How femininities and masculinities were constructed in Latin America
How femininities and masculinities were constructed in Latin America
The upsurge of the American culture has vehemently exploded across the world in general, but in particular in the Latin America, where the conventional living styles have been upset. From the Caracas to Havana, feminism and masculinity have been snared. Socially, a new social fabric is in the memory where gender polarity is being erased to pave way for a neoman who neither recognizes nor respects individual external orientations.
Though in numerous cases education system in different courses have recognized the fauna and flora into two distinct groups based on anatomical feature; a good proportion of the modern people have failed to respect this early natural innovation.
As far as human studies reveals, the aftermath of long researches with devotion and dedications from global scientists has to be alluded for verification and confirmatory of the kind evolutions that might have taken place. Perhaps, it can be claimed that biologists, psychologists and other individuals in the anthropological research and studies have over the time been disillusioned on their work. (Viveros, 2001)
The two terminologies of masculinity and femininity have been widely used in the research involving human being. They have been used primarily in researches in the field of science of biology, sociology and medicine. Despite their wide application in the scientific world, these terms have been used to bring a sense of gender category/ identity.
Both masculinity and femininity are two opposite terms which etymologically were derived from the word male and female respectively. In spite of their derivation, masculinity and maleness are widely distinct entities, hence they have meaning which are quite unrelated. Similarly, femininity and femaleness has different application to bring different meanings.
Advances in education and technology in defense of new world, masculinity and femininity meanings have been diffused, and this has led to flooding of different characteristics to define them, thus impressive characteristics such as communion and separations by Balkan are widely adopted. (Stern, 2001)
Overall, distinguishing of such terminologies has over the decades been confusing, throwing most readers out of the track. Sex and gender are the most perplexing words especially in relation to masculinity and femininity. However, the recent simplicity of these indicates the body as being the sex while gender is the complexities which are portrayed by the body.
This sophistication thus comprises of the body behavior, the mental thinking and the general features which describes the personality of an individual (Gutmann, 1970). Therefore, masculinity and femininity are highly rooted on the gender term rather than sex. Masculinities and femininities are gendered terms which refers to behavioral characteristics that are distinctive and general pronounced in give sex.
The study of females and males in gender revealed context is something that has not taken place in an overnight elapse; however, this is estimated to have been in existence for more than a century. Approximately, femininity and masculinity studies have lasted from late 19th century and early 20th century up to date.
First and foremost, men’s interest on the study of gender work was more inclined in the field of social activities. The arousal of gender related interest was emanating from the many numerous mistreatments that were inflicted on the females by the male counterparts. Since the first inscriptive work concerning gender issues, inequalities in the society were eminent with much exploitation of the females.
Thus the imbalances and disparities which are still distinctive in the currently world’s community are the traces of scalds which were inflicted by our forefathers. Variations on behavior and other inherent characters of the males and females in the communities of the Latin America are conspicuous features not only to the Latin America but to the other communities within the United States (Viveros, 2001).
Masculinity and femininity has been displayed in numerous ways in the Latin America. The intimacy of power and sexuality is like nut and bolt. Since the creation of human nature, they have always fitted into each other forming a bound which is hard to break. Over the year, sexual powers have played major role in the maintenance of procreation process in the board. Sexual power on either side of femininity and masculinity has been of great value over the formation of couple families.
Man and female partners have served as great firms; each housing within it very important commodities of pressure and live. Although the firm machines is fueled by spiritual means, the running the firms to produce an extraordinary products has always been threatened. While market places are set up for commodities exhibitions, jargonization has taken place in the market place of the firm established and their commodities are neither valued nor can they enter the targeted marketed audiences. This was earlier perceived by Marx, hence, according to his elucidation of commodity, he pointed out that the process of change has got far reaching consequences. (Sallie, 2000)
Family life in the Latin America has been dominated with capitalism, with men trying to harvesting unfairly on what they did not deserve. Repressive and coercive environments raged among many house in the Latin America couple compelling the females to submissive condition. For a number of decades, violence combined with oppression on the Latin America women was usual tolerance of the family life.
Through well strategic and tactical ways, manipulations were legally and illegally set to capture the commodity. This conformed to the works of Bauman, whom in his work, he found that consumption was so much important to capitalist and therefore, during the early times, there were deficiency in erecting effective barrier to the consumer. Women were handicapped economically and socially making them vulnerable to challenges of men.
Women situations have always been challenged to that of men by the variations of the availability of the commodities and consumers. Like a tourists in foreign land, the proportion of women to men has always been at an alarming level, paving the way for capitalistic men to maneuver their way from entangles of monogamy to polygamy and other kind of behavior misconducts.
