How to make Electric Two Wheeler Vehicles: The Mango ProjectAbstractWith problems like global oil reserves being declined and the pollution levels significantly increased over the years all over the globe leading to global warming, ozone layer depletion, etc. Governments all over the world are adopting ways to eradicate this mess and one of them is to replace the conventional vehicles with electric vehicle which depend on battery for operation. This paper gives an in-depth knowledge and steps as to how one can develop electric vehicles from scratch.
IntroductionIn 1600 when William Gilbert an English scientist wrote De Magente he had discovered and coined the term electricity. Gilbert wouldn’t have thought how the use of electricity has changed over the years; it is used to power almost everything from a smartphone to an electric vehicle. The first electric vehicle was concocted in mid-19th Century and since then they have evolved a lot. Busting all the myths electric vehicle’s design has been perfected, the range and speed have significantly improved as well.
Currently in India, the transport sector is one of the major contributors of carbon dioxide emission and according to data taken in the year 2012-13, the transportation sector contributes for 14% of India’s energy-related Carbon dioxide emissions. 590550967105Figure 1 ChartDiagramFigureGraphPlateScheme|Production of Vehicles in India. Prepared by data from Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (2018). Available at: 1 ChartDiagramFigureGraphPlateScheme|Production of Vehicles in India. Prepared by data from Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (2018). Available at: transport, which is the preferred mode of transportation in India, has seen a substantial increase in terms of the number of vehicles, one of the reasons for this might be the increase in the overall income of the population. So to limit the pollution level in the country people must switch to electric or hybrid vehicles over conventional vehicles.|Choose orientationPortraitLandscapeChoose widthFull widthColumn FitChoose placementTopHereBottomSet custom widthAdd captionTurning it off makes the figure non-citable.Delete Figure|2 Emergence of electric vehicles2.1 Limitations of conventional vehiclesThe conventional vehicles have their own limitations and it’s time to replace them with ones which are more efficient. Here are some of the limitations of the conventional vehicles:1. Loss of energy in the engine: The theoretical peak efficiency of an engine is limited by the air standard cycle. Achieving the theoretical peak efficiency is practically impossible for mainly the following reasons: Loss of heat through the walls of the cylinder and compression of fuel at limited compression ratios because of knock 2. Gases from exhaust in the air leading to pollution.3. Effects of inertia. 2.2 Advantages of Electric vehiclesThe following are the reasons why electric vehicles are better than the Conventional VehiclesZero Emission: The main reason for transition from conventional to electric vehicles is the later has zero emission and pollution is a major problem in cities all over the globe. Since electric vehicles don’t emit exhaust gases they are a better option Motors are more efficient: Electric vehicles generate energy from batteries that drive the motors which creates motion. Plenty of energy is actually wasted with the conventional vehicle, with the wasted energy converted to heat.Maintenance is affordable and easy: Unlike the conventional vehicles, electric vehicles don’t require change of oil. They just need a check on the efficiency of the battery and motor.|Table 1:|Estimated Benefits: Table is created by the authors Using the data available at: Mark € Brief descriptionEconomic (Cost-benefit analysis) € Traffic congestion on Delhi roads costs around $10 billion or about Rs 60,000 crore annually. This is on account of fuel waste due to idling of vehicles, productivity loss, air pollution and road crashes all of this will be reduced at a significant rate.Employment generation € The new vehicle design will improve the employment, not only in the production sector, but eventually the improved design will help in the wider use of the mango project and thus will create more employment.Environmental € According to a survey conducted by IIT Delhi in 2015, two wheeler vehicles contribute about 33% of the total PM10 particles in the National Capital. Mango has the potential to change the sector drastically.|Choose widthFull widthColumn fitChoose placementTopHereBottomChoose orientationPortraitLandscapeAdd footnoteAdd captionTurning it off makes the table non-citable.Add HeaderAuto-break tableMake header repeatingDelete TableInsertInsert 1 column leftInsert 1 column rightInsert 1 row aboveInsert 1 row belowMerge cellsSplit cellHighlight0%Add bottom ruleDelete entire columnDelete entire rowDesignThe first thing while making an electric vehicle is to establish the design. The manufacturer can either develop a new design of their own or choose an existing vehicle and use it like a donor vehicle. In the mango project the authors decided to adopt a donor vehicle and use its chassis to develop the electric vehicle. Here are the steps one should follow if they decide to use a donor vehicle Step 01: Make crucial lines and points with the help of the reference image of the bike frame and insert dimensions while making adjustments|-400050-400050Figure 2 Made by the authors on the softwareChartDiagramFigureGraphPlateScheme00Figure 2 Made by the authors on the softwareChartDiagramFigureGraphPlateScheme2886074-400050Figure 3 Links drawn with the help of line diagram by the authorsChartDiagramFigureGraphPlateScheme00Figure 3 Links drawn with the help of line diagram by the authorsChartDiagramFigureGraphPlateScheme|Choose orientationPortraitLandscapeChoose widthFull widthColumn FitChoose placementTopHereBottomSet custom widthAdd captionTurning it off makes the figure non-citable.Delete