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History Test Questions

Paper type: Essay
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Manzanar in CA – loss of $ & property – 100th Battalion – “Purple Heart” Battalion – 442nd Regimental Combat Team – fought in Italy, France, Germany – Most decorated combat unit in US history for proportion of length of service – “Buddha Heads” – Most Japanese-Americans served as soldiers in Europe while interpreters and such went to the Pacific – obvious racism/discrimination Minority group most adversely affected by Washington DC’s wartime policies was – Japanese-Americans Internment – costs – effects – camps – prejudice – military service – Nisei born in USA, so citizens The general attitude toward WWII was – less idealistic & ideological & more practical than the outlook in WWI (This is according to the textbook – What would Zinn say in Ch 16? ) In the period of 1885 to 1924, the Japanese immigrants who came to the USA were – a select group (representing Japan abroad, so Japan cared who was sent) who was/were better prepared & educated than most European immigrants (so they were middle class & usually had $)

Ex. Japan felt represented – wanted to avoid Chinese bachelors of 19th century – so “picture brides” When the USA entered WWII in December (7th attack at Pearl, war declared on 8th), 1941, – a majority of Americans had no clear idea of what the war was about – * WWI had campaigned (but many people didn’t know in WWI either – Ex.

Sergeant York & Gallipoli) During WWII, the US gov’t commissioned the production of synthetic rubber in order to offset the loss of access to prewar supplies in E. Asia (ex. French Indochina/Vietnam, Cambodia, & Loas) Wartime agencies & functions: War Production Board – assign priorities w/respect to use of raw materials & transportation facilities Office of Price Administration – controlled inflation by rationing essential goods

War Labor Board – imposed ceilings (maximums) on wage increases Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) – saw to it that no hiring discrimination practices were used against Af-Am’s seeking employment in war industries * A Philip Randolph – 1941 threatened to march on Wash DC to demand equality in hiring – FDR feared march so made a deal to announce Executive Order #8802 for Af-Am’s fair employment in wartime industries Randoplh was leader of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters union (mostly Af-Am’s but some whites too – began in 1920s) While most US workers were strongly committed to the war effort, wartime production was disrupted by strikes led by the – United Mine Workers (Why? Exploitation w/unequal distribution of wartime profits. ) * Coal mining is almost as risky as war – in fact they die more than any other industrial workers, both back then and today – only crab ishing is truly more hazardous by proportion – although they are much safer today During WWII – labor unions substantially increased their membership • There were some strikes – Ex. United Mine Workers – unfair distribution of wartime profits * Bracero Program – p. 833 Mexicans work in agriculture & some industries (later deported in the offensive “Operation Wetback”) [Ironic after 1930’s treatment in CA for example – Okies for Mexicans, etc… Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act – June 1943 – federal gov’t could seize industries if strikes occurred Ex.

Coal mines and RRs briefly] p. 832 Employment of more than 6 million women in America (~3 million had never worked for wages before) industry during WWII led to – the establishment of day-care centers by gov’t (*”Rosie” vs. “Wendy”) [Usually single women or w/husband in the war were the ones working in defense plants/war industries] * Not equal pay for equal work in almost all cases – although some women earned as good or better money if they were outstanding – some were indeed Ex. P. 33 – WOW poster * My recruiting posters & WWII aircraft pictures * Not greater % of women working in USA than in Europe – Ex. Britain & USSR – in war industries * Increase in employment in war industries for Af-Am’s (both men & women) * Migrations from South as Af-Am’s leave while to the South came war industries and military bases – Why? Cheap wages & very few unions * Not a strong desire for most women to work for wages (especially in defense industries, etc…) *** p. 833 – WAACs, WAVES, SPARS, (WASPs) “GI” – “Government Issue” * USCG & Merchant Marine Main reason majority of women workers left labor force at end of WWII was – family obligation Af-Am’s did all of following during WWII: rally behind slogan of “Double V” (victory over Axis & racism at home), move north & west in large migrations (seeking work – often in war industries) (move to cities – “urban” begins to mean “black”) (ghettos created – not like Jewish ghettos in Poland, etc…) (de facto vs. de jure/Jim Crow segregation & discrimination – Ex.

