Homosexuality in Ghana
Homosexuality in Ghana
Homosexuality is one of the prime heated debates globally. Being a social issue that is affecting the antiquity marriage culture and religious believes; it has raised numerous controversies among the societies, government and non-governmental organizations. The term homosexuality has been widely and globally to different extents. Some people have used the terminology to refer to the physical and emotional attractions of people of the same sex. Other people have defined it as the preference for emotional sexual relations of people of same sex.
This is implies that homosexuality comprises of gay, lesbians and bisexuals. Homosexuality has becomes a global social problem of controversy fundamentally due to the gender identity as well as sexual orientation. (Adu-Gyamfi, 2007) Historically, homosexuality is an act that has been in existence for several decades or so centuries. In most of the European nations, the first report on homosexuality as social issue appeared in 17th century in the year of 1885.
The British parliament was thus the first find faulty on homosexuality, hence, by the 1885, they cast their votes against homosexuality making it a criminal act. Since then, there has been much concern over homosexuality making states like Germany to launch campaigns over it. During the campaigns, thousands of homosexual individuals were arrested and confined into camps for correctional purposes. According to the works of Melville, homosexuality was being in practiced in the early years of the twentieth century.
His study revealed that homosexuality in the Dahomey where the Fon people was dominating population. Homosexuality therefore appears to have been eminent issue which, not only the Europeans, Asians and American states are coming into term with, but most countries in African continents are still struggling to cope with. As cooper points out, he says “I had enough evidence to believe that any habit, regardless of how compulsive, how deeply ingrained, could be broken once and for all…. ” (Cooper, 1991) Literature review
Like in many other countries, homosexuality in Ghana has divided the community as whole into their different opinions. Some people in the community have embraced this new kind of culture while a good proportion of the community population rejects. It is determined that most of the Ghanaians reside in rural areas. Actually, two thirds of the community populations are in the remote parts of the country where the media and other socials influencer are much limited. The population of the youths is relatively high, forming forty five percent of the total population.
Although scores of African youths have been assimilated and generally adapted new lifestyles of the westerners, there is much resistance of this transition in the Ghanaian’s youths. The penetration of changes in their cultures has highly been resisted through the maintenance and teaching which demonstrates the ancient ways of gender roles and marriages value. This implies that there is a lot of controlled over the operations of the community which in the present world’s view, numerous activities are contrary to their expectation. (Murray, and Roskam, 1998)
According to many researches in the Ghanaians social liberty, the community of females and children in the states are well undermined and mistreated. Due to the maintenance of distinctive gender role among men and women, Ghana is described as a man’s world. This indicates that the women in Ghana are counted as subordinates both in home leadership and also in the leadership level of country. The value of children in the Ghanaians community have is indescribable and this has given marriage issues first prior and extended restrictions to adoption of western nature of lifestyles.
Childlessness for men and women has got the highest humiliations in a couple families but this is much more to the females. Thus, the erosion of the old traditions and cultures are still minimal but they are up held with great respect in most ethnic groups such as the Akan who believe that childlessness is an abnormality and unhealthy to the females. The transitions in the social practices coupled with economic changes have compelled and diminished most communities’ traditions on marriages and children value. However, these have little effects in the Ghanaians.
Sex preference has been a common practice in many developing countries, whereby unwanted sexes are given the dire consequences. This has little penetration in the Ghanaians having no strong bias for a specific sex. (Murray, and Roskam, 1998) Influencing factors of homosexuality in Ghana Imprisonment Ghana is one of the states which are depicted to offer severe penalties to the perpetrators of the law. Though prisons are institutions set up for correctional purposes, numerous reports shows that the Ghanaians prisons’ condition harden the people’s character instead of correcting them.
According to the numerous researches which are conducted in their prisons, many of them reveal that the conditions make the inmates lives to tolerate harsh environment. It is said that inmates who are imprisoned for a period extending to more than two years do commit criminal offences which are more worse than the crime they were convicted. One common crime which is disclosed is the involvement of inmates in homosexually. Instead of reforming these inmates, most of them find themselves hardening in their lives as result of the mistreatment.
Due to stress and sexual desire within the people behind bars, homosexuality in prisons is reported as serious and rampant in jails. Men and women serving as inmate may develop the sexual desire like any other person, as results of the restrictions and limited interaction of males and females, same sex inmates engages on mutual carnal sex. (Murray and Roskam, 1998) Education The self-control in most students is very low. This is aggravated by the challenges which arise at the adolescent stage. Cooper observed that when he grew up there was change in his life.
