In essence the brain is like a computer, it has great potential for development. Having a great childhood greatly influences the way the child develops. Emotional: Doing this period the child will realize that the world does not revolve around them. They learn to trust and mistrust others. As toddlers, they become proud of things they accomplish and begin stating their opinions and desires. They also begin to learn to be away from their parents and they will often times participate in the classroom. They also begin to solve issues that may arise with others using words. They often control their angry and they learn that it is okay to make mistakes. Overall Reflection: After reading about development through the early years, I think that emotional and environmental developments are the most vital during this period. When we are first conceived the environment is the number factor influencing us. Piaget believed that the mind creates its own knowledge.
“This constructivist stance takes the child to be an active participant in the learning process, constantly seeking out and trying to make sense of new information.” (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010) If you look at it from this point of view this is where teachers play an important part in making things catch the attention of students and making it reach them. New research is becoming available often over infant memory and recognition (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). This is true in the way that the environment plays a major role in the development process; children are a product of their environment. The belief and behaviors of children are passed down from generation to generation.
There are several things that I find myself doing that both my mother and father do. I have read research that says expectant mothers that read to their infants while in the womb have smarter children. Erik Erickson believed that the early years of a child’s life were important to their emotional well-being (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). He had stated that the child should be nurtured, loved, and handled well to grow into an optimistic well rounded person (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010) This is a very true being a teacher I see that the students that have parents that are active and show that they care and support their child they care have the most well rounded students that I teach. While the students that have the parents that are focused on other things those students are not as much well rounded and willing to think outside of the box.
Broderick, P.C., & Blewitt, P. (2010). The life span: Human development for helping professionals. (3rd ed.).Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.
Week Three: Middle Childhood through Early Adolescence:
Physical: During the middle years, the child’s growth rate is somewhat slower than in previous years, and certainly less rapid than the growth anticipated during adolescence. These changes contribute to the child’s growing sense of competence in relation to his physical abilities and enhance his potential for participating in sports, dance, gymnastics, and other physical pursuits. Social/Cultural: A central task of adolescence is to develop a sense of oneself as an autonomous individual. The drive for such autonomy derives from the internal, biological processes marking the transition to a more adult role (puberty and increasing cognitive maturity) and from the shifts in social roles and expectations that accompany these underlying physiological and cognitive changes. Compared to children under age 10, teenagers are given new opportunities to experience independence outside of the home. They spend much more unsupervised time with peers which (compared to adult-child relationships) are relatively equal in terms of interpersonal power and authority. At the same time, however, they continue to rely on the support and guidance offered by adults in the family, in school, and in community-based programs or activities.
Environmental: The environmental changes that students experience as they move into middle-grade schools are particularly harmful in that they emphasize competition, social comparison, and self-assessment at a time when the adolescent’s focus on himself or herself is at its height. The junior high school’s emphasis on discipline and teacher control, and its limited opportunities for student decision making, come at a time in development when adolescents are beginning to think of themselves as young adults who are becoming more responsible and deserve greater adult respect. A poor “fit” between the early adolescent and the classroom environment increases the risk of disengagement and school problems, especially for those early adolescents who were having difficulty succeeding in school academically prior to this school transition. Developmental: A central task of adolescence is to develop a sense of oneself as an autonomous individual. The drive for such autonomy derives from the internal, biological processes marking the transition to a more adult role (puberty and increasing cognitive maturity) and from the shifts in social roles and expectations that accompany these underlying physiological and cognitive changes.
Compared to children under age 10, teenagers are given new opportunities to experience independence outside of the home. They spend much more unsupervised time with peers which (compared to adult-child relationships) are relatively equal in terms of interpersonal power and authority. At the same time, however, they continue to rely on the support and guidance offered by adults in the family, in school, and in community-based programs or activities. Spiritual: Part of the child’s development as an individual includes an emerging understanding of the life cycle—of birth, growth, aging, and death. There is an increasing awareness that life fits into a larger scheme of relationships among individuals, groups of people, other living creatures, and the earth itself. School-age children become keenly interested in these topics, especially when confronted with personal experiences such as the birth of a sibling or the death of a grandparent. As children experience these events and learn to view their personal encounters as part of a larger whole, families and communities provide important structure. They define value systems that provide children with basic principles and encourage them to examine their personal actions in light of their impact on those around them.
