The Agricultural Revolution was also known as the Neolithic Revolution which occurred around roughly 10,000 B. C. It was a revolution that involved the transformation hunting-gathering societies into establishing permanent settlements and resort to agriculture and domestication. Hence, it initiated the development of civilization. The Cuneiform was probably the earliest form of writing upon which the Sumerians established in the Mesopotamian area, as their civilization started to proliferate, around 3000 B. C.
It was said to have lasted for a few thousand years and while its use proliferated, the number of characters that it contained gradually dwindled to a more manageable standard.
The Ziggurat was a temple tower which the Sumerians established that existed during Ancient Mesopotamia—almost quite similar to the temples of Ancient America. There were established monuments for the local regions of Ancient Mesopotamia. It was basically a pyramidal structure with a top flat—a platform that served as a shrine or temple. It was elevated to several levels (around two to seven tiers as suggested).
The Code of Hammurabi was an ancient law-code (set of society’s rules) which was created in Babylon around 1800-1700 B. C. It was also enacted by Babylon’s sixth king, Hammurabi, upon which the code’s name was derived from. It is just one of the several set of fundamental laws found in the Near East to Middle East—area of Ancient Mesopotamia. Moses is a well-known biblical figure that exists in an array of religions. He was a Hebrew prophet who delivered the Hebrews from Egyptian Slavery and towards the Promised Land which was Israel; although, it was said that he died before he reached Israel.
He was well-known for the ten plagues of Egypt that forced the Pharaoh—his stepbrother—into freeing the Hebrews. He was later known for the Ten Commandments. Amenhotep IV was the 10th or 11th Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty, reigning around 1300 B. C. It was suggested that he reigned around 1353 to 1336 B. C. He was also known as Akhenaten. In relation to his name, he was noted to have obliged the population into accepting monotheism, the worship of Aten. He was not really the heir to the throne, at least not until his older brother’s (Crown Prince Thutmose) death.
Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty, reigning from 1479 to 1458 B. C. She was known as the longest ruling female pharaoh of Egypt; although, it was known in some historic sources that her reign was co-regent and that it was entailed in the reign of Thutmose III. Her most notable achievement was probably the establishment of trade networks in Egypt which apparently brought in wealth for the 18th Dynasty. Zoroastrianism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of Zoroaster or Zarathustra, which can be traced in ancient Persia.
It is considered as one of the world’s first monotheistic faith, as it exalted Ahura Mazda.. It was believed that many concepts of the three major religions were derived from the scriptures of Zoroastrianism; one of which is the belief on a universal God. Manichaeism was considered as one of the major Gnostic religions of ancient Persia. It said to have existed from the third to the seventh centuries, from as far as China to the Roman Empire. It received prosecutions from other religious cultures such as Buddhism, Christianity, and Zoroastrianism.
Its main prophet was Mani who lived in Babylon. Its major concept described the struggle between light and darkness (good and evil). Cyrus the Great was a Persian King who established the Persian Empire under the Achaemenid dynasty, reigning from around 600 to 530 B. C. He started to build his empire by first fighting the Median Empire, then the Lydian Empire, and finally the Neo-Babylonian Empire. He also led his armies into Central Asia and died in a battle against the Scythians before reaching Egypt. It was mentioned that he respected the cultures of the lands he conquered.
Hence, this made him a successful emperor to the eyes of his people. Herodotus was a Greek historian who lived around the fifth century B. C. In the Western world, he was known as the father of history. He was the first to apply systematic collection of evidences and data. He usually writes about information regarding the nature of the world and the different sciences, as he would inform people in a narrative way. Sophocles lived from 496 to 406 B. C. and was notably an ancient Greek Tragedian. Luckily, he was one of those Tragedians whose work survived long enough for the modern world to see.
His most famous works, which concerned Oedipus and Antigone, have been tackled in schools worldwide. He was also the most-awarded playwright in Athens. Hippocrates lived from 460 to 370 B. C. He was known as one of the most astounding figures of Medicine. He was also known as the Father of Medicine, having established the Hippocratic School of medicine that apparently revolutionized Ancient Greek medicine, which enabled medicine to become a known and necessary profession. The Persian Wars is a series of a Greco-Persian conflicts that arose in 499 B. C. , lasting until around 448 B.
C. It was basically the two Persian invasions of Greece which the Greek Alliance successfully repelled. It defined Greek dominance over the Persians. Homer was an Ancient Greek writer that created the epic poems, Illiad and Odyssey. His existence remained controversial as it was yet to be discovered. However, many believed that he existed during the time of the Trojan War, around 1194 to 1184 B. C. , which was the core setting of Illiad. Sophists were basically Ancient Greek teachers of writing, speech, and rhetoric that traveled across the country during the fifth century B. C.