Bauman said “ our desired are constantly recycled, reinvented and even invented in relation to new products, the endless pursuits for new, which fuses the thrill of invention with the status afforded innovations and newness in most of the world”. Through commodities rareness and scarcity in the Latin America, thrilling and tempting emotions painful punctures the lives of the women making them to surrender the demands of nature. This means natural hierarchy of human power was hence established from the sexuality and its connection to power was thus imbued from creation and continued in human life by inequality (Sueann, 1998).
The liberation of the females from the bondages of sexual powers has taken a long struggle. Men have always dominated the females either under the influence of laws of under the ignorance and pride of man. Masculinity and femininity in the Latin America has raised a lot of heated debates over the recent decades due to its continued oppressive nature on both men and women.
Though the laws of the Latin America have endeavored to perpetuate the moral thinking of most religious groups such as Christianity, Islamic and many others, the imposing of state power to prohibiting homosexually was impinging making Latin American females to tolerate the unwelcoming condition dominancy of the males. While lesbianism and gay remained prohibited marriage practices in the Latin American region, the citizens were enslaved to the adherence to heterosexual partnership, which was termed as bleach of freedom and liberty from colonial sovereignties.
Under the disguise of moral conservations on reproduction, men were privileged to exercise political power which degenerated and deprived off the women freedom of leadership on politics generating a lot of criticism from human right activists. The expression of masculinity and femininity in the society has therefore been a battling matter between the societies, the religions other organization such human right bodies. However, the diversification of masculinity and femininity has solely been propelled through the authorities of the states governments.
With the hurricanes and hailstorms of change in culture and traditions, scores of Europeans nations as well as numerous United States have been thrown to the seas of homosexuality with great acceptance. The desire for freed men and women has been the main argument for the easy penetration of the modernized homogeneity of masculinity and femininity. (Stern, 2001)
Although there is now generalized acceptance in homosexuality in the globe, some states mostly in developed continents have remained adamant to the forces and pressures of the multitude move, hence, heterosexuality which has been dominating marriage and sex practices for many years is still conserved. According to the works of Sallie, it is observed that not only did most Latin American government prohibit the practices of homosexuality, but they have also abolished use of natural commodities as means of exploitation of fellow men.
Thus, both homosexuals and commercial heterosexuals never escape the legal authorities, but mercilessly and without impunity faces the full charges of legal courts where they duly pay their debts. Masculinity and femininity has therefore been maintained in place despites the enormous forces to dissolve it by the authority and the communities themselves. The severity and weight of homosexuality has been varied from one Latin American state to another.
Like in the antiquity of the Israelites, prostitution and homosexuality are illegal in the face of Ecuador dwellers. Besides illegalization of these behaviors, homosexuals and prostitutes in the Ecuador risks their lives to physical abuse which consequently can lead to instant deprivation of live through public stoning or gun shooting. In Brazil, the Brazilians are much more lenient on the maintenance of the healthy community with diversified masculinities and femininities.
There is feeling that these are unethical practices, hence Brazilians have outlawed them by just concealing them from the public innocent persons, while on the black points such as brothels far from schools, residential places and other hidden places are business as usual. Undoubtedly, this can be perceived as strategy which is employed to eliminate the paupers either economically of in color discriminatory means. (Peake, 1990)
For many decades which have passed over, it was unthinkable for the Brazilian females to get involved into risky relationships as it is rampant in the today world. The moral compulsion together with the cultural laws sternly denied chances of loose living of both brazened girls and mothers in honor of virginity. Virginity among the young girls was so precious that, if it was lost in any undeserving ways, valuable returns were paid by the offenders for not less than five years.
The search and confirmatory work of the virginity in the Brazilians advanced technology and knowledge in the field of medicine. At first, lack of enough knowledge about the anatomical sex examination led to numerous errors from inexperienced practitioners. This perhaps led to imposing of unfair punishments to the perpetrators of the legal laws concerning defilements and other related matters. According to Sales, this was an overwhelming opportunity in medical fields especially in Brazil where the government shouldered the task of deflowering examinations.
In the eve of the praise of virginity as an honor to the female, Manoel and Maria Pereira appeared in the system of justices in search for honor of virginity. While to the Europeans, deflowering was like a norm, the Brazilians felt that it was an act of guiltiness which could only be compensated fully by marriage union. Hence, Peixoto said “…the scarcity of women makes them so precious, that upon loss of virginity, they promptly demand due repair by marriage”. (Buckley, 1999)
The value that was attached to virginity and more to the hymen was unparalleled. Thus, from the ancients time when live was worthy living, most Latin Americas females honored their virginity to the extent that they would commit serious offences like murder rather than losing it. Like a jewel, virginity was preserved by most of females in the Brazilian community of Latinos. Due to the efforts to preserve the culturally valued jewel, men who trespassed in snatching it were heavily reprimanded in the justice systems. This saw justice systems being filled with abnormal number of deflowering disputes.
