1.Understand the main legislation guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding children and young people
1.1 Outline current legislation, guidelines, policies and procedures within own UK home Nation affecting the safeguarding of children and young people
Polices and procedures for safeguarding and child protection in England and Wales are the result of the Children Act 1989 and in Northern Ireland of the Children (Northern Ireland) Order 1995. The Children Act 2004 introduced further changes to the way the child protection system is structured and organised in England and Wales.
Safeguarding~ promoting children’s welfare and putting measures in place to improve children’s safety and prevent abuse.
Child protection~ part of the safeguarding process where it is necessary to take action when there is a reasonable belief that a child is at risk of significant harm.
Children Act 1989 (England and Wales)
Children (Northern Ireland) Order 1995
These Acts aimed to simplify the laws that protected children and young people in the respective UK countries. They were seen as a serious shake up of children’s rights and protection and made it clear to all who worked with children what their duties were and how they should work together in the event of allegations of child abuse.
England and Wales produced separates- Working Together to Safeguard Children (1999) – which emphasised the responsibilities of professionals towards children who are at risk of harm.
Children Act 2004
By 2003 it was clear that services for children were still not working together and protect vulnerable children in our society. This was highlighted by the tragic death of Victoria Climbie at the hands of her carers resulting in an independent inquiry into her death.
The Laming report resulted in a green paper, Every Child Matters, which in turn led to the Children Act 2004 in England and similar bills and Acts in all four countries in the UK.
The main features of the Act included:
~ the integration of children’s services and the introduction of children’s directors with responsibility for local authority education and children’s social services. ~lead councillors for children’s services with political responsibility for local child welfare ~ the establishment of Local Safeguarding Children’s Boards with statutory powers to ensure that social services, the NHS, education services, the police and other services work together to protect vulnerable children ~a new Common Assessment Framework to assist agencies in identifying welfare needs ~revised arrangements for sharing information
Working Together to Safeguard Children 2006
The 2006 revised version of this document provides an update on safeguarding and a national framework to help agencies work individually and together to safeguard and promote the welfare of children. It also reflect changes to safeguarding practice in recent years, especially in the light of the Laming and Bichard Inquiries.
The Vetting and Barring Scheme
The scheme was introduced in October 2009 with the aim of preventing unsuitable people form working with children and vulnerable adults. From July 2010 and phased in over a five-year period, anyone working or volunteering with children of vulnerable adults will be required to register with the Independent Safeguarding Authority (ISA). The ISA will make decisions to prevent unsuitable people from working with children and vulnerable adults, using a range of information form different sources, including the Criminal Records Bureau (CRB). The CRB will process applications for ISA – registration and continuously monitor individual against and new information, while continuously monitor individuals against any new information, while continuing to provide record and other information to help them make informed recruitment decisions.
1.2 Explain child protection within the wider concept of safeguarding children and young people
Safeguarding is about much more than just protecting children form direct abuse. The Staying Safe action plan recognises a number of important aspects in the wider view of safeguarding including:
~ keeping children safe form accidents
~ crime and bullying
~ missing children
~ actively promoting their welfare in a healthy and safe environment
1.3 Analyse how national and local guidelines, policies and procedures for safeguarding affect day-to-day work with children and young people
It is very important that anyone working with children should be able to recognise if a child is at risk of harm of in need because of their vulnerability. The earlier this is recognised, the better outcome for the child involved. All the guidelines are intended to make sure that all the services and agencies involved with children and young people work together to improve safeguarding.
Any childcare setting should have clear policies and procedures that cover all aspects of safeguarding. This should include policies and procedures for:
~ health and safety
~ child protection
~ contact with children and performing personal care
~ visitors to the setting
Risk assessments should be carried out to make sure that there are no safeguarding treats to the children in a setting.
Ensuring the voice of the child or young person is heard
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (Article 13) states that all children should have the opportunity to have their voice heard.
~ The child shall have the right to freedom of expression, this right shall include to see, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child’s choice ‘.
