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There are bundles of HR policies that can be implemented to boost up the company performance. Implementation of different HR polices depends on that particular company’s working environment, resources etc. Haynes and Fryer (2000) had revealed a strategy map for HR policies design in one of their article in relation to Hotel business. Again Jeffrey Pfeffer had introduced a Human Resource model and suggested seven practices. These were security of employment, selective hiring, self-managed teams or team working, high pay linked to company performance, extensive training, reducing status differences and sharing information.
In this part of the literature review we will discuss about these concepts, its implementation in high performance working practice and benefits. Employment security is the fundamental issue among other six HR practices. It is unrealistic to ask the staff to offer their best without giving them the employment security and concern them about their future career. But there is a limit of how much employment security can be given.
A degree of employment security is needed to get the best from the employees.
The main point of employment security is to avoid the job reductions where it’s possible and staff are expected to maintain their employment with the company and can have an internal transfer in the company if required (Marchington and Wilkinson 2005). These days dealing with the job redundancies is the main priority of the HR. People Management Magazine (2011) mentioned that the public sector employment fell by 6.
19m. 29% of organisation already has made redundancies and 50% of the organisations are planning redundancies. Recruitment and selection plays a vital role of the central activities in human resource management.
Recruitment and selection is a planned rational activity. It can play an important role of the effectiveness and performance of the organisation. So if recruiting and selecting staff is done in an efficient manner that can avoid unwanted cost (Rees and French -2009, p-171)6. There are different methods of recruitment and selection method. In a recent CIPD survey (2006) among 802 UK employers it shows that advertisements in local press, recruitment agency and corporate website are commonly used methods (Torrington et al 2008 p-150).
Nowaday’s Teamwork has been identified as a primary component of a company performance. Team work is typically help to take better decision and also gives the ability to achieve more creative solution. Research had shown that staff who work in a team, they got higher level of satisfaction than the traditional way of working staff (Griffin et al, 2001) . In a recent study by Abdullah Z et al (2009) among 153 managers of private company in Malaysia it has shown that team work has positive and significant influence on the organization performance.
Research shows that effectiveness of self managed team is not always positive (Robbins and Judge, 2011). Self managed team members cannot manage conflicts well when a negative situation arise they do not cooperate with each other which can leads to lower group performance. Lower skilled workers can bring negative impact of team working where as with the high skilled, well trained and self managed team can improve the organisational performance. High compensation is one of the significant parts of best HR practices.
There are two main elements of this human resource practice- paying higher than normal compensation and reward related to performance. Christopher A (2009) remarks that successful organisation always evaluate their pay and performance system because it is more visible and important to the employee. A clear and fair pay system can motivate the employee to give their best. Gielen Anne C. et al (2009) had established the relation between the performance and pay. In the study it shows that implementation of performance related pay had increased the organisational productivity by 9%.
Employers always try to recruit ‘Outstanding human talent’. It is their primary duty to make sure that these people remain active in their own field, not only in terms of professional expertise or product knowledge but also working as a team and interpersonal relations. Regular training and suitable learning environment can keep these talent fit to give their best. Noe A R et al (2010 p-272) mentioned the benefits of employees training which includes increasing knowledge, improve skills to work with new technologies, efficiency of working in a team and better understanding of companies culture and laws.
Herman A and Kurt K (2009) one of their studies revealed the benefits of training for the employees in terms of multidisciplinary, multilevel, and global perspective. The time and resources which will be invested for training, learning and development purpose is also very important. Employee involvement by information sharing is an essential part of high performance. The type of information share in the organisation is a key aspect of human resource management. Prince J et al (2011) argues Information sharing in the organisation is a vital part of best HR practice.
They also added that the information sharing system varies by countries and cultures. Different country’s firms got different type of strategy to share the information. In another study Magnus M et al (2009) imply that information sharing improve the team performance. The relation between the team performance and information sharing moderated by the illustration of information sharing, performance criteria, task category, and discussion arrangement by uniqueness. Work voice is an important aspect of high commitment Human resource management.
The worker should get the opportunity to express their view independently and openly to have a say on management decision making and which could be achieved by trade union representation. Wood S & Wall T (2007) stated that better human resource management and high performance comes from high employee involvement models. Employee voice is one of the central parts of this model. In another study Holland P et al (2011) had shown the relation between employee voice and job satisfaction is positive.
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