Race riots in Detroit in 1943 – later race riots in north in 1960s too), form a militant organization called the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE – 1942 & increase in NAACP membership), serve (in US military) in (US) Army Air Corps (Tuskegee Airmen – 332nd/99th w/impeccable record – no bombers lost on their escorts – Benjamin O. Davis sr. & Benjamin O. Davis jr. – West Point grads – endured silent treatment from whites – Davis sr. is first Af-Am general in US history – Davis jr. was in command of 99th squadron – see picture on . 835), What about fighting in integrated combat units?

Not until Korea (w/exception of a few experiments) Which is least related to the other three? A Philip Randolph (Bro of Sleep Car Porters – threat to march on Wash DC in 1941 – led to Executive Order #8802 – in 1963, helped organize march to Wash DC for MLK jr’s “I Have a Dream” speech. Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC – to protect Af-Am’s to be hired and treated fairly in war industries), racial discrimination in wartime industry (still even w/FEPC there was discrimination – but better than w/out it), proposed “negro March on Washington,” What about the Smith-Connally (Anti- Strike) Act (1943)?

On pp. 834-836 Migration Map on p. 834 * Cotton production in South – hurt Af-Am laborers, tenant, and sharecropping farmers (whites too who did this – many) w/ introduction of mechanization – so migration p. 836 * Native Americans – ~25,000 serve – Ex. Comanche in Europe & Navajo in Pacific – “code talkers” p. 836 *** LA, CA summer 1943 – “Zoot Suit Riots” – Pachucos vs. Servicemen – violence – retaliation – gangs – blame – reactions – tensions – “Victory Suits” – race riots p. 836-837 ** Race riot in Detroit, MI in 1943 – fatalities pp. 36-837 Big gov’t intervention received its greatest boost from – WWII (not the New Deal) During WWII, most Am’s economically experienced – prosperity & a doubling of personal income p. 837 National Gross National Product (all goods and services produced in USA) in 1940 was $100 billion – GNP grew to $200 billion in 1945 – corporate profits rose from ~$6 billion in 1940 to ~$12 billion by 1944 – Henry Stimson (Sec of War) “if you are going to try to go to war in a capitalist country, you have to let business make money out of the process, or business won’t work. p. 837 – * disposable income after war-time taxes more than doubled (but there was inflation too) – * post-war consumerism w/surplus income to purchase in post-war US economy – Ex increase 33% in post war prices b/c of high wages & consumer demand * Office of Scientific Research and Development p. 37 – developed weapons, including Atomic (nuclear) bombs – *** “warfare-welfare state” b/t 1941-1945 – * rationing – total war effort – bond drives – kids had Al drives for example, etc… – Ex of poster: “When you ride ALONE, you ride with Hitler! ” – Black Market – Chart for Rise in National Debt – rise b/c of WWII and after war it spiked higher than during war – p. 837 On p. 38 Cost of war in $ was for USA $330 billion – 10 times more than WWI – more $ than all federal spending since 1776 – income tax – 4 times as many people than before war – some people taxed as high as 90% of income – taxes provided for 2/5ths of war cost – rest is borrowed from US public – Liberty Loans – Bond Drives – others loaned $ too like individuals who were rich tycoons & moguls and/or through corporations & banks – 1941 National Debt was $49 billion – grew to $259 billion in 1945 – war cost ~$10 million per hour at peak of war – plus blood, sweat, & tears – tremendous loss of life – Ex.

USSR lost more than any other country Northward migration of Af-Am’s accelerated after WWII b/c – mechanical cotton pickers (machines) were in use p. 836 During WWII, American Indians – moved off of reservations in large numbers (~25,000 served in military) p. 836 By the end of WWII, the heart of USA’s Af-Am communities had shifted to – northern cities pp. 834-835 * p. 836 “The speed and scale of these changes jolted the migrants and sometimes the communities that received them. * Racism, de facto segregation vs. de jure (Jim Crow) segregation [Migartion Map on p. 834] National debt increased most during – World War II (and post-WWII to present) p. 838 Most $ raised to finance WWII came through – borrowing (individuals, corporations – bonds for middle class & working class people) (*Liberty/Victory Loans – bond sales – hugely promoted) p. 38 First naval battle in history in which all of the fighting was done by (aircraft) carrier-based aircraft was the Battle of – the Coral Sea (May 1942 near NE Australia – Tie to stop Japanese threat/invasion of the “Land Down Under” – USA lost one carrier – USS Lexington – USS Yorktown carrier badly damaged but back in action at Midway where she was finally sunk by a Japanese submarine after extensive damage from aircraft that left her a burning wreck) * Midway – 2nd such battle b/t carrier fleets so far apart they never see each other – June 3rd-6th, 1942 – the turning point of the Pacific war p. 839] The tide of Japanese conquest in the Pacific was turned following the Battle of – Midway (June 3rd-6th, 1942) * Details – our 3 carriers to their 4 – we sank all four and lost only one – planes – luck – plans – codes – drama – Spruance, Nimitz, etc… – plus Aleutian Islands (of Alaska) attacked just before Midway was diversion, which was fairly effective – cold, brutal fighting over frozen, barren islands, but were US territory like Hawaii pp. 39-841 Japanese made a crucial mistake in 1942 in their attempt to control much of the Pacific when they – over – extended themselves instead of digging in & consolidating their gains p. 839 – Japanese victories in Pacific up through first 6 months extended down to Dutch East Indies (for oil), Southeast Asia (for rubber), including Burma and Thailand into parts of China, the Philippines, the Marianas such as Guam, the Gilbets, the Marshalls, the Solomons, the Aleutians, Korea and Manchuria, Okinawa, Iwo Jima, etc…- They held it for about 6 months after Pearl Harbor before Allied advances began.