1.4 Explain when and why inquiries and serious case review are required and how the sharing of the findings informs practice
Society has a duty to protect children and young people: we have a network of professional organisations supported by legislation, polices and procedures to do this. Serious case reviews are called by the Local Safeguarding Children’s Board when a child dies and abuse or neglect are known or suspected to be a factor in the death. They involve the local authority children’s service and the police, as well as health, education and other agencies as needed. The LSCB also commissions an overview report form an independent person, which analyses the findings of the individual management reports and makes recommendations. Local authorities are required to notify Ofsted of all incidents involving children that are grave enough that they may lead to a serious case review, including where a child has died or suffered significant harm as a result of abuse or neglect, or where concerns are raised about professional practice or have attracted national media attention.
Lessons learned form serious case reviews usually include the importance of: ~ sharing information and communication
~ keeping an accurate time line of events
~clear planning roles
~overcoming the problems of hard-to-reach families
~ good assessment of the child’s situation
~early recognition of children in need of protection by mainstream services such as schools or health services ~partnership working with agencies that parents may be receiving services form – for example mental health services
A Public inquiry : an official review of events or actions ordered by the government. The report that is produced makes recommendations for improving practice.
Lord Laming produced a landmark report in 2003 following a public inquiry into the death of Victoria Climbie. She died in February 2000 of malnutrition and hypothermia, having suffered horrific abuse at the hands of her great aunt and great aunt boyfriend. A lack of communication between social workers, nurses, doctors and police officers allowed her great-aunt and her lover to torture the little girl to death. Many professionals involved in the case admitted that their workloads were too big while pay and morale were low, and that they did not communicate with one another. The inquiry made a number of key recommendations for improvements to services that led to the Children Act 2004.
This inquiry resulted form the murders of two young girls in Suffolk by a school caretaker, who was known as a danger to children by one police authority. The information had not been identified when he had a SRB check of the Independent Safeguarding Authority
1.5 Explain how the processes used by own legislation that covers data protection, information handling and sharing
The Data Protection Act 1998 covers personal information about individuals which is held by organisations. They have to keep information in a safe way that ensures other people do not get hold of it. Settings that work with children and young people have the same responsibilities: except that the information they hold is about young people and children who are vulnerable because of their age.
The Data Protection Act places responsibilities on organisations holding personal information to: ~ use it only as needed
~keep it secure
~ make sure it’s accurate
~keep it up to date
On behalf of children, adults and parents have the right under the Data Protection Act to have information corrected if it is wrong. They also have the right to claim compensation through the courts if an organisation breaches the Act and causes them damage and distress. The Data Protection Act and the Privacy and Electronic Communications Regulations also give people the right to stop personal information being used for any sort of direct marketing, such as unwanted junk mail, sales calls, or email and text massages.
2. Understand the importance of working in partnerships with other organisations to safeguard children and young people
2.1 Explain the importance of safeguarding children and young people
Far too many children and young people suffer abuse or neglect at the hands of their parents or carers.
~ a significant number of children face repeated serious and multiple forms of abuse at the hands of parents or carers ~abuse is more common in families with drug or alcohol abuse problemsSome children are more at risk that other. Studies into the prevalence of maltreatment among children with disabilities have found that these abuse and neglect than non-disabled children.
2.2 Explain the importance of a child or young person centred approach
A key feature of Every Child Matters is that each child is a unique individual who needs support form adults to achieve the best possible outcomes as they grow develop. The aim of Every Child Matters is to give all children the support they need to: ~ be healthy
~enjoy and achieve
~achieve economic well-being
All services aimed at children or young people based around individuals – planning to meet their needs, rather than for a whole group. It places children and families at the heart of policy on the basis that children and young people spend only one-fifth of their childhood at school. Because young people learn best with family support, the Children’s Plan covers all areas of children’s lives.
