How Apple Positioning in Market Essay
How Apple Positioning in Market
Policy making now, more aptly, simply describes the development of organizational policies. Some policies appertain at the highest levels and are essential elements of the organization’s strategy. But, the vast majority of policies apply at lower levels and are operational in nature.
Policymaking is the act of creating laws or setting standards for a government or business. Policy also provides the framework and sets the parameters for planning. The purpose of public planning is to outline how policies will be implemented in practice. Very simply, policies are standing plans that provide guidelines for decision making. They are guides to thinking that establish the boundaries or limits within which decisions are to be made. Within these boundaries, judgment must be exercised. The degree of discretion permitted will vary from policy to policy Policy making is concerned with the formulation of general statements or understandings that guide or channel managerial decisions.
Policies, whether written or implied, are essential components of a company’s planning framework because they simplify the making of recurring decisions and facilitate the delegation of these decisions. Successive delegations tend to result in a hierarchy of policies within traditional organizations. In organizations where empowerment is practiced, the principal function of policies is to provide essential limits to otherwise broad employee discretion. “Planning is deciding in advance – what to do, when to do & how to do. It bridges the gap from where we are & where we want to be”. A plan is a future course of actions. It is an exercise in problem solving & decision making. Planning is determination of courses of action to achieve desired goals. Thus, planning is a systematic thinking about ways & means for accomplishment of pre-determined goals.
It is not overly far-fetched to suggest that without policies, because of excessive analysis and the concentration of decisions at the top, corporate decision making in the hierarchical firm could be slowed to the point of bringing operations to a virtual standstill. Conversely, in the empowered organization, there would be the potential for complete lack of control and chaos. Yet, in today’s fast-moving business world there is also the great danger of policies becoming rapidly outmoded. For this reason, audits and ongoing reviews are a must if a company’s policies are to remain effective decision guides.
Read more: http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/encyclopedia/Per-Pro/Policies-and-Policy-Making.html#ixzz2RqlWjxBP
Planning is the basic function of management. It deals with chalking out a future course of action & deciding in advance the most appropriate course of actions for achievement of pre-determined goals. According to KOONTZ, Planning is necessary to ensure proper utilization of human & non-human resources. It is all pervasive, it is an intellectual activity and it also helps in avoiding confusion, uncertainties, risks, wastages etc.
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 3 June 2017
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