He thus said “”… I became the scientist of my own desire, plotting ways to change my yearning for boys into a yearning for girls”. While in most case boarding schools are perceived to be of advantageous on learning and achieving higher level of education, student enrolled as boarders in these schools are still under compelling conditions on interactions. Though some students do snitch out school to find their opposite sex friend for sexual satisfaction, hopeless and desperate boys and girls in schools normally get entangled in practicing homosexuality in dormitories.
This occurs especially not with equals but it involves seniors and juniors of the same sex. The practice by students in same sex is not a permitted act in the law and society; it takes place as way of satisfying the sexual whim. Though in some schools there both boys and girls such as mixed boarders, homosexuality is not something unheard off. In such environments, homosexuality such lesbianism, gay and bisexuality are common practices. Among the female students in mixed school, homosexuality is increased due to the educational set goals.
The practice of homosexuality among them is a way of evading the consequences of unwanted pregnancies which can lead to the termination of their studies. (Cooper, 1991) Economic reason Tourism is becoming a booming trade in the world. Ghanaians are not exempted from such opportunities of tourists in their state. Tourists arriving from the Western countries and American states roam everywhere, bringing with them the culture of homosexuality. The interaction of the tourists with locals transforms their culture.
However, it is common that most of these local people in Ghana falls victims of money which is trick applied by the foreigners. Some of the people end up engaging themselves as heterosexual prostitutes while other ruins their lives with the illicit acts of homosexuality. This influence is much augmented by the modern technology. According to several sources, chat rooms have become social places which sex tourists are highly concentrating on conducting their preys.
They visit such chat sites to makes relationships with the young youths online but when they physically arrive, they get involved into multiple sexes-with them in promise of finances. Usually, the socio-economic problems are primary factors which are thus compelling the youths look for financial aids and relief at this risky illegalized ways. Thus influx of serial monogamy, unstable marriages & low economy in one way or the other have rapidly increased the ratio of homosexuals, creating a breading grounds for pimps who end up being homosexuals or bisexual partners or prostitutes. Adu-Gyamfi, 2007)
Major problems associated with homosexuality Mistrust among couples, unchecked spread of sexually transmitted diseases, low productivity due stigmatization, & high incidents of suicide as a result of rejection, are some of the negative effects that are a result of homosexuality, which many recognize but regards as unethical & unacceptable trend, however, the greatest obstacle has been to control the unexpected explosion of both hetero & bisexual prostitutes who have invaded the cities with a bang.
Bernard said “My longing was wrong in the eyes of my mother, whose hazel eyes were the eyes of the world, and if that longing continued unchecked, the unwieldy shape of my fate would be cast, and I’d be subjected to a lifetime of scorn. ” All in all, unlike conventional sexual partners, homosexuals are viewed with suspicion & more than often mistreated & in some cases denied access to public facilities like hospitals & schools, while on the other hand the government has ignored their plight, infringing their right of association hence making the civil society to be aggressive, more abusive towards them. Cooper, 1991) Homosexuality is not only black-market in the society due to fear from the society but it is also criticized as major contributor to the numerous sexual transmitted diseases. The homosexual community is well associated with common problems which may include soreness and ulcers in the sex organs and the anal points.
Despites the impeding hazards of these initials problems of soreness, seeking of health services rare happens among them, and in case the condition call for healthy care attention, it only happens at the late period of the conditions with most of the victims rare looking for the help from governmental and public healthy service providers. The fear on prolonged interrogations from the officer makes them to get drugs from the counters rather than dispensaries and hospitals a facts which may worsen the spreading of dangerous plagues in the countries such HIV? AIDS.
These events have propelled some humanitarian organizations to speak on behalf of homosexuals, who have been associated with all manner of vices from prostitution, child pornography to drug trafficking, thus advocating for their respect, recognition & acceptance in the society. (Adu-Gyamfi, 2007) Conclusion Homosexuality is one of the issues which have strongly been resisted in Ghana. It has received much opposing forces both from the government as well as the society. Though it is not genetically associated, the efforts of the resisting groups are becoming wastes.
Through diverse circumstances, many Ghanaians have been fallen into this tragic incident which is a taboo among the society and illegal in the governmental constitutions. Though the government, some groups people in the community and other organization like those of religious institutions have all tried to shut down the doors of homosexuality, traces of this cultures which was initially associated with the westerners have permeated in the country mysterious. Surprisingly, such organizations can be blamed over enormous contributions to the acts.
Having the understanding of the situations under which homosexuality in states is being augmented, this call for new strategic ways of intervention rather than imposing more stringent rules on homosexuality which ruin the live of many young men. This means that homosexuality is no more of benefit to the individuals who practices it except shame. The most fundamental of all factors to be considered is the impacting of moral understanding of the nature of sex practices and the empowerment of the community to alleviated poverty level among members of the society. (Cooper, 1991)
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 22 September 2016
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