English Colonial Era from 1700 to 1763
1700 – The rise of the population that came from England to American colonies amounted to 275, 000. The two largest cities were Boston with 7,000 inhabitants and New York with 5,000 inhabitants.
1700 – In June the Massachusetts government upheld a law that obligated all priests of Roman Catholic Church to leave the colony within the term of three months. If a person would not comply with this rule, the penalty of the life sentence or death penalty were imposed on them. After that the New York government implemented a similar legal act.
1701 – In July the French settlers founded a settlement at Detroit. In October, the General Colonial Court approved The Act for Liberty to Erect A Collegiate School, that had the aim to establish the university for the education of future ministers and leaders for Connecticut. After that, the group of ten congressional ministers founded the Yale College.
1702 – In March, Queen Anne was crowned in England. In May, the war between England and France began, caused by the death of Spanish King Charles II with the aim to break the alliance of France and Spain. The war called Anne`s War against Spanish Succession extended on the colonial territories for the subsequent eleven years. One side of confrontation was presented by the English and American migrants, and the other was the union of the French, their Native American allies, and the Spanish.
1702 – In Maryland, the Anglican Church was declared as the official one. Its fund was made up from the tax duties paid by free men, male servants, and slaves.
1704 – In April, the Boston News-Letter was first published and announced as the first newspaper in North America. It had limited copies and its content was approved by the British government and governor.
1705 – The government approved the Virginia Black Code as sets of laws that regulated the relationship between Afro-Americans and British colonialists. It enacted the status of real estate for slaves, established the separate trials for them. The New Yok authority established death punishment for persons caught over 40 miles north of Albany. The Massachusetts laws approved the marriage between African Americans and whites as outlawed.
1706 – On January 17, Benjamin Franklin was born in Boston. In November of this year, the Anglican Church was considered official in South Carolina.
1707 – Queen Anne approved the upholding of the Acts of Union that consisted of two separate Scotland and England acts passed by their parliaments. These legislative documents authorized the creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain consisting of England, Scotland and Wales.
1710 – The English Parliament enacted the Post Office Act that initiated the establishment of the postal system in the colonies. The Postmaster General of London and his deputy in New York regulated the adherence to this law.
1711 – The beginning of Tuscarora War took place in North Carolina between the British, Dutch, German settlers and Tuscarora Native Americans and went on for two years. It was deemed as the crucial confrontation in North Carolina.
1712 – In May, the Carolina colony was divided into North Carolina and South Carolina. In June, the Pennsylvania assembly prohibited the slaves’ importation into the colony. In Massachusetts an American from Nantucket caught the first sperm whale in the sea.
1713 – The Treaty of Utrecht was signed that included several separate peace treaties between Spain, Great Britain, France, Portugal, Savoy and the Dutch Republic. It ended the Queen Anne`s War and stopped France’s and Spain’s hegemony in Europe.
1714 – Tea was first exported to the American Colonies. In England Queen Anne descended from the throne, King George became her successor and was crowned in August.
1716 – The slavery expanded to the territory of Louisiana.
1718 – The French Mississippi Company initiated the foundation of New Orleans, named in honor of Philippe II, Duke of Orleans, Regent of France.
1720 – The number of American settlers raised up to 475,000. Approximately, Boston population counted 12,000 persons, Philadelphia population reached 10,000 persons and New York population counted 7,000 persons.
1725 – The number of black slaves counted 75,000 persons in the American colonies.
1726 – Protests took place in Philadelphia initiated by the poor population, who destroyed and burned buildings.
1727 – English King George I died suddenly during his visit to Hanover. His successor George II ascended to the throne.
1728 – The first American synagogue was built and opened in New York at the initiative of Jewish settlers.
1729 – Benjamin Franklin bought the newspaper The Pennsylvania Gazette and started its regular publishing contributing to its content. It soon was evaluated as the most successful colonial newspaper.
1730 – Baltimore was founded under the Constitution of Maryland, not referring to any country. The city was named in honor of Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore and founder of Maryland province.
1731 – Benjamin Franklin and the members of the Junto discussion club established the first library in Philadelphia with the purpose to facilitate the exchange of information between them.
1732 – George Washington was born on February 22, in the province of Virginia. The beginning of the functioning of the Catholic Church in colonies was marked by the mass celebration. In June Georgia was founded as the 13th American colony, named in honor of George II, the King of Great Britain.
1732-1757 – Poor Richard’s Almanac was published by Benjamin Franklin, known under the pseudonym of “Poor Richard”. It became very popular due to wide content that included weather forecast, advice, puzzles, etc. Its number of published copies increased up to 10,000 per year.