2.3 Explain what is mean by partnership working in the context of safeguarding
Safeguarding and promoting the welfare of children depends on effective partnership working between agencies and professionals. Each has a different role and area of expertise. The importance of partnership working runs through every aspect of safeguarding form government legislation to local working. The key elements of Every Child Matters: Change for Children are all focused on partnership working at all levels including:
~ the duty to cooperate to promote the well-being of children and young people ~the duty to make arrangements to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people ~the development of statutory Local Safeguarding Children Boards (LSCBs) ~the appointment of local directors of children’s services to coordinate local government services ~the National Service Framework for children, young people and Maternity Services bringing together all child-related health services ~The Five Outcomes Framework
~ The development of an integrated inspection framework including education, care and health inspections ~the appointment of a Children’s Commissioner
~the development of a Common Assessment Framework to ensure all agencies contribute to an assessment of a child’s needs ~workforce reform to help develop skills and ensure staffing levels
Anyone who has contact with a child or young person and has concerns about their welfare has a responsibility to pass that concern to the most appropriate agency. ‘Working Together to Safeguard Children’ (DCSF 2006) clearly sets out how individuals and organisations should work together to safeguard and promote the welfare of children and young people.
Local communityAgenciesHealth visitor
Neighboursor groupsChild heath clinicinvolved in
Family of a child Hospital
Social workerNursery or school
Leisure groups such as footballAfter school club
Swimming, cubs, brownies
Key features of effective working
~ a lead person who is responsible for coordinating actions and who acts as the main point of contact for children where more than one practitioner is involved ~ effective sharing of relevant information between agencies and practitioner.
2.4 Describe the roles and responsibilities of the different organisations that may be involved when a child or young person has been abused or harmed
When a child or young person has been abused or harmed the first line response will be at the point of the allegation or discovery.
~ Social services have statutory responsibilities to provide support to vulnerable children and families in need.( this may be after a death or when families are finding every day life difficult) ~ Health visitors have a responsibility for the health of babies and young children under five.( they provide support and guidance to the parents of young children and carry out assessments of a child’s development) ~ General Practitioners work in the community – usually form health centres – and are the gateway to other health services. GPs are often the first people to identify possible abuse when a child attends surgery.
~ Probation services support people convicted of some offences to be rehabilitated into the community. ( they have a key role in monitoring people convicted of offences against children and should ensure they do not pose a threat to local children) ~ Police are involved in the criminal proceedings that may result form safeguarding issues. ~ As all children and young people should be in education or training between the ages of 5 -18 years, schools and training organisations are key to identifying and supporting children when they are in need of help. All staff working with children and young people should be trained in safeguarding and child protection. ~ Child psychology services will often be needed to support children who have experienced abuse or harm. ~ The NSPCC is a voluntary organisation – a national charity working to eradicate child abuse.
3. Understand the importance of ensuring children and young people’s safety and protection in the work setting
3.1 Explain why is important to ensure children and young people are protected form harm within the work setting
Duty to care is a legal obligation that you all have. Professionals working in registered early years settings are expected to maintain a set of standards that reflect the government’s aim of improving the quality of life for children through the 5 positive outcomes of Every child matters. Parents leave children in the care with an expectation that they can trust you and your colleagues to keep their children form harm. It is difficult for many parents to leave their children, they need to be fully confident that their children are in safe, supportive hands with people who will help their development. Failing to meet this is a gross breach of your professional values. | Any professional working with children or young people is responsible for the care and well being of those children.
Making sure that a child is safe on or out of a care setting is of paramount importance. Not only does it make a child or young person feel safe in a learning environment but it also gives the child the security to develop and achieve from an early age. For children to be effectively protected, it is essential that everyone accepts the responsibility of their role and to also be protected in that role.
E.g. when escorting a child to the toilet or a child needs to be undressed due to any accident, it is vital that another member of staff or child is present as to not allow any allegations of misconduct. Physical contact between child and adult is important for building caring and trustworthy relationships but only when handled in an acceptable and responsible manner. There may be times, especially with younger children, occasions where a distressed or upset child needs comfort and encouragement which may include physical comforting, in these cases employees should use their discretion and common sense in order for allegations not to follow. | | | | 3.2 Explain policies and procedures that are in place to protect children and young people and adults who work with them
As well as having policies to ensure that only suitable people work in their setting, managers need to promote very clear practices and ways of working to protect both the children and adults work with. Everyone in a setting has a responsibility to work hard to promote the welfare of the children in their care.
