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Traditionally, Managers perceive their workers as pessimistic and negative beings. Under this assumption, Management is directive and controlling. The modern view of today’s employee at work in relation to organization has evolved to a developmental approach. This Is the positive way of perceiving that employees are responsible, self- energize, committed and creative beings. After all, better people achieve better results. Developing these humanistic values create positive beliefs about the potential of employees. People tend to interact In organizations in different ways because of varying variables and many factors come Into play.
Different situations call for different approaches to best resolve any Issue on hand. The contingency approach would best adapt under these changing circumstances to effectively manage organizational behavior. Managers need to clearly assess what conditions they should prefer one behavioral approach over another. Apparently, no approach ever Implemented Is permanently the best model. As people needs and behavior continues to evolve and grow, manager should be flexible. The contingent use of any of these models should not be discontinued but rather should be use appropriately.
Primarily, the most dominant organizational goal is to be productive. The results- oriented approach focuses on the productivity which Is measured In terms not only of economic value but of human and social input and output as well. Using this approach, organizational behavior with high Job satisfaction rate will probably lead to improved human output and high productivity results as well. On the other hand, systems approach employs holistic organizational behavior which means people- organization relationship should work and blend perfectly well to achieve individual, organizational and ultimately societal goals.
Managers’ point of view should start from every employee as integral part of the whole systems. Employee’s individual role Influences the behavioral quality of life In the organization. Therefore, managers’ primary role Is to foster an organizational culture In which talents are utilized, people are motivated, teams become productive, organizations achieve their goals and 1 OFF no such thing as perfect tools or approaches. Several human factors as stress, performance, turnover among others will always come into play.
These approaches are not the absolute resolve but only as tools for improved organizational behavior. Effectiveness of Organizational Behavior can be adversely affected by a behavioral as, the law of diminishing returns and unethical use of behavioral tools. Therefore, managers should be able to recognize and address these limiting factors. In every organization personal bias always do exist. The perspective of some managers is subjective rather than objective approach. The organizational output which is the primordial objective of its existence is sometimes hampered because of selective employee needs.
In this kind of situation where partisan exists, recipient employees tend to be unproductive. Overall, this will bring harm than good to the organization as a whole. So, a sound organizational behavior recognizes a social system in which many types of human needs are served in many ways. Just like in economics, the law of diminishing returns is a limiting factor. This is the declining amount of extra outputs when more of a desirable input is added. A manager should identify that certain point where additional benefits or increased output can no longer be achieved despite of added inputs.
In this scenario, instead of expected gain out of these added inputs, the net results tend to become smaller or nothing at all. A need to recognize the extent of human capacity is a must. Maximizing human arable is not necessary but utilizing and combining every aspect of the whole system is the key to achieve organizational effectiveness. People as the cornerstone of every organization should be treated with highest respect. Human dignity, integrity and welfare should be recognized and people should be accorded with highest respect.
Unethical ways of treating them will lead to manipulation of people. This could be devastating to the whole organization. Therefore, ethical leadership is needed which recognizes these generally accepted principles; social responsibility, open communication and the cost-benefit principle. In other words, people should treat each other with trust, consideration and respect to achieve not Just individual or organizational goals but more of societal rewards. 2. Different barriers in communication and how to properly deal with them and the Role of Grapevine and Rumors.
Successful communication is always a two-way process. The sender’s message should be conveyed properly and timely to the receiver who in turn understands the exact meaning of such message. However, a number of interference may hinder the recipient’s understanding. These obstacles may be in the form of physical surroundings or within the individual’s emotions. Otherwise considered as noise, the following barriers that hamper effective communication are the personal barriers, physical and semantic barriers.
Specifically, personal barriers are interferences from human emotions, values and poor listening or verbal habits. Thus, psychological distance occurs between people with opposing emotions, preferences and/or thoughts. To mitigate the adverse effects of these psychological obstacles and to reconcile the different perceptions between sender and receiver, one has to communicate the reality itself rather than one’s interpretation of that reality. This can e achieved through a positive communication attitude, by continuously working to get informed and by developing trust to each other.
On the other hand, physical takes place. These include distances between people, concrete walls around a cubicle or fences separating two or more rooms and static or intermittent frequency that hamper radio messages. To compensate for the distance that usually creates the gap, one has to establish a good proximity. Proteomics which is the study of spatial separation can close the gap between interpersonal spaces within and across cultures; thereby, achieving clear and effective communications. Lastly, immunization can be hindered because of symbols with which we communicate.
Semantic barriers arise from these symbols that have a variety of meanings and most likely convey different messages resulting to miscommunication. The use of Jargon or specialized language which includes acronyms, slang and distinctive terms is one typical example. Layman who normally understands the common language (universally accepted and understood) will find Jargon difficult to understand. People from different cultures will likewise find symbols hard to interpret instead they will come up with their own assumptions and inference.
Let say, in accounting/ Nanking parlance, debit and credit technically means the account’s credits were added and debits subtracted. The use of these Jargon when communicating may be misleading to a layman. To eliminate the impact of this kind of barrier, one has to avoid use of Jargon, symbols and the like. Effective communicator is one who is credible, truthful and knows how to use suitable words. Grapevine refers to the informal communication systems and develops in the form of cluster chain. This can be of great help in bridging the communication gap among persons in the organization, since grapevine arises from social interaction.