1733 – The English Parliament upheld the act that established a six-percent tax on molasses, rum and sugar imported from non-British colonies. It was aimed to control the terms of trade in making English products cheaper than those from French and Dutch exporters.
1734 – John Peter Zenger, a publisher from New York, was arrested and incriminated of defamation by the Governor. In December, the Great Awakening began and expanded to all American colonies and lasted for 10 years. It was a religious rebellion headed by evangelistic Protestantism leaders.
1735 – John Peter Zenger was charged with seditious actions, but his guilt was not proven due to his attorney’s arguments which confirmed that the truth was the defense against defamation.
1737 – First copper coins were produced in Connecticut.
1739 – England began the war against Spain that resulted in the start of hostilities between the colonies of Florida and Georgia and South Carolina. Moreover, three different protests took place suddenly in South Carolina.
1740 – Fifty black slaves were executed in Charleston located in South Carolina, when their plans for another protest were revealed. In Europe after the death of Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI the War of the Australian Succession began. France and Spain united in alliance to fight England. In the American colonies the confrontation was named the King George`s War and continued till 1748.
1741 – Peter the Great, Russian Tsar supported the start of a scientific expedition led by Danish navigator Vitus Bering that was devoted to discovering the northern part of the Pacific Ocean. It continued in course of the Second Kamchatka Expedition.
1743 – The American Philosophical Society was founded by Benjamin Franklin and other members of the Junto club. It was closely connected with the University of Pennsylvania.
1747 – The New York Bar Association was founded in New York City by David B. Hill who became its first president. Its purposes were to facilitate the development of jurisprudence both as science and in practice, to reform the legislation, and to establish certain legal standards.
1750 – The Iron Act was passed by the English Parliament, limiting the growth of the iron industry in the American colonies to protect the English Iron industry.
1751 – The English Parliament enacted the Currency Act than governed the paper money issue by the English colonies. It was intended to protect commerce and creditors in Britain.
1752 – The first medical establishment in the form of a general hospital started its work in Philadelphia.
1753 – Benjamin Franklin and William Hunter were assigned to the position of the postmasters general in colonies in America.
1754 – The French and Indian War began between French and Indian, because of conflicts regarding the land in the Ohio River Valley. In May, George Washington headed the American colonists’ army that won over the French side, then he established Fort Necessity located in the Ohio territory. In July, French forces attacked suddenly, and Washington decided to capitulate and receded.
1755 – In February, Edward Braddock, English General, came to Virginia together with two groups of English forces. Gen. Braddock was appointed to the post of English troop Commander in Chief in America. In April, Gen. Braddock and Lt. Col. George Washington united in a military group of nearly 2000 men to fight the French in the battle on Ohio territory. In July, the troop consisting of about 900 French and Indians defeated those English forces. Braddock was fatally injured. Then Massachusetts Governor William Shirley was appointed on the position of a new Commander in Chief.
1756 – England stated the declaration of war against France. It caused the fact that the French and Indian War extended on the territory of Europe.
1757 – In June, William Pitt was appointed on the position of England`s Secretary of State and extended the French and Indian War in the colonies through implementation of a war tactics. In July, Benjamin Franklin moved to London for a 5-years term.
1758 – In July, English forces were defeated in the battle at Lake George in New York, and approximately two thousand persons were killed in the frontal attack against French troops at Fort Ticonderoga. From French side there were 377 killed men. In November, the French left Fort Duquesne in the Ohio territory. Colonists moved to the territory to settle the houses. Also in 1758, the first Indian reservation was established in New Jersey, on the area of 3000 acres.
1759 – French Fort Niagara was captured by the English. Also in 1759, war erupted between Cherokee Indians and southern colonists.
1760 – The number of colonists’ population raised to 1,500,000. In March, because of an accident a violent fire destroyed many of Boston buildings. In September, Quebec capitulated to the English. In October, George III was crowned as English King. Before that he was Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg (“Hanover”) in the Holy Roman Empire.
1762 – England stated the declaration of war in union of France and Austria against Spain. The British forces attacked Spanish troops in the West Indies and Cuba.
1763 – The Great Britain won over France, and as the result the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain signed the Treaty of Paris that ended the Seven Years War. Prussia and Austria didn`t conclude this agreement as they signed a separate one. The English side obtained much of French territories in North America: east of the Mississippi River, not including New Orleans. England returned Cuba to Spain for the east and west Florida territory.
1763 – In May, the Ottawa Native Americas led by Chief Pontiac commenced the confrontations against the British on the west Niagara territory. They demolished a few forts and kept siege at Detroit. In August, Pontiac`s troops were broken down by the British not far from Pittsburg. The siege of Detroit was over in November, but confrontations between the British and Native Americans occurred furthermore for several years.