Civil rights are rights that protect individuals freedom from being violated from government, social organizations, and private individuals. They guarantee the ability to participate in political events and society without being discriminated. Until 1968 African Americans did not have all rights that were given to white people. The civil rights movement in the United States was a long going movement with the goal and soul purpose of enforcing constitutional and legal rights for African Americans. The movement lasted from 1955 till 1968. Many major nonviolent campaigns and organized social movements occured to end legalized racial segregation and discrimination in the United states.
Eventually receiving recognition in federal law and protection for all Americans. In my Paper I researched many events throughout the Civil Rights Movement that demonstrate Tragedy and Triumph.
The Brown v. Board Education of Topeka was a landmark for the United States Supreme Court case in which the Court stated the state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students were unconstitutional.
The Supreme Court case where the justices ruled unanimously that racial segregation of children in public schools was unconstitutional. Brown v. Board of Education was one of the turning points of the civil rights movement, and helped establish the model “separate-but-equal” education and other services were not, in fact, equal at all. The doctrine was extended to state-supported colleges and universities in 1956.
Emmett Louis Till was a teen African American who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955 at the age of 14, he was accused of offending a white woman in a family owned grocery store by whistling.
The brutality of the murder and the fact that his killers were acquitted drew so much attention to the long history of violent persecution of African Americans in the United States. The nation could not ignore the press or the NAACP, The lynching sent shock through the United States provoking the first signs of the Civil Rights movement. Emmett till story was tragic but only to begin unpredicted triumph when African Americans finally got what they wanted.
On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Rosa Louise McCauley Parks rejected her bus drivers order to give up her seat in the colored section to a white person, after the whites only section was filled. She was arrested and charged for disorderly conduct. Rosa Parks act of defiance and the Montgomery bus boycott became a important symbol of the civil rights movement. She became an icon of and activist for resistance to racial segregation. She was given the name “First Lady of civil rights and mother of the freedom movement”. Rosa Parks collaborated with many civil rights leaders, such as Edgar Nixon, the NAACP, and Martin Luther King, Jr. a minister in Montgomery who gained national prestige in the civil rights movement and later winning a Nobel Peace Prize.
The Little Rock Nine was a group of nine African American students who enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. On September 4 the first day of school caused the Little Rock Crisis. Governor Orval Faubus called the National Guard of Arkansas to prevent the African American students from entering the racially segregated school.. Later that month, President Dwight D. Eisenhower sent in federal troops to escort the Little Rock Nine into the school.
This was triumph for the black community to have African American students integrating with the white people.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a civil rights in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. It prohibits unequal application of voter registration requirements, racial segregation in schools, employment, and public accommodations. ANNOTATION
The act removed all legal Basis on voting, school, and segregation and was one of the best achievements of the civil rights movement.
Martin Luther King was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968. ANNOTATION
The King led the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and he became the first ever president of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957(SCLC). Martin helped organize the nonviolent 1963 protests in Birmingham, Alabama and also helped organize the 1963 March on Washington. The March on Washington was where he gave his famous ‘I Have a Dream’ speech. On October 14, 1964, Martin Luther King won the Nobel Peace Prize for combating racial inequality through nonviolent resistance. Martin Luther King, Jr. played a key role in the civil rights movement and under his influence, the civil rights movement gained attention and respect from many. King was a huge influence for the passing of the Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act for African Americans.
The Selma to Montgomery marches were three protest marches, held in 1965, along the 54-mile highway from Selma, Alabama to the state capital of Montgomery. The marches were organized by nonviolent activists to demonstrate the desire of African-American citizens to exercise their constitutional right to vote, in defiance of segregationist repression, and were part of a broader voting rights movement underway in Selma and throughout the American South. By highlighting racial injustice, they contributed to passage that year of the Voting Rights Act, a landmark federal achievement of the Civil Rights Movement.
This act was signed into law on August 6, 1965, by President Lyndon Johnson. It outlawed the discriminatory voting practices adopted in many southern states after the Civil War, including literacy tests as a prerequisite to voting. Annotation
The voting rights act was the biggest of the accomplishments of the civil war. For many year African Americans could not vote without being subjected by whites.
Throughout all of civil rights movement there was much tragedy. All the tragedy eventually lead to triumph with African Americans getting their long and hard worked for Civil rights.