History of Database
History of Database
Storing data and files is an important aspect of business for various industries of the world. The storage of data in computers or database system is proven to be cost effective. Large or small database needs a system which will control the processes in the databases. Such applications are called database management systems (DBMS). From the time it was designed, the need for a good DBMS has increased because of the escalating number of data stored in the database. There are many available DBMS that private corporations use today.
Indeed, database management systems have evolved due to the demand for the services that these systems provide. Database Management System A database management system is a collection of programs which enables the user or a network of users to mange files and data inside the database. The management includes storing, deleting, modifying, and extracting information from the database. It manages the request of the user and other programs installed in the computer or in the network. The DBMS ensures the integrity and reliability of the data. Some DBMS also provide security to the database (Tatum, 2003).
There are many different forms of database management systems available in the market today because of the different private and public organizations or corporations which require different kinds of DBMS. However, there are four important elements that every DBMS have. These are the modeling language, data structures, data query language and mechanism that allows transactions (Tatum, 2003). The modeling language is the element that pertains to the approach used by the DBMS to communicate with the database. There are several approaches available today including hierarchical, relational, network and object-oriented (Christiansen, 2005).
The hierarchical model makes use of pointers to navigate between stored data which is stored hierarchically in a downward tree. The structure is very inflexible in changing data and access requirements. The data is accessed by navigating from the root data to the data on the lower part of the hierarchy. In addition, the user should know the structure of the system before he or she can make an inquiry (Hsior, n. d. ). The network model is like the hierarchical model. It uses pointers to navigate through the data but it does not use a downward tree structure.
It has limited flexibility in changing data and accessing requirements. Access to the data is accomplished by navigating through the structure and issuing specific statements to find specific data types in relation to the starting point of the structure (Hsior, n. d. ). In relational model, the data is stored in the two-dimensional tables. The data in the relational method is manipulated based on the relational theory of mathematics. The data types in this model are assigned with a symbolic primary key or foreign key construction. The referential integrity of the model is supported by the relational theory of mathematics.
This model is very flexible to the data changes and access requirements. And the access to data types is based on relational algebra and relational calculus statements (Hsior, n. d. ). And lastly, the object-oriented model stores data as objects. This model is more direct than its predecessors since the design is very close to the real world model. The object-oriented model allows an easier way to maintain the database. The identification of objects is assigned by the system which protects the consistency of the data; while in the relational systems, it is assigned by the user.
The database does not only store data but a whole application as well. Moreover, it can be executed inside the database. The concept of inheritance in this model makes code easily reusable. Furthermore, the object-oriented model is more practical and more economical (Hsior, n. d. ). The data structures are the elements that a DBMS manages inside the database. Different databases require different data structures which different DBMS manage. Data structures include individual records, files, fields and objects such as media files.
DBMS need to define data structures to ensure the integrity of the data while it is being accessed. The data query language is the element which takes care of the security of the database. It monitors login data, assigns access rights and privileges, and defines the criteria for the add data function in the data base (Tatum, 2003). History The origin of database can be traced back to libraries, governments and other institutions that require storage of data. The DBMS was designed to ensure the integrity, security and accessibility of data. The design of the DBMS constantly evolves through time.
It aims to create a design of which has better reliability and performance (Mann, 2003). In the 1800, Jose Marie Jacquard had created a machine, Jacquard Loom, which produced fabric from stored design from a punch card. The data of the design is stored in punch cards where holes represent the details in the design. In this way, the Jacquard Loom automatically designs the loom depending on the punch card in use (Tatum, 2003). Similar technology was used in the 1890 as Herman Hollerith created a mechanism that recorded information in a punch card which was coded numerically.
The idea is that the data can punch in specific locations in the card, and then it can be counted and sorted automatically. This design was used by the US government to perform the census. Hollerith’s company solely produces the machine that records the data in the punch card and another machine that tabulates and sorts the cards. This company is renamed to IBM. The company prospered as it was able to produce machines that can record data for business and government institutions during 1910 towards 1960. The systems have records of every household and other data needed for the analysis of the society (Tatum, 2003).
By 1955, many business and government institutions have floors dedicated for the storage of punched cards and floors for the machines. The machines work with punch-board which control accumulator registers that could reproduce punched cards or put data on paper. Some very large companies accumulate tons of data everyday that costs millions on storage. Thus, the need for a new technology has become very imminent (Tatum, 2003). In the 1960s, private organizations and corporations needed computers that have better storage capabilities and computers are proven to be cost effective against ordinary punch cards.
In line with this, database administrators needed database management systems to cope with the increasing data storage capacity of computers and the increasing number of data being stored. The hierarchical and network model are the two main data models developed which were used in database management systems during the earlier years. They made use of pointers which was used to navigate through records. In these models, there were difficulties in adding another field in the higher level since it will require rewriting the scheme for access in the lower level data.
In this system, the emphasis of the model was placed on the type of data to be processed and not the over all structure of the system. In addition, the user who will need access to the data should know the structure of the database before he can make a query for information (Vaughn, 2003). In the early 1970s, the Edgar F. Codd proposed a relational approach in manipulating data in the database. He published an article entitled ‘A relational model of data for large shared data banks’ which became the foundation in the development of the relational database.