Intellectual: The most important cognitive changes during early adolescence relate to the increasing ability of children to think abstractly, consider the hypothetical as well as the real, consider multiple dimensions of a problem at the same time, and reflect on themselves and on complicated problems. There is also a steady increase in the sophistication of children’s information-processing and learning skills, their knowledge of different subjects, their ability to apply their knowledge to new learning situations, and their awareness of their own strengths and weaknesses as learners. These higher-order cognitive abilities help adolescents regulate their learning and behavior better to accomplish more complicated and elaborate tasks. Emotional: Children in this period need both the freedom of personal expression and the structure of expectations and guidelines that they can understand and accept. Opportunities to interact with other children during this period without excessive adult interference is important, although some neighborhoods or living arrangements restrict these chances. At the same time, children need to have positive interactions with adults, reinforcing their sense of self-esteem, self-worth, and belief in their capability of personal success Overall Reflection: Adolescence and middle childhood, although a time for exploration and the excitement of freedom and gaining maturity, is also a time of struggle when teens work endlessly to identify themselves and come to terms with forthcoming adulthood and separation from family (Berger, 2008).
Changes in the intensity of peer relationships help the adolescents in self-discovery and surmount the difficulties of their heightened sense of self. Peer pressure supports the adolescent, although the choice of friends can be either a help or a hindrance depending on the interests of the peers. Adolescence is a time of self-centeredness and self-consciousness when peer pressure can be immense. As teens face social pressures that include experimentation with drugs and other substances, sexuality, and a changing perspective on relationships, their strong social network and the guidance of familial alliances are powerful relationships that mitigate stress during this time. These stages of development include significant changes physically, mentally, and emotionally. The choices made by individuals during these stages have both positive and negative consequences for the individual, his or her peers, and his or her families. Adolescence begins when a flood of hormones triggers puberty, usually between the age of 10 and 14. The release of sex-specific hormones of androgens and estrogens by the gonads produce physical and psychological changes. Maturation and increased efficiency of organs and muscles follow a major growth spurt (Berger, 2008).
Berger, K. S. (2008). The developing person through the life span (7th ed.). New York: Worth
Week Four: Young to Middle Adulthood:
Physical: In this stage young adults complete the process of physical maturation, usually attaining full adult height. Secondary sexual characteristics, such as size of penis and breasts, are completed. Your organs and systems are all operating at peak efficiency in young adulthood, roughly ages 21 to 39. Your body has grown, and your physical potential is set. You can take advantage of that by eating correctly and by working out to get stronger. This is the time in life when you can reach your peak physically. The growth spurt that came during puberty set the ground work for what you are capable of becoming as a young adult. Your body will respond to activities such as running, cardio training, weight training and diet more predictably during young adulthood than it could when you were in puberty.
Social/Cultural: Some of the social changes include divorce, changes in employment (either reaching the peak of career or being unemployable for being “overqualified”), caring for elderly relatives, and difference in parental responsibilities (either taking them on for later life parents or starting over for some empty nest parents). Environmental: The first major group includes young adults who move early into forming their own families and invest little in post-secondary education. Doing this period the young adult moves out of their parents home and begin to start their own home. Leaving the parental home to establish one’s own residence, establishing financial independence, completing school, moving into full-time employment, getting married, and becoming a parent are considered key markers of adulthood (Booth, Crouter, and Shanahan, 1999). Occupational (Week 4 and 5): During this stage young adults move into adult roles and responsibilities and may learn a trade, work, and/or pursue higher education. They identify career goals and prepare to achieve them. Spiritual:
Intellectual: In this stage of life adults fully understand abstract concepts and are aware of consequences and personal limitations. Often times they secure their autonomy and build and test their decision making skills. Often they develop new skills, hobbies, and adult interests.
