History revision Essay
History- What historians chose to interpret from the surviving evidence of the past Source + Historians = Histories All historians have their own views and interests due to their upbringing hence that the process of selection and interpretation distorts our ‘knowledge’ further. Issues in historiography Training of historians Objectivity in history Oral societies and history Problems of historical research Universal history Evidence- selection Source- How? Truth- Consensuses Context/ Perspectives Selection- Who decides? Interpretation Revision
Ideology- Reputation, perspective, emerging ideas, lack of evidence Language and technique- To place emphasis and how historians chose to say Methodology- How the way you put the sources? (cross-examine, verification) Facts in history History from ‘above or below’ Motive Judgement- Whose? Audience Linguistics History and Ideology- Political beliefs influence Explicit vs. Implicit Something clearly or implied Form of literature- poems, speech “What are historical facts? ” – Carl Becker 1. History is subjective- personal desires and prejudices (history changes along with society’s values) 2.
History is interpreted differently between people (interpreting what in the past is though) 3. History cannot be re-enacted as a series of events 4. History is written on how much the Historian can extract from the evidence and his knowledge- background, audience, purpose, motive. 5. History is pre-occupied with ‘cold’ and ‘hard’ facts and not small detail (the obvious history) Case Study: Herodotus The historian Born at Halicarnassus (485 BC – 425 BC) Exiled due to conspiring against Persians Merchant and traveller Greek Historian Cannot be free form bias (critical judgement)
Educated (upper class) Harnessed ill feelings towards Persian Motive and Purpose for Writing “These are the researches of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, which he publishes, in the hope of thereby preserving from decay the remembrance of what men have done, and of preventing the great and wonderful actions of the Greeks and the foreigners from losing their due need of glory; and to put on record what were their grounds of feud” To commemorate To preserve the memory of the past by putting on record the astonishing achievements both of his and other people and more particularly.
To show how they come into conflict To record the “glory” of Greeks To record stories even where truth is impossible (fantasises, legends) Inspired by Home and Hecateus Methodology and Technique Witness accounts Values Reports Sources Interests Viewpoints Evidence Books Entertainment Evidence Observations The Mind Enquiries Language and Style (words and phrases chosen, speeches, audience) Future Generations People’s viewpoint/ interpretation Memories Opinions Rumours Claims Honour Home and Hecateus Orally- entertaining Conflicting accounts Type of History Anthropology- study of mankind Ethnology
Traditions, cultures and religious stories- oracles, wonders, marvels, dreams, myths, omens, sacrifices, prophecies, fables Societies- common practices Orators, politicians, demagogues, battles and warriors Polyphonic Constructed and recorded Books- customs, legends, history and tradition (The Histories) War between Persia and Greece Social and literary narrative Similar work style from predecessors (Homer and Hecateus: oral historians) Knowledge from his extensive travels Consulted witnesses and examined whenever possible and dreams, oracles and portents His opinion on plausible reports from implausible ones
Intention of publishing hence being bias (perspective) Poetry (exaggeration) Impact of the historian on historiography Set a ‘standard’ no matter what (guidelines and rules) Creation of Western historical writing Include everything/ everybody Based on research Establishes historical writing as freely economic, political and diplomatic, social, sexual, religious, military or naval History as a field (social, cultural, gendered, religious, political, military An enquiry Storytelling and discipline Father of history and lies Establishes history as a mode of storytelling
Post modernism Vocabulary Commemorative Divine intervention Greek pride Patriotic Remembrance Perspective of elite Greek society Broad Perspective Plethora Case Study- Thucydides The historian 460BC- 400 BC Elite, wealthy, male Early military career was cut short due to plague in Athens One of Athens’ ten generals Failing to save Amphipholis, he spends 20 years in exile. He returned at 404 BC. He has the opportunity to travel to both sides during the Peloponnesian War Age of the sophists- uses debates and rhetoric to argue issues Sceptical and rational
Motive and Purpose for Writing “My work is not a piece of writing designed to meet the taste of an immediate public, but was done to last for ever” “I have written my work, not as an essay which is to win the applause of the moment, but as a possession for all time” Wrote the history of the war between the Peloponnesians and the Athenians “that it would be a great war and more worthy of relation than any that had preceded it” Does not glorify war To record Methodology and Technique High value on eyewitness testimonies
Episodes of himself taking part Consulted written documents Interviews of participants Does not recognise divine interventions Modern historical objectivity Chronology- summers and winters Debates that he records From memory Sharp analysis of causes and effects Language and Style (words and phrases chosen, speeches, audience) To last through the ages Prose literature Speeches- adds realism Cross-examination Validity of their ideas on logic and rational thinking Debates Morals Type of History Political and military history
Detailed writing of military, naval battles, preparation for battles, encouraging speeches by generals, effects and consequences of war Peloponnesians War Events (no arts, literature or society) War of Greeks- disputes, colonies, war, envoys Fast moving, precise, directed, decisive, carefully structured and highly analytic Strict chronological method Monologic Constructed and recorded Sophist’s speeches (used debates and arguments and counter argument, view and counter view, opinion and counter opinion) Objective
Book- History of the Peloponnesian War Headlined and narrow events- military and political and diplomatic Impact of the historian on historiography Invention of a chronological way Developed an understanding of human nature explaining behaviours in such crises (plagues, massacres and civil war) instead on divine intervention History is based on logic and rational reasons and thinking Increased of accuracy and reliability of sources Sharp analysis of causes and effect
Father of “scientific history”- strict standard of evidence gathering and analysing of evidence History was to learn from the past therefore making better decisions in the future Didactic- to teach Vocabulary Rhetoric of uncertainty with phrases like Devoted in evoking in detail Focus on a great historical period, a period of war Analytical No criticisms Refers to an interpretation Innovative Critical World history Case Study- Horrible Histories, Teary Deary Aim/ purpose: Entertainment, monetary, children’s interest in history
Motive: Make a statement (anti-authority & context) as school interest in history is declining Methodology: Consults historians (record, writing, collecting) Have professional actors Scripts (Performance) Series on Television (BBC) Language/ style: Colourful bright colours In a humorous way “Stories about people, in dramatic situations, with jokes” Gags Imagination Impact: Refocus the presentation of history to young children From being dry and dull to with humour History is now acceptable to be shown on TV for children Information of history has changed dramatically Case Study- Bede