Working in an open and transparent way
Open-plan rooms~ this ensures that no member of staff is totally alone and out of view with a child. Sharing plans and talking about different ways of working also helps to make sure that staff work in the most appropriate ways.
Listening to children and young people
Whenever possible avoid agreeing to keep something a secret. Always tell a child if you feel you need to share information- especially if you feel a safeguarding issue is involved. It is important that you record and report any concern you have about a child’s welfare; make sure you know who to go in your setting.
Power and positions of trust
If you are involved in the care of children or young people, you are working in a position of trust. You have authority over the children and parents have placed their trust in you to look after them; this brings responsibilities. People who with to occupy position of trust with children and young people and vulnerable adults have to have enhanced CRP checks.
Propriety and behaviour
Children and young people tend to respect and look up to people in position of trust. You must think carefully about your own behaviour and the example you set to children and young people in your care.
Young children need physical contact; in they have fallen over, a cuddle can help them to recover and get back to playing. However, too much physical contact can be easily misunderstood. Make sure you are familiar with what is acceptable. Taking a child to the toilet, changing a nappy or helping a child change out of soiled clothes are all normal everyday tasks; but never do any of these in a room with the door closed or out of sight of other member of staff. Remembering this protects not only the child but yourself as well.
Photographs and video recordings
Photographing or videoing activities in any setting are great ways to let parents see what their children have been doing.
~ photos and videos are not available to anyone other than parents and carers ~always make sure that parents have given permission for photos to be taken ~check your policy on parents taking photos or videos.
3.3 Evaluate ways in which concerns about poor practice can be reported whilst ensuring that whistle blowers and those whose practice or behaviour is being questioned are protected
At some stage in with children you may be faced with the problem of what to do about someone whose practice is unacceptable.You must not ignore poor practice – no matter who it is being carried out by. ( It can be very difficult to report someone you work with – or even your manager)
How to whistle blow:
~think about exactly what is worrying you and why ~approach your supervisor, manager or safeguarding named person ~tell someone about your concerns as soon as you feel you can ~put your concerns in writing, outlining the background and history, giving names, dates and places where you can ~,ale sure something happens
Whistle blowing does take courage. ( there is the risk of being bullied or harassed as a result) But anyone who whistle blows has the right to protection from the person they have raised concerns about. If you suffer as a result of a whistle blowing incident the UK Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 offers legal protection.
3.4 Explain how practitioners can take steps to protect themselves within their everyday practice in the work setting and on off site visits
A significant element of a practitioner’s role in protecting themselves would be to read policies and procedures that are put in place to safeguard them and children or young people in their care. In a care setting a professional can protect themselves by:~ Avoid being alone in a closed room with a child.~ Two members of staff must be present if a child needs to be undressed in the event of an accident.~ If a child is collected late by a parent/carer then two staff members must stay until the child is collected.~ Always be seen to working in an open and transparent way where there is either visual access or an open door, especially in one to one situations.
