History and Politics of the Mexican Revolution Essay
History and Politics of the Mexican Revolution
The Mexican revolution was one of the most significant catastrophe in the twentieth century, which involved four momentous leader by the name of Madero , Diaz , Zapata and Obrengo. According to Alan Knight, author of the article “The Mexican Revolution”, “the Mexican revolution started as a protest of the middle class against the dictatorship of Porfrio Diaz”. A small minority of people were control of most of the country’s power and wealth, while the major of the population worked in poverty.
According to Dan la Botz, author of article “The Mexican revolution part1, 1910-1920, “Tens of thousand of men and women fought in battles in many region of the country to end the dictatorship and overthrow the leader”. The attempt to mold a new generation that would continue the revolution’s efforts for the people into the future. Their campaign included programs for land reform, work protection, widespread literacy, and mandatory schools. The nation fund a mental economic, institution were transformed as a basic Agriculture production unit and the foreign own oil industry nationalized.
In the 1910s a politician and military struggle arrived among various rival politicians, economic and social groups, the working class and the peasantry were defeated and subordinated to new master. The revolution began as an attempt to overthrow Porfrio Diaz who was a dictator of Mexico. According to Dan La Batz , author of “Mexican Revolution part 1 ,1910-1920” , “Mexico’s liberal who wanted a free market capitalist county like England and United States, battle consecutive who wanted a count more like Spain with its monarchy, powerful catholic church and feudal hierarchy (Botz 26).
Diaz revived and expanded the nation economy, generally raising the levels of prosperity in the nation. The administration introduce changes that commercialized agriculture, modernized mining, financed industries, initiated railroads and enticed consumer. During the Porfrio ratio, as railroad construction dominated popular attention, city resident also witnesses the introduction of additional technology such as gas lighting, tramlines and other advances. Railroad transported raw material to the United States and Europe.
Ordinary people who supplied the labor and raw materials were tricked to increase the country’s economy and Diaz later exploited domestic workers. Diaz fought alongside Mexican president benito Juarez and then against intervention. Diaz then emerged as a leading general and became president in 1876. Diaz served 34 years as the president of Mexico. Diaz took land from villages until most peasants had been reducing from small proprietors to day laborers. Diaz existence caused destruction upon the economy and social lives of Mexicans.
He fought against his opponents and wag war. Diaz promised a free election against Francisco Madero another leader of Mexico who ran for election, after it became obvious he might not win. According to Beezley Williams H author of “Mexicans in Revolution 1910-1946: An introduction” “Francisco Madero became a revolutionary by accident, his entire life, his family, his education, his marriage and his early business efforts-marked him as a member of the elite (Williams 36).
Madero’s family believed that his campaign was foolhardy if not suicidal. He campaign across the nation of Mexico with the aim of no presidential election. Madero’s movement was soon swelled with people who saw his campaign not only a chance for the politicial democracy but also the opportunity to struggle for more fundamental social change. Madero campaign threatened Diaz which forced him to get Madero arrested on felony charges and jailed in San Luis Potosi under house arrest in the summer 1910.
In July 1910 with the help of his wealthy and politically connected family,Madero fled from San Luis Potosi to San Antonio, Texas and transformed the Anti reelection political organization for revolution to begin November 20. Madero issued his manifesto, the plan of San Luis, The plan laid out his vision of polotican democracy emphasizing the no presidential reelection. Madero slogans was “Effective Suffrage (that is honest voting) No reelection (prevent Diaz pattern of holding office) and Municipoo Libre( local control of issue such as taxes).
Madero was elected president and assumed power in November 1911. By November 911 Zapata, another Mexican leader and his troops were at war with Madero’s Government. Zapata movement focuses on four main issues which was lands; which should be given to those who work for it, secondly labor unions; which had been suspended under Diaz, fought for their rights to organize and to strike and demand protective legislation for workers, thirdly education; for the country last battle with Catholic Church, the demand for free public education and finally ownership of oil nd mineral; all natural resources of Mexico should belong to is people.
Zapata army was driven out of Mexico in the early 1916 by Carranza’s troop who was a Mexican leader that fought against Zapata. After this shift by Carranza’s troops, Zapata had no hope of fighting back Carranza because he didn’t have as much army as Zapata. According to Micheal Mathes author of article “Frontier Settlement in Mexican California” , with the help of chief advisor , Gildardo Magana he started an alliance for anyone who will want to fight Carranza (Mathes 503).
Venustiano Carranza was the son of a middle class and who had been educated in Mexico to become part of the political elite. Carranza joined Madero’s rebellion and became president after the death of Madero. Carranza and his followers attempted to remodel cities, not by pulling down statues, wrecking monuments, or destroying the house of the old regime, but by creating a new society.
The Mexican revolution was then divided into two rival bourgeois and plebian. According to WM. O. OWEN, author of “The Mexican Revolution, Its progress , cause , purpose and probable result” Carranza’s constructional forces aimed to create a new nationalist state which could provide stability for Mexican born and foreign investors, while Connectionist led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata, desire to carry out the democratic and social reforms demanded by the country peasants and workers. The Constitutionalist would win the civil war because they understand the significant of the labor movement. Carranza’s armies had been successful in defeating the forces of Villa and Zapata.
Carranza and his advisors produce a new constitution which settled in law and the principle issue of the revolution. These laws were divided into four articles. Article 27 provided the break up of the haciendas and distribution of land to peasant and indigenous community. Article 123 gave workers the right to organize unions and strike and create legislation. Article 3 ended the Catholic Church’s control of education, creating the free, lay public schools and finally, Article 130 banned the church from Mexican politics and society. Carranza’s forces continue to fight opposition leaders which he eventually assassinating Emiliano Zapata.
On may 21 1920 the rebel forces captured and killed Carranza and the general Obrengon took power. Obrengon became president holding office from 1920-1924and Huerta revolt against President Obrengo in 1923. In conclusion lands were given to the working class and peasant, housing and farming territory and also ranching was easier to get. During the decades from 1917 to 1946 revolutionaries initiated a variety of campaign to bring revolution to people. At the same time the revolutionaries initiate campaign that proved to be only partially successful, to remake the symbols of Profrio rian regime in the image of the revolution.