Surprisingly, the majority of the seeker for justices hailed from lower class women of the society, which lead to the inappropriate conclusion that they were only sexually preoccupied as result of race, ignorance, climates and the upbringing environment which lead them to have undeveloped moral and mental cultures. (Sallie, 2000)
Like many other kinds of cultural practices, the culture on virginity was skewed giving men much opportunity on the freedom of sexual matters more than females. While the acts of deflowering were sternly against the laws of lands, the resolutions were quite simplified through the acceptance of the offender to make marriage with the deflowered female. The continuation of the culture and tradition with increased value attached to virginity, men obtained the status of polygamous marriage which was not only a symbol of wealthy, but this increased their honor in the community.
The fact that females were getting married as second wives, thus, they accepted to live as concubine, which meant that men’s virginity was neither an issues nor was it considered as of any value during marriage time. Therefore, men had full freedom and liberty to engage to any number marriage relationships of the opposite sex, while females found themselves adhering to only single man’s relationship that made them to lose virginity. Sueann found it not satisfying on the Brazilian females due to the inequality on sexual issues which had merited men more than females. Though the culture on virginity in the Brazilian community was a way of enhancing diversity of masculinity and femininity among the people, however, the adverse effects were eminent.
This was overt from the works of Sueann where he said “….the persistent valorization of the female virginity and male aggressiveness, coupled with a long standing tradition of premarital sexual relations, gave men an enormous advantage over their female partners…” There are numerous other noble men and women in different organization with similar opinions and who have got even greater powers to initiate change on them. When the issue dawn on jurists and legislators, the got receive it as a debatable material which ended without unanimous steps of resolutions.
It only served as a stepping stone to those in the political sector which was use to broaden their politics drive leaving men the trod on the females as much as the rules and laws permitted. The defense on the female rights and the definition of the roles and responsibilities are therefore been a rich ground of political expansion while this has left female survival at the fate of tormenting men. (Buckley, 1999)
Although female rights and responsibilities have fallen into disarray in most of time, collection of efforts over time has made a break through of female liberation. The enlightenment of women through education and formation movement groups fought for the liberation of women. However, the overthrow of men is long process which is happening at a gradual pace.
Beginning with the discrimination of men over punishments on offences which were committed in environment each of the two parties to receive equally penalties, men was more inflicted than the female partners (Green, 1999). Thus, the controversies which arose in the formation of protective rights emerged to overturn the justice to injustice in the men side, making him to be overburdened with penalties. Oppression and undermining of the man through unfair punishments on sexual matters diminished the meaning of family.
Women began praising themselves as the heads of their families and defied to be submissive to their husbands. With the support to intimidate men from activists, government and other groups, men became symbolic in the family status; but women encountering men with disrespect and defending their daughter misconducts were issue that made them to be more conspicuous. As a consequence of men intimidation and the usually consensus of the practices to empower women, pride of cultures and tradition lost and men’s authority and manipulations over the women fainted away. However, there was diverged on the interactivity of men and women creating a new ways of social interaction both in power and social activities. (Sueann, 1998)
The later years of the twentieth century are marked with great changes of social and power in all Latin American countries. The struggle to equalize men and women in power altered the social interaction and the equality was thus literally applied on the social and power. Men and women in the Latin America became exercising homosexually where men power was dissolved and equality granted to relationship.
The scene although has now become a norm over the four corners of the globe, masculinity and femininity in the marriages ground are thus a passive biological terms (Green, 1999). The adoption of the modern lifestyles in the Latin America has changes the stability of most families. With the adoption of the homosexuality and the despise of the early notions of heterosexually, marriage in the new generation of the Latin America has turned to be contractual, which give both men and women the chance of terminating the marriage, a fact which is contrary to the old relationships where death and men like Manoel had the fate of marriage.
However, this worsened the healthy families which were once established under the polygamous culture as more flexibility of men and women doubled, tripled and sometime went several unaccounted folds. Despite the presences of the pernicious ailments such as HIV/AIDS, lesbianism and gay has continued at rapid rates in the Brazilians community.
The stigmatization of the HIV/AIDS with homosexuals and bisexuals made them to be vulnerable than their counterparts heterosexuals. Hence, sex preference was now becoming a factor of consideration in the job market. The homosexuals and bisexuals became to be discriminated in the employment sectors which gave another race for such patients. The effect of AIDS/HIV gave a new setting of the society by dissolving the boundaries of culture; however, the distinction which existed on role and work responsibilities was generalized. (Haggerty, 1985),
Subject: Latin America,
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 26 September 2016
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