History of Cheese Essay
History of Cheese
In developing a search strategy the most important thing is to decide on the keywords that sum up the information one wants. In my research paper I am researching on the history of cheese. The keywords in my topic are history and cheese. The synonyms of cheese include cheese flower, high mallow, malva sylvestris and tall mallow. History synonyms include account, chronicle and story. Cheese production and consumption has proliferated all over the world since its discovery years ago. This is due to its availability in the stores all over the world.
The process of making is also easy and the ingredients that are used in its production are easily presented. The main ingredient is milk. Production of cheese has been converted from small scale production to large scale production as years since its discovery progress (Martin 12). Cheese refers to a group of milk-based foods which come in different flavors, forms and textures. It comprises of proteins and fat that is gotten from milk. The milk is produced by cows, goats, sheep or buffaloes (Harbutt 8). Cheese is produced by curdling of milk protein.
The mild is acidified and an enzyme called rennet is added to cause the curdling. The solid and liquid are separated and modeled into different forms and shapes. There are a variety of cheese that includes cheddar, camembert, stilton and parmesan. The history of cheese according to a study done at the University of Georgia was discovered by an accident. An Arabian merchant was carrying milk in a pouch. The pouch made from a sheep’s skin contained rennin. Due to the scorching heat from the sun, the enzyme rennin was activated causing the milk to turn into solid curds.
Though the exact time of the discovery of cheese is unknown, cheese appeared 3500BC. It was widely used in Asia and then migrated to Europe. Cheese was mentioned in Homer’s epic, The Odyssey. In the scene the Cyclops is making cheese and placing in wicker (University of Georgia 1). In the early days of cheese production, milk from different sources was mixed, and a variety of seasonings added to produce abundant flavors. Cheese was introduced in America after Mayflower landed and became a staple component in many American households.
The first cheese factory was established in 1851 in Oneida County, New York. The Jesse Williams factory eliminated the production of cheese individually or by local farms. This flourished the production of cheese (Sokol 2). Writers like Richard claims that cheese was first forum in the Middle East. It was in form of sour milk which came into being after it was discovered that domesticated animals could be milked. It was observed that milk left in a container turned into a solid especially in hot temperatures. The curds and whey that were gotten from milk were discovered to be edible.
The history of cheese is also mentioned in the old testament of the bible. David was fed with cheese of kine when he escaped across the river Jordan. David was also asked to bring with him ten cheeses to his commander of his brothers as they were participating in the battle against the philistines (Sokol 2). The ingredient of cheese is mostly milk. All kinds of milk like reindeer, caribou, yak, and llama have been used to produce cheese. In the process of cheese production, Sokol in his book, “And That’s How You Make Cheese” claims that protein in the milk is curdled and separated from water.
The curdles are cut, cooked, drained and pressed to drain out more water. This leads to the production of a solid cheese that can be sliced. Archeologists that were excavating lake dwellings on the shores of Lake Neuchatel found potsherds that had pierced with holes. The findings dated back to six hundred years before Christ. The vessels had been used as drainers that were used to separate curds from whey (Toussaint-Samat 103). This made them conclude that the production of cheese which was mainly from sheep and goats milk had been done on their land earlier.
Cheese contains high concentration of essential nutrients. Some of these nutrients include quality proteins and calcium that help in the development of the body. The invention of cheese grew tremendously due to the many benefits that are accrued from it. Cheese contains high concentration of calcium that helps in cavity prevention in the teeth. It helps in the development of strong teeth because it has low concentration of lactose. The consumption of cheese after a meal such as cheddar, Swiss, Brie and Monterey helps in the prevention of tooth decay.
Cheese has also been proven to prevent cancer due to its high concentration of conjugated Linoleic acid and Sphingolipids (Roberts, Petrini and Hooper 350). The cheese business has thrived in the world greatly due to the large profits accrued from the industry. Cheese production and consumption has increased all over the world. Companies have cropped up and ventured in the industry thus creating a viable business enterprise. Some of the companies like the Arena Cheese factory, Aria Foods, Inc and Andrew & Everett are some of the companies that have ventured in the cheese industry.
They have enabled many households to enjoy wide variety of cheese after their meals. Cheese like the Provolone and Ricotta are used as appetizers, salads. They are first refrigerated and wrapped in order to retain freshness. Other types of cheese like the Parmesan and Roman are grated on soups, bread and spaghettis. Camembert cheese is used o crackers or with fruit that help in appetizers and desserts. It is first refrigerated during storage and preserved in a temperature controlled room.
The United States is the largest producer of cheese in the world. This has been facilitated by the large supply of milk in the US. The United States has dedicated large amount of funds and time on investment and research work. The availability of large farms involved in milk production has also contributed to the production of cheese in the US. There are more than four hundred and fifty plants in the United States dealing in cheese production. The companies operate on a strict sanitary and quality standards set up to control the cheese industry.
This has helped the United States to position itself as the premium cheese supplier (Pastorino, Hansen and McMahon 67). One of the most popular types of cheese is Roquefort. This cheese falls in the family of blue veined cheese because throughout the cheese, there are thin blue lines amidst the cream colored cheese. Originally produced in Southern France, it has moved across the world as a favorite of so many. For this cheese, one can choose between goat, sheep, and cow milk.
The sheep the French use to make their cheese are fed grass in which there is a high level of limestone or calcium carbonate. Cheese-France 1) If the milk has too much or too little acid in it, a different cheese may be formed or the milk can spoil at a faster rate and therefore making an unappetizing block of cheese. The limestone helps balance the pH level and acts as a buffer. At time the cheese maker adds rennet, to start the curdling process, and then must wait at least two hours to allow the rennet to form. People can’t eat Roquefort cheese because of an allergy to penicillin. As one article states, “The traditional way of getting penicillium is to place loaves of bread in a dark, damp space, and letting them mold.
After ten weeks the bread crust is pealed back to reveal the inside of the bread, which is nothing more than a fine green powder, the powder is called penicillium”. After combining the bacterium with the curd, the cheese begins to take shape but, the cheese needs to monitored because many other byproducts must be removed throughout the curdling process. Once the salt has settled, the cheese maker must put holes into the cheese to allow the carbon dioxide to release into the air. The cheese maker will receive his final product about six months later, as the bacterium is hard at for that long. Encyclop? dia Britannica 1) Cheese since its discovery has evolved in a great way. The production of cheese used to be in small scales during the early years. Today it is produced commercially by large companies. The use of cheese has also changed from the time when it was used as food. Cheese is currently used in prevention of teeth cavities, salad and preservatives. This shows that since cheese was invented tremendous changes have been experienced thus leading to its development to what it is in the present world (Sokol 29).
University/College: University of California
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 19 November 2016
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