~ Avoid meetings with children or young people in an isolated or private area of a care setting.It would be unrealistic to recommend that a member of staff should touch children or young people only in emergencies as very few people would agree with that, especially when young children can become so distressed in certain situations and a cuddle or close contact is needed by the child. Physical contact, guides and support are necessary in a range of settings appropriate to the age of the child and the circumstances at that time. Settings should provide a clear guidance about when and how the physical contact should be used in order to protect both staff and children. Effective management of risk should become automatic as you become more experienced. For every activity you plan, you should think about the hazards, the likelihood of the hazard occurring and the control measures. Risk~ the outcome or likely impact of the hazard associated with the activity to be undertaken
Hazard~ something that has the potential to cause harm Likelihood ~ the probability of any harm from the hazard actually happening Control measure~ any activity or measures put in place to control or minimise identified risks In the case of educational visits, professionals should always carry out a full risk assessment of that visit, under the Health and Safety at work regulations Act 1999 it requires employers to assess the risks of activities, introduce measures to control these risks and inform employees of these measures. Before a trip can be arranged employers must follow the necessary policies and procedures as follows: ~Age, competence, fitness and the standard behaviour of the children and young people.~ Any special educational or medical needs of the children.~ Adult to children ratio. ~ The competence and qualifications of the accompanying adults.~ Modes of transport and location of visit.~ Emergency procedures.~ Permission from parents.~ Relevant medical or dietary needs of children. | | 4. Understand how to respond to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been abused or harmed | |
4.1 Describe the possible signs, symptoms, indicators and behaviours that may cause concern in the context of safeguarding
It is important that you are aware of the indications of child abuse. Not every sing means a child is being abused. Sometimes the first signs that you observe are not physical but a change in behaviour. It is important that you record your concerns and monitor any unexplained changes in a child’s behaviour. Sometimes a child may be experiencing more than one type of abuse.
Physical abuse is when a child is physically hurt or injured ( hitting, kicking, beating with objects, throwing and shaking are all physical abuse, and cause pain, cuts bruising, broken bones and sometimes even death)
Sings and symptoms of physical abuse can include:
~ unexplained recurrent injuries of burns
~wearing heavy cloth to cover injuries, even in hot weather
~refusal to undressing
~ bald patches of hair
~ repeated running away form home
~ fear of medical examination
~aggression towards self and others
~fear of physical contact, shrinking back if approached or touched
Many signs of physical abuse can be confused with genuine accidental
injuries, but they are often not in the places or distributed as you would expect. Sometimes the explanation does not fit the injury, or you may see the outline of a belt buckle or cigarette burn. Suspicion should be aroused if the parents have not sought medical advice soon after the injury occurred.
Emotional abuse occurs when children are not given love, approval or acceptance. They may be constantly criticised, blamed, sworn and shouted at, told that other people are better than they are. Emotional abuse also involves withholding love and affection. It is often linked with neglect
Signs and symptoms of emotional abuse can include:
~ delayed development
~sudden speech problems such as stammering
~fear of any new situations
~extremes of withdrawal or aggression
Neglect, which can result in failure to thrive, is when parents or others looking after children do not provide them whit proper food, warmth, shelter, clothing, care and protection
Signs and symptoms of neglect can include:
~poor personal hygiene
~poor state of clothing
~unusual thinness or lack of normal body weight
~untreated medical problems
~ no social relationships
~ stealing food
Sexual abuse is when a child is forced or persuaded into sexual acts or situations by others. Children may be encouraged to look at pornography, be harassed by sexual suggestions or comments, be touched sexually or forced to have sex.
Signs and symptoms of neglect can include:
~sexual knowledge of behaviour that is inappropriate to the child’s age ~medical problems such as chronic itching, pain in the genitals, venereal die ~depression, self-mutilation, suicide attempts, running away, overdoses or anorexia ~personality changes (becoming insecure or clinging)
~regressing to younger behaviour patterns (thumb-sucking, cuddly toys) ~sudden loss of appetite or compulsive eating
~being isolated or withdrawn
~inability to concentrate
~lack of trust or fear of someone they know well, (wanting to be alone with babysitter, child minder)
~starting to wet or soil again, day or night
~becoming worried about clothing being removed
~drawing sexually explicit pictures
~trying to be ‘ultra-good or perfect, overreacting to criticism
4.2 Describe the actions to take if a child or young person alleges harm or abuse in line with policies and procedures of own setting
All settings that have contact with children and young people must have clear policies and procedures to follow in all cases of abuse. Staff must have training in these and organisation for dealing with the situation.
Disclosure of abuse by a child can occur at any time and it can be a shock to hear details. The way an allegation is received can be very important in the outcome to a child, even many years later. There have been many examples in the past of children not being believed at the time they declared their experience often resulting in serious problems later in life.