In waging war against Japan, the USA relied mainly on a strategy of – (leapfrogging and) island-hopping across the South (and Central) Pacific while by-passing Japanese strongholds (whenever possible – but not always – Ex. Philippines & Pelelieu & Aleutians) [MacArthur/US Army & Halsey in South – USMC & Nimitz/Spruance in Central Pacific] All strategies considered & implemented in some fashion – heavy bombing from Chinese air bases, invading SE Asia & Burma, fortifying China transporting supplies from India over “the Hump” of the Himalayas, & turning Japanese flanks in New Guinea (MacArthur) & Alaska (Aleutians) * All were done – but priority was put on USN, US Army, USMC, USAAC (USAF), & USCG in two prong drive across south & central Pacific with Adm.

Nimitz calling the shots Conquest of Guam (Marianas – Tinian & Saipan too) in 1944 was especially critical, b/c from there (the Marianas) the USA could conduct round-trip bombing raids (B-29s) on Japanese home islands – But a nasty volcanic sulfur-smelling small island with large 500 foot hill on its southwestern corner on it called Iwo Jima was in the way – could notify Japan that bombers were coming – plus many damaged bombers needed the vital air strip on the island for emergency landings – so in Feb of 1945, USMC began its biggest, most-distinguished battle lasting 36 days in Hell before the island was completely secure – giving us two flag raisings on Mt. Suribachi – the 2nd becoming perhaps the most famous photograph in the entire world – “Semper Fi, Do or Die, Gung Ho! ” Allies won Battle of Atlantic by – escorting convoys of merchants’ (and military) vessels (not using convoy system initially) [Ex. Carrier & other Task Forces], dropping depth charges from destroyers, bombing submarine (U-boat) bases (Ex. located in France), deploying new technology of RADAR At war’s end, U-boat crews are in a very deadly branch of voluntarily service & still got volunteers up until the end – 4 out of 5 U-boaters die by late 1944 – Adm Downitz asked for more before war – didn’t get them, used convoy system w/ destroyer escorts – depth charges – RADAR (B-24s & B-25s, other planes as sub hunters) – SONAR – Enigma code machine & codes (read Japanese codes in Pacific too) – US subs sink lots of ships (especially in Pacific), But what about organizing “wolf packs” (which are German U-boats) to chase down German U-boats (submarines)? *** Battle of the Atlantic – Most important battle in Western Europe!

