An important requirement for writing is the completeness of the content; the validity of the provisions put forward, the credibility of the conclusions. These qualities can be achieved through quotations, skillfully and appropriately included in the text of the essay.
Quotations in the work are literally transmitted excerpts from works of art, critical articles, statements by writers or any other sources. They are given by the authors of the works in order to support and confirm their thoughts.
When using quotes, the following requirements must be met:
- The citations quoted must correspond to the content of the position confirmed by them, as well as the entire work;
- Quotations should not overburden essays; they should be used expediently and purposefully. The introduction of the quote to the text should be accompanied by the necessary generalizations, conclusions, reasoning;
- Any quote is included in the text of the composition and is drawn up according to certain rules.
How to Cite a Website/Book/an Article/Quote in an Essay
Answering this question, it is important to say that each formatting style has its own specific rules. Thus, citing any source in an essay is necessary to come from the requirements of a formatting style; however, general rules mentioned above are still in force.
MLA Citation Format
MLA is a style, developed by the Modern Languages Association. It is used by scientists, publishers of journals, academic and commercial press, usually in the field of humanities.
MLA in text citations should be output according to the following rules. Each MLA quote is highlighted with quotation marks. It is necessary to indicate the author and the cited page at the end of the quotation in parentheses, or you can specify the author at the beginning of the sentence, and leave the page number at the end.
When citing a website MLA, it is also necessary to follow basic rules. An only exception is a number of the page which in this case is absent. So it is needed to mention only an author, but if his name is unknown, it allowed to specify the name of a website in brackets.
In the case of citing a book, it is also possible to paraphrase a quotation. In this case, the citation itself should not be taken in parentheses, but it is still needed to mention the author’s name and a page number.
How to Properly Cite Sources in an Essay
The citation should be applied in research papers and essays in order to reinforce the reliability of one’s own opinion by referring to more authoritative sources, which makes linguistic work scientifically sound, emphasizes its originality.
The basic citation rules are as follows:
1) The appropriateness and validity of the inclusion of quotations and your own text, the precise definition of their number and boundaries;
2) There should be no duplication of the main text of the work;
3) Authors should be quoted directly according to their works;
4) Exact correspondence to the source, without distortion and omissions, changing the meaning, spelling, and punctuation.
How to Cite References/Information/Sources in an Essay
1) The quotation is always entered in the text in quotation marks;
2) The citation is entered in the text with a capital letter if in the author’s text it also begins with a capital letter;
3) The quotation starts with a capital letter also if the quote is in the sentence with a direct speech;
4) The quotation is entered in the text with a capital letter if it starts with a sentence or phrase (even if only part of the sentence with a pass at the beginning is taken from the author’s text);
5) The quotation is made from the lowercase letter if it is included in the syntactic system of the sentence as a part of it and does not begin the sentence itself;
6) The citation is made from a lowercase letter if the first words are omitted in it, and it is placed inside the sentence, including with direct speech.
In the text of any scientific work, direct (citation) or indirect (paraphrase) use of materials from scientific sources is mandatory. Links to sources and authors are required. In the case of direct borrowing of someone else’s author’s text without reference to the source, such borrowing is called plagiarism.
Some Other Rules:
- It is strictly forbidden to combine in one citation passages that were taken from different quoted sources. Each passage should be in the form of a separate quote;
- If the expression is not cited in full, but in abbreviated or unfinished form (the quotation is taken out by a separate phrase from the context), instead of missing sentences or words, dots should be put. With a reduction in the quotation, it is important to monitor the logical completeness of the expression;
- It is forbidden to enter a quotation, which occupies more than 10% of the total volume of the text. Excessive quoting not only makes your text stereotyped but also disrupts the possibility of its easy perception;
- It is inadmissible to quote authors whose texts are indicated by the copyright protection symbol – ©. Mostly this concerns research papers and research articles. In this case, the variant of the modification of the text (the transmission of the meaning of a fragment in one’s own words) with an optional reference to the original source is allowed.