Disclosure of abuse ~ when a child tells or implies to you that he or she has been abused
4.3 Explain the rights that children, young people and their carers have in situations where harm or abuse is suspected or alleged 44 | |
Children and their parents or carers have important rights even in cases of suspected abuse. Most children feel loyal towards those who care for them even when they have been responsible for the abuse, and have difficulty saying anything against them. In situation where harm or abuse is suspected or alleged, it is important to remember the following guidelines.
~ children and young people should receive help so they can express themselves fully, understand what is happening and the decisions that have to be made. ~ a child or young person has a right not to be subjected to repeated medical examinations or questioning following any allegation of abuse, whether of a physical or sexual nature ~family members normally have the right to know what is being said about them and to contribute to important decisions about their lives and those of their children ~children should be kept fully informed of processes involving them, should be consulted sensitively and decisions about their future should take account of their views
5. Understand how to respond to evidence or concerns that a child or young person has been bullied
Bullying and the fear of bullying are major worries for many children and young people.
Explain different types of bullying and the potential effects on children and young people
The victims of bullying are usually different in some way form the bully, the differences may be as simple as a different physical characteristic or being seen as a swot. Bullying can be specific. The basis for the bullying it can be one or more of the following forms:
~ physical (pushing, kicking hitting, pinching and other forms of violence or threats) ~verbal (name-calling, insults, sarcasm, spreading rumours, persistent teasing) ~ emotional ( including not speaking to and excluding someone, tormenting ridicule, humiliation) ~cyber-bullying ( the use of information and communications technology particularly mobile phones and the internet, deliberately to upset someone else)
Bullying can be carried out by one person against another, or by groups of people ‘ ganging up’ on a person. Bullying is not always delivered as a personal face -to- face attack, but can also be delivered through technology.
Threatened or attempted suicideDepression
Running awayLow self esteem
Poor academic achievement
There are many reasons and possibilities as to why people bully, most of the time it’s because the victim is different in some way. Below are some of the differences why someone might be bullied: Someone’s appearance (e.g. hair colour or style, height)
Someone’s sexual orientation
Someone being jealous
Both males and females are capable of carrying out a vicious attack such as bullying on others. Some bullies only do it to uphold their reputation and look “hard”. Another reason would be either sex of a bully trying to maintain their superficial superiority. Many bullies only bully others out of jealousy and many of the people who have been bullied go on to do great things with their life, like some famous people who have been bullied.
5.2 Outline the policies and procedures that should be followed in response to concerns or evidence of bullying and explain the reasons why they are in place
All schools are required by low to have anti-bulling policies in place but these vary in how they are worded and the subsequent actions that need to be taken. Schools must also have policies to encourage good behaviour and respect for others on the part for others on the part of pupils. The Department for Education is clear that no form of bullying should be tolerated. Bullying should be taken very seriously; it is not a normal part of growing up and it can ruin lives. The current anti-bulling guidance for schools: Safe to learn: embedding anti-bulling work in schools was launched in September 2007
5.3 Explain how to support a child or young person and /or their family when bullying is suspected or alleged
When dealing with someone who is being bullied it is important to remember that they will be very upset although they may not show it on the outside. If they have plucked up the courage to talk to you then they need to know you will take the problem seriously. In the case of an older child, it is a good idea to ask them to write down exactly what happened and who was there so that you can speak to other people. The more information you have, the better you will be able to deal with the problem and the faster you can sort out exactly what happened. Reassure the victim that you will be back in touch with them as soon as you have completed your investigation and that if there are any more problems in the meantime they must let you know immediately.
Supporting the family
Parents can find it very hard to know how to help their child if they are being bullied. Some parents will have to cope with the news that it is their child who is a bully. You need to know to support parents in both these cases. Listen to parents; let them explain how they are feeling. Direct them to useful information so that they can start to think how to support their child.
