According to Ann Marie E. McSwain, Assistant Professor at Lincoln University, “leadership is about capacity: the capacity of leaders to listen and observe, to use their expertise as a starting point to encourage dialogue between all levels of decision-making, to establish processes and transparency in decision-making, to articulate their own value and visions clearly but not impose them.
Leadership is about setting and not just reacting to agendas, identifying problems, and initiating change that makes for substantial improvement rather than managing change. In the modern workplace, a good leader can lead the team to success and vice versa. The importance of a good leader in an organization cannot be doubted. However, one of the most challenging issues in the modern workplace is keeping talents. Talents or leaders may leave the organization for better offer or higher rate of pay. If no successor to drive it once the leader or key person leaves, the organization may get into troubles.
In order to maintain the morale and loyalty for the other employees, another good, competent with respect of others should be appointed as leader. Other than leaders, junior grading employee should also be prepared to develop their career to some senior positions. This can explain why a career management (include succession plan for experienced staff) is so essential in an organization as a way of people sourcing. Career management is the combination of structured planning and the management choice for one’s own professional career.
It is a process for employees to become aware of their interests, values, strengths and weaknesses, to get information about job opportunities within the organization, helps to identify the career goals, establish an action plan to achieve the career goals. Succession plan is a process to identify and develop internal potential employee to fill up the key or critical organizational positions. The main purpose of succession plan is to ensure the availability of competent, capable and experienced employee to prepare to be appointed to those positions when they become vacant.
Succession planning meaning that prepare the experienced employees to undertake some key roles, focus on leadership continuity and sharing knowledge, provide a more effective and efficient monitoring and tracking of employees’ proficiency levels and the skill gaps and counter the increasing difficulty of recruiting talents externally. Succession plan is a very important and necessary part of an organization to reduce risk, create a proven leadership model, increase employees’ working morale and help the business to run smooth continuity and expand.
Both people sourcing way are aids to develop talent and long-term growth, improve the capabilities and overall performance of workforce, create employee retention, meet the career development requirement of existing employee and improve support to employees throughout their employment. Career management is important in the eye of the organization and the employee. From the organization’s view, the failure to motivate their employees to plan for their career may result in shortage of employees to fill up the vacant, lower the employees’ commitment and inappropriate use of money which allocated for the training and development programs.
From the employee’s view, lacking of career management may result in frustration, having a feeling that they are not value in the organization and unable to find some other suitable employment when the job nature changed, no matter due to mergers, acquisitions, restructuring or downsizing. The outcome for a successful career management includes employees’ personal fulfillment, goals achievement and a newly promotional theme in the modern workplace which is work-life balance. Different practices of people sourcing method can be used in different size of an organization.
Entrepreneurship, partnership and limited company are some practices of forming an organization. Entrepreneurship means the one who undertakes innovations, finance and business acumen in an effort to transform innovations into economic goods. The most obvious formation of entrepreneurship is to start a new business. Entrepreneurship means that the business is run by an owner which call entrepreneur. Partnership is similar to entrepreneurship other than the organization is managed by at least two or above owners.
Limited company means it is an organization which shareholders whose liability is limited by shares. Entrepreneurship is usually some small business and has fewer employees than limited organization which runs large business. If the business runs smooth and expand, entrepreneurship can turn into a limited organization. After choosing the right method of people sourcing within an organization, the organization can benefit from different kinds of advantages.
With the right practice of people sourcing method in the right size of organization, the organization will be added value. Add value” can mean contributing directly to organization goals and deliver business objectives. Every organization has its goal and objective because these goals and objective can help the organization to define business and drive itself to success. Since the organization’s goal and objective are uses to lead itself to success, all the policies and procedures should follow its direction, including its employee sourcing way. Thomson, a pioneer in the old print economy, helped to create the electronic age with online system and CD-ROM products.
One of the goals of his company, Thomson Corporation, is to become the dominant global e-information and solutions business. In order to make the growth strategy become successful, Thomson has to keep some key employees and motivate some junior employees because he believes that the essence to have employee retention includes creating a satisfying an challenging work environment, maintaining the right fit between the employees and their jobs and making sure that his employees have the right tools to perform their jobs successfully.
Another goal of his company is to facilitate employees’ career development. In order to achieve this goal, Thomson had to educate his employees that career opportunities are available within the company and he had made it easier for employees to move within the company. By executing the career development within the company, Thomson had developed an online career center for his employees. The website includes seven hundred to nine hundred jobs listing every month. His employee can go to this website and choose specify preferred locations and full time or part time job.
Meanwhile, a personal search agent would notify the employee whenever a new opening related jobs or career interests are posted automatically. The website had been developed to include self assessments so that the employees can decide whether they if they have the required skills. If the employees found that he needs some education or training to quality for a position, the website will link them to some courses. The design of the website is a kind of career management for the employees which can retain and motivate employees.
After that, their supervisor will conduct performance appraisal annually to review their performance. As the career management systems start from self assessment, reality check, goal setting and finally the action planning, every employee in Thomson Corporation develop their career through the above steps. Self assessment refers to the use of information by the employees to found out their career interests, values, aptitudes and behavioral tendencies and it usually involves some psychological tests.
In Thomson Corporation, employees can identify their occupational and job interests, e. . work in different types of environments and identify the relative value they place on work and the leisure activities through the career centre. Through the self assessment, employees may start to consider where they are in their careers, identify the future plans and assess them to fit in the current job with available resources. Reality check means the information that the employees receive about how their organization evaluates their knowledge and skills which help them to fit into organization’s plan.