A growing demand for education during this century paved the way to the establishment of a class of teachers and professionals that scattered all over Greece in order to educate people. Socrates was a well-known Classical Greek Philosopher that lived from 469 to 399 B. C. He was known to be one of the founders of Western Philosophy, especially his contributions to the field of ethics; through his most comprehensive accounts, the Plato’s dialogues. He was put to trial and executed by forcing him to drink poison and walking around the city. Sparta was a Greek city-state, renowned for its military dominance over its region in Greece.
It was established as the rival of the Athenians—during the Peloponnesian war. As a requirement of the governing body, all Spartan men were full-time soldiers, especially during the time of War. Aristotle was an ancient Greek philosopher that lived from 384 to 322 B. C. He was a student of Plato, who later on became the teacher of Alexander the Great of Macedonia. He was also known as one of the Greek philosophers that established the foundations of Western Philosophy (other than Plato and Socrates). Galen of Pergamum was a Roman physician and apparently a Greek philosopher that lived from 129 to 200 A.
D. He was known to be the most accomplished physician during the Roman era. His philosophies and theories influenced and dominated much of Western Medical Science. Archimedes was a Greek inventor that lived during 287 to 212 B. C. , known for his theories and foundations on hydrostatics. He was also regarded for his inventions which included an array of siege engines and equipments, and the screw pump, later known as the Archimedes screw. Pax Romana, also known as Pax Augusta, was a long period of relative peace that Rome experienced during the first and second centuries A.
D, around 27 B. C. to 180 A. D. It was proclaimed by Caesar Augustus, and it suggested that Rome would go under a period of peace and non-expansion; with generals being recalled after their victories. It met its end at the death of Marcus Aurelius. Diocletian was the emperor of Roman from 284 to 305 A. D. The end of the third century crisis in Rome was signaled by the ascension of Diocletian to the seat of power. He refurbished the empire by separating and enlarging the empire’s civil and military services, assigning three other leaders to control different regions.
This was probably the largest and most bureaucratic government in Roman history. Virgil was a classical Roman poet who lived during 70 to 19 B. C. He was known for his three major works: the Bucolics, the Georgics, and the Aeneid—which became Rome’s national epic. Born to a farmer who later lost their land to soldiers, he engaged in farm work and studied poetry. His first two major works were said to have been influenced by rural life. Claudius Ptolemaeus was a Greco-Roman astronomer who lived from 90 to 168 A. D, living in Egypt which was under Roman control.
He was an author of several discourses including the Almagest (astronomical discourse), the Geography (knowledge of Greco-Roman world), and Apolotelesmatika (astrological discourse). Titus Lucretius Carus was a Roman Philosopher-poet who lived around 99 to 55 B. C. Although not much was known of him, he was renowned for his major epic Philosophical poem known as De rerum natura, or translated as On the Nature of Things. He dedicated this to his friend, Gaius Memmius. It was said that the poem’s purpose was to free Gaius’ mind of superstition, as well as the fear of death.
Octavian was the successor of Gaius Julius Caesar, after the latter was brutally murdered. He ruled from 27 B. C to 14 A. D. wherein he died. He became the first emperor of the Roman Empire, after it was formally established that a sole person would rule the Republic in accordance with the Senate. His rule also initiated the enactment of Pax Romana. Peter was the proclaimed leader of the early Christian church and was one of the apostles of Jesus Christ. He was a simple fisherman that Jesus assigned to take up a leadership role amongst the other disciples and apostles.
At the time of Nero, the Christians were prosecuted and with him being the first pope of Christianity, he was nailed to the cross facing downwards and burned in Rome. Paul was a Hellenistic Jew and was referred to as the Apostle to the gentiles. His conversion took place on his way to Damascus when he envisioned a resurrected Jesus Christ, which later on temporarily blinded him. Unlike the rest of Jesus’ apostles, Paul only saw Jesus Christ through his visions and was unfortunate to have not known him in person. Like Peter, he was executed by Nero through beheading.
The New Testament is the second major division of the bible wherein the story of Jesus Christ can be read. It contained the gospels upon which shared the life of Jesus Christ and the proliferation of the Christian church. It also contained the book of revelations which was the apocalyptic prophecy. Constantine I, also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman Emperor who reigned from 306 up to his death on 337 A. D. He experienced his conversion into Christianity on the battlefield. With him as a Christian convert, he reversed the prosecutions laid out by his predecessors and established the Edict of Milan in 313 A.