6. Understand how to work with children and young people to support their safety and well-being
6.1 Explain how to support children and young people’s self-confidence and self-esteem
Children and young people who are:
~and have high self-esteem
are less likely to be vulnerable to abuse. A child who has high self-esteem will do better in many aspects of development. Self esteem can be supported by:
~giving lots of praise and encouragement
~encouraging independence and choice, with many opportunities to try things out ~teaching children how to be assertive ( which means having their own needs met but still respecting those of others) ~encouraging cooperation, respect and tolerance between children, and giving a positive example yourself
6.2 Analyse the importance of supporting resilience in children and young people
Resilience is the ability to deal with the ups and down of life and is based on self-esteem. The more resilience a child is the better they will deal with life as they grow and develop into adulthood.
Many factors can positively affect a child’s resilience:
~secure early attachment
~confidence of being loved by family and friends
~good sense of self-identity
~ability to act independently
~confidence to try new things
6.3 Explain why it is important to work with the child or young person to ensure they have strategies to protect themselves and make decisions about safety
The important thing for all children to remember is that they should never feel uncomfortable about someone the are with or something being done to them. Children and young people need support to be able to keep themselves safe. It is important to be available to talk with children about any concerns they may have. If they are upset by a reported case of abuse, be as reassuring as possible. Stress that almost all children lead safe and happy lives and only a very few adults want to hurt children in any way.
Using correct anatomical language, at a level appropriate to the child, is important when you are talking about bodies. Simple, age-appropriate sessions, linked to other activities, on how the human body works help children to understand what their bodies can do and raise awareness of what is normal and what is not. Sessions on ‘body maintenance’ should be an integral part of children’s education,not just to warn them of the danger of misuse. The Keep safe Code produced by Kids cape is an effective way of getting across the message about personal safety to young children. Older children need more detailed information such as: ~ lessons on normal sexual function, related to adult behaviour ( relevant to your setting’s policy ~information about misuse of their bodies, through smoking, alcohol and illegal drugs ~the risks of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (chlamydia, herpes, gonorrhoea,..)
Help from other organisations
Organisations such as Kidscape, Childeline and the NSPCC can help eith information and guidance on these topics. It is important to use them
properly and be sure that information is accurate and used to best effect.
6.4 Explain ways of empowering children and young people to make positive and informed choices that support their well being and safety.
Children and young people need to be empowered to keep themselves safe. Children will always push boundaries and take risks – that is how we all learn. Your role is to manage those risks without taking away their independence. When they are empowered, and can make their own choices, the are able to do things alone and without supervision.
7. Understand the importance of e-safety for children and young people
7.1 Explain the risks and possible consequences for children and young people of being online and of using a mobile phone
This is an admirable ambition, with huge benefits for everyone – especially in relation to research and learning. But it is also fraught with danger as the Internet and mobile network also offer possibilities tor the abuse of children and young people. Most children and young people have access to the Internet and the use of a mobile phone. Both offer benefits to children but equally can expose them to threats to their safety and well-being. The Internet, mobile phones and video games pose a number of risks to children and young people – including cyber – bullying, access to unsuitable sites, exposure to commercial sites and danger form adults seeking to exploit children.
7.2 Describe ways of reducing risk to children and young people from:
~ social networking
~ internet use
~ buying online
~ using a mobile phone
Short of banning all access to the Internet and mobile phones it is not possible to eliminate the risks to children and young people. But is is possible to build children’s resilience to the material to which they may be exposed, so that they have the confidence and skills to use the Internet more safely. The Byron Review identified three key objectives to protect children: ~reduce availability
~increase resilience to harmful and inappropriate material online.
There are number of measures available that start to meet some of these objectives including:
~ parental controls that allow Internet sites with unsuitable material to be limited
~blocks on use
~improving the knowledge, skills and understanding around e-safety of children, parents and other responsible adults
Ways in which you can help to improve children’s knowledge and skills include:
~ making them aware of the dangers
~helping them to develop the skills to recognise danger
~supporting them in dealing with situations they are not happy with.Combined with a sensible approach, such as making sure that children do not spend time on the computer unsupervised or for too long a period of time – these tools can make using the Internet a useful and enjoyable experience. Education of parents and carers are less skilled at using the Internet than their children are and may not be aware of the dangers of how to control access to certain material.