Emotional: Doing this stage of life children become adults, they move into adult relationships with their parents. They begin to see their friends as a less important and begin to think for themselves. They are more empathetic and have greater intimacy skills. Carry some feelings of invincibility. Establish lasting self image and begin to feel self-worth.
Overall Reflection: Middle adulthood is a complex time period that requires a multidimensional outlook to understand all of the processes and changes that are taking place. The many changes during middle adulthood include physical, cognitive and social differences. During middle adulthood biological and physical changes become apparent. During this time visual perception, hearing and the reproductive system decline. Adults who have never worn glasses or contact lenses may start needing visual correction. During this time adults may also need more light to see than their younger friends. However, the actual time when one is considered an adult varies from theorists to theorists and can range anywhere from 18 to 25 years of age (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). There are also cognitive changes during middle adulthood. There is a mixed pattern of positive and negative changes in cognitive abilities. Processing speed starts to decrease during this time period however crystallized thought does not decline until older age Working memory begins to decline however semantic memory continues to increase as we learning throughout our older years. Theorists such as Schaie, Erikson, Vaillant, Levinson, Jung, Gould, and soon have all described stages or phases in life- task change (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). Theorist have shown that all adults seem to go through the same stages of changes in middle adulthood (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010).
Broderick, P.C., & Blewitt, P. (2010). The life span: Human development for helping professionals. (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ:Pearson Education, Inc.
Week Five: Late Adulthood:
Physical: Often times the person become less active and the health begin declining. Sometimes at this age you will find older people that are very active and in better shape than some of the younger adults. Social/Cultural: The person has friends that they spend most of their time with and are very comfortable with the person that they are. Environmental: Often times at this age you will find older parents living at home with their students or either in a personal care home. Occupational (Week 4 and 5): Doing this stage in life the person has either retired from the career or job. Sometimes you will find older adults retired but working part time to remain active in not settle with the end of life. Spiritual: Most older adults often face many losses as they age, so doing the lifetime they often turn to religion and to spirituality as ways to handle their losses. A lot of older adults can often quote spirituals from the bible. Intellectual: Doing this stage the mind gets weaker. They become unable to react quickly, or solve puzzles quickly than they could when they were younger. They don’t think less, just become slower Emotional: Sometimes in this age the older adult is faced with depression since they often have faced many losses be that from children, spouses, and/or friends.
Overall Reflection: Erikson felt that much of life is preparing for the middle adulthood stage and the last stage is recovering from it. Perhaps that is because as older adults we can often look back on our lives with happiness and are content, feeling fulfilled with a deep sense that life has meaning and we’ve made a contribution to life, a feeling Erikson calls integrity. Our strength comes from a wisdom that the world is very large and we now have a detached concern for the whole of life, accepting death as the completion of life. Aging starts during the middle adult stage then it will continue to intensify until the person reaches the end. As aging progress, the body also progress, we slowly die as our neurons in the brain die, and our skins sag. Aging is inevitable it happens to everybody, we suggest that we should be happy up to the last day we live and not live in the stage of Erikson, which is the despair.
Maintaining good health becomes more challenging with age, as the immune system becomes progressively less effective…and as the cardiovascular, respiratory, and organ systems function less adequately” (Broderick & Blewitt, 2010). On the other hand, some adults may reach this stage and despair at their experiences and perceived failures. They may fear death as they struggle to find a purpose to their lives, wondering “Was the trip worth it?” Alternatively, they may feel they have all the answers (not unlike going back to adolescence) and end with a strong dogmatism that only their view has been correct.
Broderick, P. C., & Blewitt, P. (2010). The life span: Human development for helping professionals (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education, Inc.
FINAL COURSE REFLECTION:
This course overall was a good course. This course gave me insight to life changes that we all go through over the course of their lives. The course also reflects over the age group I am currently teaching and as to why they are acting the way they do. I like the flow of the course and the things that it emphasized on.