How did America become the ‘only superpower’? Essay
How did America become the ‘only superpower’?
WWII left America in a powerful position Bipolar world – 2 superpowers – USA vs. USSR Today – Lead or dominate? The factors making America a superpower are being chief in the following fields: Economic – Strong economy. Sustainable one with many imports/exports. Oil in Alaska Military – Huge military force and arsenal Diplomatic – Very much involved in foreign affairs whether required or not Ideological – Ideas & resources to practise political & economic theories Technological – They have the advances in technology Cultural – They have a world-renowned culture.
The US takes over countries key to its grasp on the world. Conflicts involving Cuba, Iran, Afghanistan, Iraq. They can put a foot in the region and exploit the area. It represses countries without cultural commonalities: the major regional powers. The US has built military alliance with Japan in order to control the growth of China. A close bond with Britain prevents any uprising in Europe. USA with Ukraine prevents an expansion of Russian power. As Brazil becomes dominant in S. America, the US teams with Argentina. Also with Saudi Arabia to counter Iran in the Gulf.
Here is what America has done to achieve global hegemony and maintain it: Pressure other countries to adopt American values and practices regarding human rights and democracy Preventing other countries from acquiring military capabilities that could counter American conventional superiority Enforce American law extraterritorially in other societies Grade countries according to their adherence to American standards and human rights, drugs, terrorism, nuclear and missile proliferation and religious freedom * Apply sanctions against countries that don’t meet US standards on these issues
Promote American corporate interests under the slogans of free trade and open markets Shape World Bank and International Monetary Fund policies to serve those same corporate interests Intervene in local conflicts in which it has relatively little district interest Bludgeon other countries to adopt economic and social policies that will benefit US economic interests Promote American arms sales abroad while attempting to prevent comparable sales by other countries Force out one UN secretary-general and dictate the appointment of his successor
Expand NATO initially to include Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic and no-one else Undertake military action against Iraq and later maintain harsh economic sanctions against the regime Categorise certain countries as ‘rouge states,’ excluding them from global institutions because they refuse to kowtow to American wishes. It amounts to looking after number one. Pressurising; sometimes forcing others to comply for the gain of America. During the cold War there were 2 superpowers – USA & Soviet Union. They were part of a bipolar world.
Each dominates a coalition of allied states and competes with the other superpower for influence in non-aligned states. Each preferred its own hegemony, but knowing that creating a unipolar world would involve armed force and be disastrous for both, they were locked in stalemate. Therefore bipolar existed for four decades until one state could no longer sustain the rivalry. This didn’t leave America in complete control as there are many other regional major powers including the Franco-German condominium, Brazil in Latin America, South Africa & Nigeria in Africa etc.
End human right abuse in Burma in order to be allowed to rejoin International Community (and be forever grateful to America). Washington’s involvement with Cuba. Only serves to prolong tenure of power. Castro has been demonised but support from his countrymen increases by standing tall to the greatest power on earth. Survived 8 presidents. America is able to demonise certain countries and use their influence to dictate to other nations their apparent threat. I’m sure they’ve got an unwritten list of countries they get on with.
Britain and other westernised countries at the top, while Iraq and other Arab states at the bottom. Russia was alledged to have assisted Iran with a nuclear missile program. The sanctions ban all U. S. assistance, contracts and trade transactions with the universites. This follows a wave of similar sanctions against several other Russian institutions last July, after Iran test-fired a missile. Also, the State Department is threatening to revoke permission for Russia to launch U. S. satellites. Companies are vertically integrated meaning they produce, market and export products and food.
They have a hand in planning, production and investment. This means all the money comes back to the conglomerates, allowing them to get even richer, dwarfing other markets. They are the worlds biggest loan sharks. When money is lent, it is with strings attached. Often with SAP’s “structural adjustment policies. “. These require debtor governments to open their economies to penetration by foreign corporations, allowing access to the country’s workers and environment at bargain basement prices. Thus widening the gulf between richer and poorer countries, and excelling the USA.
They choose to get involved in a civil conflict in Kosovo, but they must stand to gain by taking Kosovo from Serbia. Should they get involved. Or do you stand and watch what happens like in Ruwanda, where nearly 1million people perished? America sells masses of weapons all over the world, often in exchange for oil, and other imports. It has sold liscences, technology and the means of construction to Iraq in 1990 to the tune of $1. 6million. Nothing compared to the UK which is somewhere in the region of $4,000,000,000. It equips the world and then complains when things kick off.
In a meeting in the Hague on 11-12 September, the United States and 27 other governments agreed that no weapons could be sold if the behavior of a state is, or becomes, a cause for serious concern of the participants. The inclusion of these countries is a useful one to America. As these countries respect their power and would like America to continue running the order for the safeguard of the newly instated countries. Others could potentially damage the unity of NATO and cannot be included in the line-up yet as they could hurt Americas global dominance and dominance within the organisation. Behave with exaggerated respect.
You can’t expect countries to fully sympathise with yankee greed and passion for global domination. It is going to be difficult for them to maintain as a superpower, because there will always be different combinations and permutations of countries trying to overthrow them. But until a strong coalition is found, US deterioration will only happen from within, when they cannot themselves sustain their power.
http://www. zmag. org/chomsky/articles/9303-nation-nafta. html http://www. globalexchange. org/wbimf/ http://www. fas. org/asmp/profiles/sales_db. htm http://www. pbs. org/newshour/forum/october97/nato2. html.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 4 September 2017
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