Until Spring 1943, perhaps Hitler’s greatest opportunities of defeating Britain & winning the war was – the German U-boat would destroy Allied shipping (which it was faster than ships could be built early in war) Hitler’s advance in the European theater of war crested in late 1942 at the Battle of Stalingrad, after which, his fortunes gradually declined {* Leningrad, Kursk, Red Army, Counter-Offensives} pp. 841-842 Monte Cassino in Italy Allies postponed opening a second front in Europe until 1944 b/c – of British reluctance (b/c of the majority of troops would be supplied by them that early in the war) & lack of adequate resources {* We’d have gotten our butts handed to us by the Germans – as indeed we did really until 1943 – we needed to learn how to fight – Stalin was angry we left his country to suffer while we lagged in opening a second front n France to relieve the USSR – cannot blame him entirely FDR’s promise to the Soviets to open a second front in Western Europe by end of 1942 – was utterly impossible to keep (just not ready for the undertaking really) * So USSR got pounded through most of 1942 before it went on the offensive in 1943 and until the end of the war really – meanwhile, the Allies invaded North Africa, then Sicily, then up the boot of Italy – before two major invasions of France in June & Aug of 1944 Allied demand for unconditional surrender was criticized mainly by opponents who believed that such a surrender would – encourage the enemy to resist as long as possible (but USA also did this to show a ommitment to USSR as an Ally against Germany to avoid a separate peace as in WWI) FDR’s & Churchill’s insistence on the absolute and “unconditional surrender” of Germany – eventually complicated the problems of postwar reconstruction Chronology: Casablanca, Morocco – Jan 1943 FDR & Churchill meet – Pacific strategy, Sicily, Italy, unconditional surrender p. 842, (Cairo, Egypt before Teheran – w/FDR & Churchill discuss Chiang & Mao vs. Japanese in China), then Teheran, Iran (Persia at the time) – Nov 28th – Dec 1st, 1943 – plans for W & E attacks on Germany p. 844 – FDR, Churchill, Stalin, Potsdam, Germany – July 1945 – Truman, Churchill, Stalin – Potsdam Declaration & how to end war & post-war plans p. 851 Chronology: Invasion of (Sicily and) Italy (1943), D-Day/Normandy invasion (June 6th, 1944), VE Day 5/8/45 [my mother turned 6 years old (my father turned 6 years old 10 days later) – she had two brothers in this war (others in Korea & Vietnam) – one would come home from Europe w/2 Purple Hearts – served under Patton in N Africa & was at the Bulge – his eye was hanging out of his head attached by the optic nerve – they saved his eye – but the war messed the young man up for the rest of his life mentally carrying the burdens of death – her other brother was in Pacific – he would not come home until Japan was beaten] – VJ Day 8/15/45 – Japan’s surrender was 8/14/45 – official surrender on deck of battleship USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay was 9/2/45 – WWII was finally over after many deaths – military & ivilian (WWII began in 1931-37 in Asia, Sept 1939 in Europe, Dec 1941 for USA in Pacific) Major consequence of Allied conquest of Sicily in Aug 1943 was – overthrow of Mussolini (first of two times) and (eventually) Italy’s surrender o Italians surrender quicker than the French – At least they claim to be “lovers not fighters” – but the Romans seriously put a foot in and/or up one’s booty in battle as a vicious warrior empire known for organization in fighting After Italian surrender in Aug 1943, – Germans poured into Italy and stalled the Allied advance (really until the end of the war in Northern Italy – also harsh to Italians for switching sides) Real impact of the Italian front on WWII may have been that it – delayed the D-Day invasion & allowed the Soviet Union to advance further into E Europe (“iron curtain”) Brutal fighting in Italy Ex pp. 841-842 Monte Cassino in Italy Audie Murphy was in Italy, France, & Germany 442nd Nisei were in Italy, France, & Germany US First Army – The Big Red One Tuskegee airmen (99th squadron of 332nd fighter group)