The said information is given by their supervisor as part of the performance appraisal process which included the performance review and employee’s career interests, strengths and possible development plans. Goal setting mean the process of employees developing short term and long term career objective. The goals usually relate to desired positions, level of skill application, work setting or skill acquisition. Employees in Thomson Corporation may have chance to achieve skill acquisition through specify training.
Besides, development plan may be written out after the performance appraisal. The development plans include the descriptions of strengths and weakness, career goals and development plans for reaching the career goals. Action planning means how the employees determine their way to achieve short term or long term goals. An action plan usually involves in enrolling to some training courses, conducting information interviews or applying for a vacant within the organization.
The information in the website is useful for ensuring the employees’ abilities, skills and nterests matches their jobs. If there is a mismatch, the website will provide some related training information and courses details for them to develop their skills. Other than the employee can benefit from such activities, the organization will benefit from the systems too. Firstly, it can reach a large number of potential job seekers after they post a vacant. Secondly, the website had provided detailed accessible information about the jobs which can facilitates employees’ development. Employees will then aware of what knowledge and skills are needed for the job.
Thirdly, the system encourages employees responsible for an active role in the career management. This is congruent with a psychological contract and protean career. Career management is uses for junior grading employees and succession planning is designed for experienced or senior employees. Career management is usually applied to some small entrepreneurship and succession planning is applying to some large size limited companies. As large companies usually divided into few sections and each section will be managed by a line manager, an effective succession plan should be used.
Motorola, Inc is an electronic and wireless communications company. In 1991, Motorola restructure itself and set out some new objectives and goals. Meanwhile, Motorola had promoted a succession plan named Organization and Management Development Review (OMDR). The objective would be diversity and sought to accelerate the advancement of women and minorities within the organization. The company goal which is within ten years the number of women and minorities at all levels of management should be representative of the number of women and minorities in the available talent pool.
They also made a commitment that every year that at least three women and minorities would be appointed as vice-president among the twenty to forty people. In OMDR, the process of identifying the high potentials would be requires each section to submit a list of candidates in four categories: white men, women, minorities and technical staff. The succession plans are prepared for each high potential and their progress within the organization is being tracked.
If the high potential leave or fall out of the list in the future, their supervisor must explain why this would happen. In order to counter the erception that most of the women and minorities are still in the feeder pool, a replacement chart had identifies some key positions and three people who could fill each one was developed. The first priority would be an immediate successor. The second priority would be a person who should success the incumbent if the organization had three to five years to prepare. The third priority would be the most qualified woman or minority candidate at that time, in addition to any women or minorities had already on the first two priorities. Women and minorities must be included even needs to hire externally.
Besides the replacement chart, there are some other key elements of the program such as career planning. All individuals would receive a guidance to set out the career goals and develop some strategies to achieve them. The guidance of the program is give by managers through some informal mentoring and through the organization’s women’s leadership conference. In this case, Motorola had show the linkage between the succession planning initiative and the organization’s business goals which emphasis was placed on the business success that can flow from having a socially diverse workforce.
Since Motorola sees diversity as a business initiative and not only human resources department but all line managers are responsible for the program’s implementation. Senior managers are required to keep tracking of the representation of women and minorities in their units. The succession planning is then effective because of the cooperation of all employees. Effective career management and succession plan can drive small size company or large size company to success through adding value to it. It can help the employers and employees to fulfill the company objectives and goals.
In order to make the plan effective in the company, the below ten points should be noted. First, the organization must define the targets and goals clearly. It should set a time frame and numbers creates impetus for action. Without a clear direction, employee may not know what or how they should do to go for success. When the employee knows the company objective and goal and the time frame, they can set out their own career development plan. Second, the organization should define the details and meaning of the succession plan to include the widest talent pool.
Succession plan is not yet common in modern workplace. High potential will be attracted to work in those companies with succession plan in order to get higher achievement. Third, the organization should inform the employee about the succession plan and to let them know that they should be ready all the times. It is because when they are on the radar, they will ask more questions about their development and it is harder for them to be lost within the organization. Fourth, the organization should implement the career management careful and have strategic planning for targeted individuals’ career development.
Since being identified is not enough, the organization should consider the potential benefits of encourage informal mentoring. Fifth, the organization should ensure there is strong leadership and commitment from senior management. This is because initial and ongoing personal involvement of the director is an important criterion to lead the plan to success. Sixth, the career management and succession plan must be integrate into the business objective and positioned as a response to the business need.
A clear linkage between the business goal and the desired results of the career management will help to gain commitment from the organization and employee. Career management must be success when it portrayed as a core issue. Seventh, the organization should make all the line managers accountable for the success of the initiative. Since the career management is a business initiative, all employees should be responsible and accountable for its delivery, especially the line managers. Eighth, the organization should encourage the employees to take an active role in the career management.
The organization should let the employee know that the career management is a tool to help them to get higher achievement which is benefiting them. Ninth, the evaluation should be an on-going one which uses to get improvement. Tenth, career management should be linked to other human resources practices such as performance management, training and recruiting systems. The organization may evaluate the career management through several outcomes. First, the reactions of the managers and the employees who use the career management can be determined through some surveys.
Second, some more information with objective related to the results of the career management system can be tracked such as the time needs to fill up a vacant, the percentage of usage of the system. Talent management is a new direction in the modern workplace. Career management and succession plan can help both the small size organization and large size organization to add value through contributing directly to organization objective and goal. In order to success, all organization should focus on the career development of employee more than business since employees are the most valuable assets within an organization