This will also mitigate, if to eliminate possible communication barriers because the chain of information is derived from natural and normal activity of the employees. The information is likewise conveyed in accurate, fast and influential manner. Oftentimes, topics and issues are interesting that everybody wants to be a part of it. After all, if these topics are factual then it will be beneficial to the organization as a whole. Rumor, on the other hand is grapevine information communicated without evidence and therefore ambiguous.
Proliferation of rumor Just like grapevine is timely conveyed to others yet unverified. This would bring adverse effect to the organization. Wrong and filtered information that passed on to others is generally self-serving and is not in any way beneficial to organization. Therefore, Managers’ basic objective is to integrate interests of formal and informal communications so that the two systems can work together. 3. Significance of Organizational Culture in the study of people’s behavior and motivation within an organization. Organizational Culture affects the way people interact with each other.
Though it varies from one another, a culture (which is unique and constantly nurtured and influenced by the behavioral system) exists in every organization. It includes the stated and unstated philosophy, values, vision, mission and goals; the quality of leadership, communication and group dynamics; the nature of both formal and informal organizations; and the influence of the social environment. These elements combine to create a CULTURE in which the personal attitudes of employees and situational factors can produce motivation and goal these elements affecting the whole system down to people’s behavior and motivation.
The impact of these variables should be carefully studied and regularly updated by Managers to ensure a successful/workable system. A good system has a memorable influence in creating a culture indicative of quality performance, employee satisfaction and personal growth and development. However, this culture has also some negative aspects depending on the impact of management philosophies. Conflicting cultures may likely arise if some management styles or characteristics are unacceptable or not. Since this relates to the personal experience of individual employees, perspective on culture may vary.
Therefore, culture can be manipulated and altered depending on leadership. In the study of Organizational Culture different models have been developed to describe several indicators effecting behavior in organizations. This is to clearly identify the cultural dimension as individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, long-term versus short-term orientation/motivation. In the same manner, core values of employees affecting organizational performance (Innovation, Stability, Respect for People, Outcome Orientation, Team Orientation, and Aggressiveness) should likewise be considered.
To sum up, the significance of this study is for the organizations to strive for what is considered a “healthy” organizational culture in order to increase radioactivity, growth, efficiency and reduce counterproductive behavior and turnover of employees. 4. The Motivational Models and the role of leadership in making it effective People in the organization have varying drives and needs (achievement, affiliation or power motivation) that affect their on-the-Job performance. These needs are apparent but sometimes difficult to determine and satisfy.
Good and effective leadership should understand how the needs create tensions which stimulate effort to perform and effective performance brings the satisfaction of rewards. Managers should not only encourage several approaches to understand these internal drives and needs within employees but consider some motivational, extrinsic factors. As work motivation comes from both external and internal forces, leaders should persistently direct these behaviors towards the achievement of organizational goal. Behavior modification focuses on external environment by stating employee behaviors which can be affected by manipulating their consequences.
The alternative consequences include positive or negative reinforcement, punishment and extinction. Effective management suggests that these consequences should be identified and well- administered by managers. Above all, Managers should perfectly blend both the internal and external approaches through goal setting. And these goals should be acceptable, challenging and specific to stimulate desired employee behavior. The primary role of a good leader therefore, is to employ a balanced approach to motivation, to establish an appropriate goal setting combined with the reinforcement of performance feedback.
There are several approaches to motivation. One of these theories is the Expectancy Model. This motivation theory was first proposed and developed by Victor Broom of Yale School of Management. Expectancy theory is about the mental processes regarding choice, or choosing. The individual makes choices to match up with or eventually lead to the desired results. Motivation is a product of the individual’s expectancy that a certain effort will lead to the intended performance, the instrumentality of this performance to achieving a certain result, and the desirability of this result for the individual, known as valence.
This relationship is stated as VS. E X I = M. Following this approach, Managers should use systems that tie rewards very closely to performance. Managers also need to ensure hat the rewards provided are deserved and wanted by the recipients. In order to improve the effort-performance tie, managers should also engage in training to improve their capabilities and improve their belief that added effort will in fact lead to better performance. Equity Model is also known as Procedural Justice Theory.
This was first developed by John Stacey Adams. The belief is that people value fair treatment which causes them to be motivated to keep the fairness maintained within the relationships of their co-workers and the organization. The structure of equity in the workplace is based on the ratio of inputs to outcomes. Under this approach, individuals who perceive themselves as either under-rewarded or over-rewarded will experience distress. This distress leads to efforts to restore equity within the relationship.
It focuses on determining whether the distribution of resources is fair to both parties involved. Equity is measured by comparing the ratios of contributions and benefits of each person within the relationship. Partners do not have to receive equal benefits (such as receiving the same amount of love, care, and financial security) or make equal contributions (such as investing the same amount of effort, time, and financial resources), as long as the ratio between these benefits and contributions is similar.
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