The article showed a theory of how to store data in a rectangular or in two-dimensional tables and then use the theory of mathematical sets to operate on it. The relational databases represent the first implementation of the real database management system. Since then, the relation model had been the most popular or standard approach for database management systems (Vaughn, 2003). In the mid-70s, the theory of Codd on relational databases was put into research projects by several competing camps. During this time, the term Relational Database Management System or the RDBMS was coined.
During these times, there are two main prototypes based on the relational were developed. These are the System R developed by the IBM and Ingres developed by the University of California at Berkeley. These two prototypes led to different kinds of DBMS. The two lines of DBMS created by the two prototypes used different query languages. IBM’s System R uses the Structured Query Language (SQL) and the UCB’s Ingres uses QUEL short for query language. Also in mid-1970s, Peter P. Chen proposed the Entity-Relationship Model for the database design which gave a new insight in the conceptual models of a database management system.
This model gives the designer of the database management system a way to concentrate more on the use of data instead of its logical structure like other method does (Vaughn, 2003). In the early 1980s, the commercialization of the Relational Database Management System began to intensify due to the increasing demand of databases in corporations around the world. The higher demand was caused by the emerging business in the United States and other countries around the world. Another reason is that organizations and corporations had increasing number of data needed to be stored.
Businesses rely on computers for their data storage thus a better database management system is needed to manage large databases that these businesses have. At the same time, many companies made some products which give individual users to maintain a small database in their own computer (Vaughn, 2003). In the rest of the 1980s, SQL had become the standard query language for many databases which was caused by the emergence of the local area network. The Oracle Corporation made the first commercial relational database. Moreover, the network and hierarchical models faded to the background.
However, there are still others that use the network and hierarchical models (Vaughn, 2003). It was during the early 1990s when the industry of databases had a shakeout and there are only a few companies that survived for offering better products. The most important development on the computer industry was on application builders and programming languages. During these times, the prototype of the object-oriented database management system was introduced. The object-oriented DBMS is conceptualized to handle big and complex data that relational database management systems had a hard time to handle (Vaughn, 2003).
In the mid-1990s, the influx of internet use revived the need for database industry. This demand came from internet servers in order to manipulate the large amounts of data which must be made accessible to internet users. Better security and reliability is also needed to protect the client-users and the information itself from corruption and tamper. As such, only a good database management system can provide this. In addition, the database industry during these times has reached the desktop computers in the users’ own homes.
This provides desktop computer users to manage their own small database or access the large databases on the internet (Vaughn, 2003). In the late 1990s, the industry prospered in terms of internet sales and database tools. The e-commerce industry boomed since business transactions have been done online. The Online Transaction Processing and the Online Analytical Processing emerged (Vaughn, 2003). However, in the early 21st century, there has been a decline in the internet industry. Nonetheless, the database industry is still growing because the demand for a larger database and better DBMS is steadily growing.
There are other interactive applications that emerged during these times. Three companies have dominated the database industry including Microsoft, Oracle and IBM (Vaughn, 2003). Nowadays, huge systems require a good way to manage and analyze data. These databases’ storage capacity for the data now reaches the terrabyte level. Such databases are science databases which hold genome projects, national security, and space exploration data. Shopping online is also one of the common practices today. Millions of buyers participate on this application, thus requiring a larger database and good handling abilities.
There are researches today that is said to surpass the capabilities of the SQL. This development will ensure another significant growth in the database industry (Vaughn, 2003). Future Trends Mobile database is now emerging in various ways. This technology will secure a more remote access to database. Additionally, more and more people will access a single database at a time. As such, proper management is needed to ensure the continuous service and to prevent a system crush (Vaughn, 2003). Object-oriented database management system is predicted to dominate the database market as well as other computer markets.
The emergence of the use of this model threatens to wipe other database models (Vaughn, 2003). As time goes by, there are certain issues that have risen alongside the creation of larger databases. Ethical issue is one of them; the larger the database is, the harder that people can efficiently manage it. Consequently, it is easier for perpetrators to subtly penetrate a system without being known by the administrators. In addition, some databases use automatic analyzing application which is sometimes unethical to use (Vaughn, 2003). Evidently, the database evolved from simple punched cards to huge mainframes.
The advances in database technology have propelled the growing need for large data storage and management tools to access and analyze it. The database management system evolved as billions of information are generated by large business and government institutions everyday. The demand still grows as the internet community is still continuously growing. The future of database industry is very clear – it will continue to prosper and advance as the world continuously develops. References Christiansen, S. (2005). Database Management System. Retrieved April 10, 2009, from http://searchsqlserver. techtarget. com/sDefinition/0,,sid87_gci213669,00. html Hsior, J. (n. d. ).
Evolution of Database Systems. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://w3. ocit. edu. tw/ben/foxpro6/article/english/ch01/page04. htm Mann, M. (2006). History and Comparison of Relational Database Management Systems. TechnoCircle HVB Information Services. Retrieved April 11, 2009, from http://www. guug. de/lokal/muenchen/2007-05-14/rdbmsc. pdf Tatum, M. (2003). What is DBMS? Retrieved April 10, 2009, from http://www. wisegeek. com/what-is-dbms. htm Vaughn, J. (2003). A short Database History. Hobart and William Smith Colleges. Retrieved April 12, 2009, from http://math. hws. edu/vaughn/cpsc/343/2003/history. html
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 26 September 2016
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