Figure|Step 02: Make perpendicular construction lines from these reference lines as per the required measurements for the frame dimension|Choose orientationPortraitLandscapeChoose widthFull widthColumn FitChoose placementTopHereBottomSet custom widthAdd captionTurning it off makes the figure non-citable.Delete FigureStep 03: Join the end points of these perpendicularly drawn lines resulting in basic skeleton of the frame|2981325123825Figure 5 Introduction of pipes to the remaining model00Figure 5 Introduction of pipes to the remaining model-295275133985Figure 4 Introduction of pipes into the modelChartDiagramFigureGraphPlateScheme|00Figure 4 Introduction of pipes into the modelChartDiagramFigureGraphPlateScheme||Choose orientationPortraitLandscapeChoose widthFull widthColumn FitChoose placementTopHereBottomSet custom widthAdd captionTurning it off makes the figure non-citable.Delete Figure|Step 04: Since the diameter and thickness of the pipes used in the frame are not equal throughout the frame; make profile of different pipes used in the frame.|ChartDiagramFigureGraphPlateScheme|Choose orientationPortraitLandscapeChoose widthFull widthColumn FitChoose placementTopHereBottomSet custom widthAdd captionTurning it off makes the figure non-citable.Delete Figure|Step 05: Using these pipe profiles start constructing the frame with similar dimensions pipe first and so on|center0Figure 6 The final three-dimensional model of the chassis prepared by the authors00Figure 6 The final three-dimensional model of the chassis prepared by the authorsChartDiagramFigureGraphPlateScheme||Choose orientationPortraitLandscapeChoose widthFull widthColumn FitChoose placementTopHereBottomSet custom widthAdd captionTurning it off makes the figure non-citable.Delete Figure|MotorChoosing the right motor is of the crucial steps involved while making the electric vehicle as it is the part which drives the vehicle. Currently the two type of motors available in the market are the DC Motors and the Brush-less DC(BLDC) motors. The BLDC motors are generally used by the manufactures as they don’t have any brushes and run longer with better efficiency and easy maintenance. The manufacturer should choose the BLDC motor according to their requirement of torque and wattage. There are a wide range of models available in the market and generally the motor manufacturer sells the controller programmed to control the motor along with it. One can always buy a separate programmable controller to attach with the motor according to the requirement of the project.|31242003810Figure 8 BLDC Motor mounted on the chassis00Figure 8 BLDC Motor mounted on the chassis-2667004445Figure 7 Design of BLDC motor prepared by the authors00Figure 7 Design of BLDC motor prepared by the authorsChartDiagramFigureGraphPlateScheme||Choose orientationPortraitLandscapeChoose widthFull widthColumn FitChoose placementTopHereBottomSet custom widthAdd captionTurning it off makes the figure non-citable.Delete Figure||ChartDiagramFigureGraphPlateScheme||Choose orientationPortraitLandscapeChoose widthFull widthColumn FitChoose placementTopHereBottomSet custom widthAdd captionTurning it off makes the figure non-citable.Delete FigureGear RatioSprocket is mounted on the motor spindle and connected through a chain with a gear mounted on the rear wheel. Gear ratio plays an important role in attaining the top speed of the vehicle. The following equation gives the value for top speed of the vehicle:Motor RpmGear Ratio—Wheel Diameter(cm)—dD—TEditDelete” Where d= 100; D=1000; T=60 center0Figure 9 Graph of Top Speed V/s Gear ratio prepared by the authors using the above formula00Figure 9 Graph of Top Speed V/s Gear ratio prepared by the authors using the above formula|ChartDiagramFigureGraphPlateScheme||Choose orientationPortraitLandscapeChoose widthFull widthColumn FitChoose placementTopHereBottomSet custom widthAdd captionTurning it off makes the figure non-citable.Delete Figure|BatteryThere are various kinds of battery available in the market but mainly lead acid batteries and lithium ion batteries are used. The comparison of the two is given below:Maintenance: Li-ion once installed doesn’t require regular maintenance while lead acid batteries do.Cost: The pilot expenditure involved with Li-ion batteries is higher than lead acid batteries. Weight: The Li-ion batteries are lighter in weight when compared to the lead acid batteries Range: The range of lead acid batteries is lower than Li-ion batteriesChoosing the right type of battery is important as it determines the range of the vehicle. But choosing the voltage and current output is equally important. The following formula can be used to determine the battery capacity: “EditDelete” Range=Usage CapacityWh/mile Total Capacity= Voltage X ahFor Li-ion Batteries the usable capacity is 80% of the total capacity.Usable Capacity= 0.80 X Total CapacityWh/mile=Weight/10The manufacturer can use the above formula to determine the required value of voltage and current according to their requirements. ResultsThe above mentioned elements are the basic requirements to develop an electric vehicle and provide a basic guide to make an electric vehicle and subject to change with future developments.AcknowledgmentsThe authors would like to thank The NorthCap University and ISH Precision Tools for offering assistance and support.References Wisdom Enang, Chris Bannister. Modelling and control of hybrid electric vehicles (a comprehensive review); University of Bath, Bath, UK; Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 74, 2017, p1210-39. 5 Advantages of electric vehicle( 2017 Cars not to blame for Delhi pollution ( 2015 Gear Ratio, RPM and Top Speed Calculation ( Range Formula Explained ( 2017
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How to make Electric Two Wheeler Vehicles. (2019, Aug 20). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/how-to-make-electric-two-wheeler-vehicles-essay
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