D. , which stated religious toleration throughout the Roman empire. St. Augustine of Hippo was a philosopher and a theologian, as well as the Bishop of Hippo Regius, who lived around 354 to 430 A. D. He was born in Thagaste. He was also regarded as one of the most important Christian figures who helped in the proliferation of Christianity. His thoughts influenced the medieval worldview, the medieval Christian church. The Arians were the followers of a religion called Arianism which was established in 250-336 A. D. by a Christian priest known as Arius.
Arians were branded as heretics by the Christian church, thus leading to their execution or excommunication. However, the religion and its followers still continued onwards through the medieval ages. The Justinian Code was summoned by Emperor Justinian himself and his desire to create a single set of laws, or “code,” which contained the different laws enacted by past emperors from the reign of Hadrian up to his rule. The older laws and codex were updated to fit the standards of Emperor Justinian’s reign. The first part of the law was completed on 529 A. D.
Byzantium, known today as Istanbul, was an ancient Greek city established by Greek colonists, naming it after King Byzas. The name was actually Latinized from Byzantion. It became the capital of the Byzantine Empire, after the fall of the Western Roman Empire, and renamed to Constantinople. Later on, the Ottomans laid siege of Constantinople and took over the city. It was then changed to Istanbul when Turkey was established. The Koran is the most important text of Islam; much like the Christian bible. It was believed to be a book of divine guidance for mankind to follow.
It was mentioned that the Koran was revealed to the prophet Muhammad by Jibril (an Islam version of Gabriel). The Koran was also believed to have been written by Muhammad and his followers, through the transcription oral transmissions. It was compiled in 633 A. D. and was standardized in 653 A. D. under the Islamic Empire. The Hagia Sophia was a mosque but later turned into a Museum which can be found in the city of Istanbul in Turkey. It was highly considered as the epitome of Byzantine architecture, as it was established as a patriarchal basilica at that time.
For nearly a thousand years, it was considered as the largest cathedral in the world. When the Ottomans conquered Constantinople, it was converted into a mosque. Theodora was the empress of the Byzantine Empire during the sixth century A. D. and the wife of Emperor Justinian I as the emperor of the Byzantine Empire. She was regarded as a saint of the Orthodox Church. She was also known as the most influential woman in the history of Byzantine. Feudalism was an established political system during the medieval ages in Europe, as well as the rest of the world. Three key elements revolve around Feudalism: lords, vassals, and fiefs.
The Lords control the land and provide protection for it. The vassals establish a contract with the controlling monarch, ensuring the protection of the land and his property. The fiefs are profitable lands that could gain revenue for the kingdom. Charlemagne was the established King of the Franks who reigned from 768 A. D. up to his death in 814 A. D. He united the Frankish kingdoms and expanded into Western and Central Europe, establishing an empire. Later on, he conquered Italy and was crowned by Pope Leo III as Imperator Augustus, and became a rival of the Byzantine Emperor sitting on Constantinople.
During his reign, the empire experienced Carolingian Renaissance which was the revival of art, culture, and religion through the medium of the Church. Alcuin of York lived from 735 to 804 A. D. in York, Northumbria. At the request of Charlemagne, he became a teacher in the Carolingian court, which focused on the revitalization of art, culture, and religion through the medium of the Church. He composed many theological doctrines, as well as a notable number of literary works like poems. He was inducted as the abbot of Saint Martin’s at Tours in 796 A. D. , until his death.
Clovis I was the first king of the Franks brought Christianity to the Franks and aimed to unite the Frankish kingdoms under one ruler. Instead of remaining as an Arian Christian which was very common to the Germanic tribes, he converted to Catholic Christianity and brought this to his people. He was baptized near Rheims wherein the succeeding kings would be crowned as King of France. Serfs were people belonging to the lowest class in the feudal system of medieval Europe which was Serfdom. Basically, they were slaves to serf lords and were tasked to till the lands.
They had no freedom and only had barely enough to feed themselves. They do not own the lands they till. Rollo was the first ruler of the Viking principality in Northern France, later known as Normandy. He lived from 860 to 932 A. D. He invaded France in 885 A. D. , and was considered as one of Sigfred’s Viking Fleet’s minor leaders. He was defeated by King Charles the small of France and later gave him the northern area of France with the condition that he would defend the French Kingdom from other Viking raiders. The Magna Carta is an English charter that was issued in 1215 A. D. It gave noblemen certain rights.
It also required people to respect legal procedures, and accept that the person’s freedom could be dully bound by law. It also protected the King’s subjects from unlawful imprisonment. Basically, it was made by noblemen to somewhat limit the powers of the King, in order to avoid Tyranny over the kingdom. William the Conqueror or William I was the King of England from 1066 up to his death in 1087 A. D. He was known as William the Bastard because of his illegitimate birth. Along with his men, he fought against the English at the Battle of Hastings and won. As King, he made a lot of major reforms in the English administrative system.