Italians switched sides – Germans reinforced – bloody battles b/c of terrain – Ex. Anzio * I disagree w/this – Italy was a vital & valuable front – perhaps managed poorly, but necessary At the wartime conference in Teheran, Iran (Persia) (11-28 thru 12-1-43) (FDR, Churchill, Stalin) – plans were made for opening a 2nd front in Europe p. 844 – was Sicily & Italy before France – Stalin still not happy Cross Channel (English Channel) invasion of Normandy (in NW France) to open a 2nd front in Europe was commanded by Gen Dwight David Eisenhower (future president) [Ike] {West Point, Aide of MacArthur, Bonus Army, North Africa, Great political general – needed for this command to deal w/ the prima- onnas US Gen Patton and British Gen Montgomery (Monty) plus other issues – he was the right man for the job – although many disagreed about that at the time} ***** Normandy/D-Day June 6th, 1944 (operation Overlord) & Breakout 5 beaches Monty, Bradley, Patton diversion pointed at Calais, French Underground, Airborne/Gliders/Paratroopers, Rangers, Amphibious, Air Superiority, Mulberry Harbors, Strategy, Hedgerows, Engineers, Etc… (Saving Private Ryan, The Longest Day) In a sense, FDR was the “forgotten man” at the Democratic Convention of 1944 b/c – so much attention was focused on who would be VP (Truman – Sen from MO political machine – failed in business – US Army rtillery Major in WWI ) (VP & former Sec of Ag Henry Wallace pushed out) (FDR in poor health) ** FDR complained of a headache and then shortly thereafter died from cerebral hemorrhage sitting for a portrait in Warm Springs, GA (where his health spa for his rehab for polio was) on April 12th, 1945 – funeral train – some people had really only known FDR as president, now Truman was the great unknown trying to replace FDR – Eleanor said to Harry, “The president is dead. ” Truman replied, “Is there anything I can do for you. ” Mrs Roosevelt responded, “Oh no, is there anything that we can do for you, you’re the one who is in trouble now. ” FDR won 1944 election primarily b/c war was going well by Nov 1944 (many thought it was all but officially won and over) Action by USA against Adolf Hitler’s campaign of genocide against the Jews – was reprehensively slow in coming – Did not admit large numbers of refugees to USA, nor bomb RR lines at death camps – USA did know – Gov’t knew for sure since 1942 when “final solution” was implemented – US gov’t knew before if they chose to believe it (plus Mein Kampf, Hitler’s book), not major reason at all really that USA fought WWII – like Civil War sort of in that abolition of slavery was a by-product that many Federal/Union soldiers did not realize they were fighting for at the beginning of the war, nor would many of them fought for that ideal anyway–my opinion–so you know it’s correct! ( Hitler’s last ditch attempt to achieve victory against the USA & British (plus other Allies) came in – Battle of the Bulge (Dec 1944-Jan 1945) My uncle FL was there – got that nasty eye wound • Hurtgen Forrest (When Trumpets Fade) before Bulge near Achaen in W Germany almost on Belgian border – brutal mine fields – slaughter – overshadowed by Bulge so largely forgotten • Bulge – why it’s called the Battle of the Bulge – weather – secrecy – push through weak Ardennes – Malmady – Mr. High – casualties 76,000 US – worst battle in US history (Okinawa close, Gettysburg too) – Germans lost 140,000+ – cold – no air cover for weeks – Bastogne – 101st Airborne (Band of Brothers) – 101st at Normandy, Market Garden, Bastogne, Hitler’s Eagle’s Nest – Patton & 3rd Army – costly choice to push bulge back rather than pinch it (liposuction) – air cover returns – push to the Rhine – USSR pushing from the East – USSR in Berlin – brutal

As result of Battle of Leyte Gulf – Japan was finished a s a naval power (Philippines 1944 – largest naval battle ever – Halsey – Taffy 3 – Kamikazes – Yamato) [Philippines fell – 500 POWs rescued at Cabanatuan (The Great Raid) – hold outs in to 1970s] {Iwo Jima and Okinawa and Japanese home islands left to take to end Pacific war} ***** War of attrition in Pacific – to the death – rarely took prisoners on either side unless want information Potsdam Conference – issued an ultimatum to Japan to surrender of “face a rain of ruin from the air” • It’s already facing a “rain of ruin from the air’ as did German cities! p. 851 Potsdam Conference (Truman told Stalin of massive weapon to use on Japan – Stalin not surprised (b/c he knew from spies already) – told Truman to use it & promised to enter war in Pacific as he had agreed to earlier – entered war 8/8/45, day before 2nd A-bomb on Nagasaki that time, Hiroshima the first on 8/6/45) Total unconditional surrender or be destroyed – threat of more bombing – not specific as to use of an atomic bomb – more bombing – so what – already taking that! Spending of enormous sums of money on the original (to be used against Germany) atomic (nuclear) bomb project (Manhattan Project) was spurred by the belief that – the American public would not tolerate the (massive) casualties that would result from a land invasion of Japan (***** Much More Complex Than That! ***** Letter “c” in the answer choices – The Japanese were (still) at work (and more successful than Germans – who tried heavy water in Norway but suffered to sabotage attacks – one at the plant, the other sinking a ferry w/the heavy water on board – still at bottom of the lake in Norway) on an atomic bomb of their own (claim to have detonated one in Manchuria) ***** Japanese had lots of weapons ready for the Final Battle or invasion of Japan, which was planned & ready to go – they also had chemical weapons from Shiro Ishi’s Unit 731 in Manchuria – chemical & biological weapons – delivery systems – Ex. High altitude balloons, flea bombs, etc…- USA made post-war deal w/ the Devil!

