Essay, Pages 4 (766 words)
“I am strongly optimistic that enhancing the generation and the use of DNA information and analyses will contribute greatly to the field of criminal investigation and in effect, downgrade with expediency the crime rate in the country,” Angara said. What are those for? DNA matching will become an ever more powerful weapon against crime. Law enforcement will increasingly be able to identify suspects from biological evidence at crime scenes, saving investigative time and protecting innocent people from suspicion. When DNA evidence is properly handled and stored, it is well accepted by courts, and used to convict the guilty and free the innocent.
There were different ways in solving crimes and identifying the correct suspects. This includes estimating time of death, forensic entomology, DNA profiling, analyzing blood stains and doing some autopsy. (Nicholson, 2012) But, which of this ways is the most accurate and which can give an unbiased result? The past decade has seen great advances in a powerful criminal justice tool: deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA.
DNA can be used to clear suspects and absolve persons mistakenly accused or convicted of crimes. DNA can be used to recognize criminals with incredible accurateness when biological data exists. Therefore, DNA technology is increasingly vital to ensuring accuracy and fairness in the criminal justice system. DNA is generally used to solve crimes in one of two ways. In cases where a suspect is identified, a sample of that person’s DNA can be compared to evidence from the crime scene. The results of this comparison may help establish whether the suspect committed the crime.
In cases where a suspect has not yet been identified, biological evidence from the crime scene can be analyzed and compared to offender profiles in DNA databases to help identify the perpetrator. Crime scene evidence can also be linked to other crime scenes through the use of DNA databases. (Osuna, 2011) A certain police process covers up to 14-15 days or too long in terms of solving violent crimes. Arizona Scientist early develop rapid DNA testing machine that could cut DNA sequences in two hours. And so, it is easy to see results. Other ways take a lot of time and potentially damage the specimen. DNA evidence is generally linked to DNA offender profiles through DNA databases. For example, assume that a man was convicted of sexual assault. At the time of his conviction, he was required to provide a sample of his DNA, and the resulting DNA profile was entered into a DNA database. Several years later, another sexual assault was committed.
A Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner worked with the victim and was able to obtain biological evidence from the rape. This evidence was analyzed, the resulting profile was run against a DNA database, and a match was made to the man’s DNA profile. He was apprehended, tried, and sentenced for his second crime. In this hypothetical case, he was also prevented from committing other crimes during the period of his incarceration. The development of forensic DNA technology in other countries and its potential to improve the Philippine criminal justice system are briefly discussed. The utility of forensic DNA testing in criminal investigations was highlighted using an actual criminal case wherein DNA evidence played a clear role in the resolution of the case.
It aims to eliminate the current backlog of unanalyzed DNA samples and biological evidence for the most serious violent offenses — rapes, murders, and kidnappings—and for convicted offender samples needing testing, protect the innocent, improve crime laboratories’ capacities to analyze DNA samples in a timely fashion, provide access to appropriate post conviction DNA testing of crime scene evidence not tested at the time of trial, ensure that DNA forensic technology is used to its full potential to solve missing persons cases and identify human remains and develop training and provide assistance about the collection and use of DNA evidence to a wide variety of criminal justice professionals. (Ridgeway, 2012) In all, the availability of forensic DNA technology in the Philippines necessitates the amendment of current rules of evidence to incorporate scientific advances which enables the judiciary to better appreciate the value of physical evidence in criminal courts. (De Ungria, 2003)
Osuna, J.P (2011). Using DNA to solve crimes. Retrieved from http://www.justice.gov/ag/dnapolicybook_solve_crimes.htm. Ridgeway, G. (2012). DNA Initiative: Advancing Criminal Justice Through DNA Technology. Retrieved from http://www.nij.gov/topics/forensics/evidence/dna/dna-initiative/welcome.htm. Nicholson, J. (2012). Crime Scene Science: The Modern Methods for Solving Crimes. Retrieved from
http://visual.ly/crime-scene-science-modern-methods-solving-crimes. Balana, C. (2008). Angara bill to provide DNA technology in crime solving. Retrieved from http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/nation/view/20080816-155107/Angara-bill-to-provide-DNA-technology-in-crime-solving. JOURNALS:
De Ungria, M.C. A. (2003). Forensic DNA Analysis in Criminal Investigations. Retrieved from http://philjournalsci.dost.gov.ph/vol132no1/pdf/forensic%20DNA%20analysis.pdf