No war crimes trials for vivisections, experiments, infection of disease, anthrax, plague, etc… The “unconditional surrender” policy toward Japan was finally modified by – agreeing to let Japan’s Emperor Hirohito stay on the throne (w/Democratic gov’t) * No war crimes trials for emperor – Tojo took the fall for emperor – no Shiro Ishi or members of Unit 731 unlike Nazis – let Japan have terms that Germany did not get – then USA – built up former enemies (W Germany & Japan) into allies while former allies (USSR< etc…) became enemies – COLD WAR! The following were qualities of US participation in WWII:

A group of highly effective military & political leaders, an enormously effective effort in producing weapons & supplies (usually more, & later, better equipment than enemies – out produced the Axis), the preservation of the American homeland against invasion or destruction from air (small submarine skirmishes & some off-shore shelling, & some balloons w/explosives in 48 continental USA), the maintenance & re-affirmation of strength of democracy, What about a higher % of military casualties than any other Allied nation (USA had least casualties of big ones – USSR suffered more casualties than any country on either side) ————————————————————————————————————————————— p. 27 FDR as “all wise” for Germany first strategy over those who disagree – Pacific war always get ripped off p. 828 Allies Trade Space for Time * German (& Japanese) scientists – weapons – A-Bombs pp. 829-832 The Shock of War pp. 830-831 Japanese-Am Internment (Farewell to Manzanar) Issei, Nisei, Exec Order #9066 (100th/442nd) pp. 832-833 Building the War Machine * strikes Ex Coal Miners – exploited, underpaid – share profits Kaiser shipbuilding pp. 833-834 Man power & Woman power – Braceros (later deportations in “Operation Wetback”) – Rosie (Wendy) – day-cares p. 834 War migration map pp. 835-837 wartime migrations p. 835 Tuskegee Airmen photo p. 835 A Philip Randolph (Exec Order #8802) **** (Charles Drew – Af-Am did first successful blood transfusion – put in charge of Allied blood banks – he was forced to segregate blood too – his death outside a hospital after an accident – died waiting for a blood tranfusion b/c white hospital would not admit him) p. 835 Double V, CORE – 1942, NAACP membership increases p. 836 Comanche (Europe) & Navajo (Pacific) “code talkers” pp. 836-837 Zoot Suit Riots in LA, CA 1943 & Detroit, MI 1943 “Sudden rubbing against one another of unfamiliar peoples produced some distressingly violent action. ” pp. 837-838 Holding the Homefront p. 837 National Debt Chart pp. 838-839 The Rising Sun in the Pacific p. 838 Map of Luzon, Bataan, & Corrigador (Philippines) p. 838 (Mao and ) Chiang Kai-shek resist Japanese w/Allied help p. 38 Flying “the Hump” in Himalayas (b/c of Burma Road – Merril’s Mauraders & Gen Stillwell) p. 838 “ill-trained” Filipinos, MacArthur holds fast – delays Japanese – Bataan Death March (POW rescue) p. 839 Japan’s High Tide at Midway (plus Aleutians) pp. 839-841 American Leapfrogging Toward Tokyo (island-hopping & leapfrogging like blitzkrieg Pacific style) * Book does opposite of Europe First strategy of Allies • Guam (Saipan – suicides), Marianas “Turkey Shoot’ F6F Hellcat kill ratio • 6-20-44 Battle of Philippine Sea – massive Japanese losses p. 840 Map of Pacific War p. 841 Churchill – “The Hun is always either at you throat or at your feet. ” pp. 841-842 The Allied Halting of Hitler p. 41 Battle of the Atlantic – U-boats, destroyers, RADAR, SONAR, Enigma, New U-boats (not enough early in war – Downitz) – no sub can stay under indefinitely b/c food is limitation (U-571) pp. 842-843 A Second Front from North Africa to Rome p. 842 USSR lost ~20 million pp. 842-843 “unconditional surrender” debate & results pp. 843-846 D-Day: June 6th, 194p. 845 Examining the Evidence – Teheran 1943 – Overlord Discussion (* Dieppe in France) p. 844 Ike chosen to command D-Day invasion – (feignt w/Patton at Calais – codes, underground, paratroopers, Rangers, 5 beaches, air power, Mulberry harbors, etc…) p. 846 D-Day (Agincourt 1415 – officer recited Shakespeare) in picture caption p. 846 Aug 1944 invasion of S France (A Murphy) pp. 846-847 FDR: Four Termite of 1944 p. 47 Focus on VP – Truman – on Sen Committee for Wasteful Spending – told to stop investigating Manhattan Project – he later learns it was Atomic Bombs p. 848 FDR defeats Dewey – FDR had Rep owned newspapers against him again p. 848 Quote from Congresswoman Clare Booth Luce – “He lied us into war because he did not have the political courage to lead us into it. ” pp. 848-849 The Last Days of Hitler p. 849 Map of Battle of the Bulge * 76,000 casualties – worst US battle ever – so far * Okinawa & Gettysburg were both very bad too Bulge mistakes p. 848 bombings pp. 848-849 (Remagen) Rhine River crossing into Germany p. 849 Holocaust – camps liberated – horrors known now for all (unit 731 in Manchuria) p. 849 FDR’s deathVE Day 5-8-45 pp. 49-851 Japan Dies Hard – US subs sinking Japanese ships – cutting off Japan’s vital lifeline sank 1. 042 ships ~50% of Japan’s merchant fleet p. 850 Bombings in Japan Ex. Tokyo 3/9-10/1945 ~83,000 KIA p. 850 Leyte Gulf, Iwo Jima, & Pkinawa – short-changed as usual by textbooks that suck! Iwo Jima 6,000 KIA not 4,000 Okinawa 50,000 US casualties (KIA, WIA, MIA, POW) at Okinawa, Japanese had ~200,000 military & civilian casualties p. 851 2nd Flag Raising (Flags of Our Fathers, Letters from Iwo Jima, The Sands of Iwo Jima) p. 851 Kamikazes (Saipan & Leyte, then Iwo & Okinawa – worst of all – no Final Battle – would’ve been worst) • They had lots stored up for the Final Battle pp. 851-853 Atomic Bombs p. 52 Hiroshima picture – post-bomb on 8-6-45 180,000 KIA, WIA, MIA 70,000 KIA instantly 60,000 died later from radiation, etc… p. 852 USSR enters war in Pacific on 8-8-45 day before Nagasaki 8-9-45 KIA of 40,000 instantly, more later USSR invaded Manchuria & North Korea (not a country split N & S until 1950) 8-14-45 Japan surrendered 8-15-45 VJ Day official surrender on deck of battleship USS Missouri (Big Mo) on 9/2/45 w/MacArthur , etc… pp. 853-854 The Allies Triumphant p. 853 US casualties ~ 1 million ~1/3rd KIA • plasma, penicillin, (quanine for malaria), etc…. (medics, corpsman, doctors, nurses) USSR lost ~20 million plus more casualties 13. 6 million military killed plus 7. 2 million civilians killed plus up to 30 million more wounded and refugees p. 853 US attacked on W coast Ex balloons w/bombs, etc.. & submarines on both coasts p. 853 “In the end, the US showed itself to be resourceful, tough, and adaptable to accommodate itself to the tactics of an enemy who was relentless and ruthless. ” Kind of funny given US history – don’t you think? p. 854 VJ Day 8-15-45 image p. 854 production marvels – won war through production – more of everything – then eventually better & more! Churchill – “Nothing succeeds like excess. ” Herman Goering (Head of German air force/Luftwaffe – “Americans can’t build planes – only electric ice boxes and razor blades. ”

Goering also said that the P-51 Mustang (US fighter plane) won the war for the Allies p. 854 “But the American people preserved their precious liberties without serious impairment. ” What would Zinn say? Is this a reference to loss of liberties during WWI – Espionage and Sedition Acts? What would “enemy aliens” and citizens interned during the war say? Ex. Italian & German internment Japanese-American internment p. 854 Chronology p. 855 World War II: Triumph or Tragedy? Post-war scholarship was to avoid isolationist appeasement in Cold War Another paralleled 1930’s revisionist of post-WWI said US should have stayed out – made it worse Another thought FDR was naive isolationist

Others thought FDR was a calculating interventionist Another focused on Atomic Bombs controversy – racism issue or timing b/c Germans were beaten already Gar Alperovitz said bomb was used to scare USSR & hurry surrender MartinJ. Sherwin said we dropped A-bombs when ready to end was ASAP w/bonus of scaring USSR ***** Textbook ignores Rises to Power of Totalitarian leaders like Stalin (communist), Mussolini (fascist), Hitler (fascist), & Japan’s militarist gov’t w/emporer Hirohito led by Tojo early in war – he took the fall It does not explain the role of the emperor in Japan’s gov’t Battle of Berlin – brutal pay back – refugees – rapes – POWs – Hitler’s death

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