In this essay, we will see the historical processes (native population, economy, natural resources) as well as the analysis of the standard of living of the people living in a comparison of Mexico and Canada with political issues as well as a personal recommendation of a single country to live in, which are in North America.
In order to understand the whole comparison, we must begin seeing the historical processes of the countries, both in Mexico and Canada there were pre-Hispanic civilizations.
The First settlers were in Canada, they were the ancestors of the Inuit people that, between 15,000 and 10,000 BC migrated from Asia to north America across the Bering strait during the glacial period, when it was formed a land bridge between Eurasia and North America and some then spread to the rest of Latin America. Furthermore, there were also Inuit, Dorset (700 BC to AD 1300), as well as metis natives. And finally, there were also Vikings (1000 AC) although they were later forced to leave by some native inhabitants.
The first settlers were in Canada, they were the Ancestors of the Inuit (15,000 and 10,000 BC) then the Inuit people, the Dorset 700 BC to AD 1300 the Metis and the Vikings (1000 AC).
On the other Hand, Mexico was divided into regions. One region was The Mesoamerica and the other Arid America, also known as the north, although most of the pre-Hispanic civilizations were mainly settled in Mesoamerica. This were, The Olmec civilization (1400-400 bc), and The Maya civilization (1800 bc-250 ac) which later would assimilate to the Aztec Empire (1300-1521 AC) that ended with the arrival of Spain colonization. Many of them later would died by diseases that the settlers brought, and the most part of this civilization was annihilated.
The colonization began first on central America in 1521, by the Spaniards. Before, in 1517 Spain had send some explorers even though in that moment they could not defeat Mayans population. After that, the first arrival by Europeans on Canada was in 1497 by the Italian people and then it was explored by French and British men. Whereas first colonies there were settled by British people and then from the French population.
European countries came to the North America mainly because they were interested in searching for goods by themselves instead of buying it to Spain. They were first settled on the Caribbean islands from where they became to expand to the rest of the Americas.
British and French colonization was very different from the Spaniard colony since the English government had no desire to create a centralized empire in the new world, so we can say that different motivations by English settlers led to different types of colonies.
The puritans were one of the British ones, The Puritans were one of the British colonies that settled in north America. They believed in predestination that means that god already decided your destiny and the wealth of the people. They believe in meritocracy as well. As they were from the protestant religion, they had a hostile relationship with the natives.
French had more flexible relations with the aboriginal communities and Spanish type of colonizing was softer too, as they developed trade alliances and often intermarried with the native people. Still, both colonial powers participate in the slave trade triangle still not equally
This could be mostly seen in some descendants from natives’ civilizations percentages on both countries, since in Canada there is about a 5% and in Mexico 20% to 30% approximately that shows how hard was the annihilation on these different regions, such as it is said on the Iron Maiden’s Song. (Run To The Hills. )
“white man came across the sea […] He killed our tribes killed our creeds·”
As regards to the historical process after colonization, Canada was mainly formed during both the French and British war and the French and Indian War of 1763, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America on the treaty of Paris to the British, while giving Louisiana to Spain.
The first movements for self-rule grew were among Mexico led by Miguel Hidalgo and Jos? Morales. In 1810 it became an independent country, when rebels led by Agustin de Iturbide overthrew the Spanish viceroy. After this, Mexico became a monarchy system with an emperor since Iturbide took the title of emperor, and in 1824 the monarchy was changed to a representative democracy becoming a Republic.
On the other side, the Canadian Lower and middle classes made an act of united upper and lower Canada into the New Province of Canada in 1840. However, in 1846, it was divided between Great Britain and the united states and in 1869 the Hudson’s Bay Company relinquished its territorial rights to Rupert’s Land and the Northwest Territories.
Furthermore it was established as a self-governing democracy by a British constitution act where Lower Canada and Upper Canada became the provinces of Quebec and Ontario, respectively with Ottawa as the capital city, although it still continuous being some kind of monarchy while in Mexico, after independence, became a revolted between Mexican and Texas and 1836 Texas was declared independent and in 1845 it joined the USA.
Later, USA declared war on Mexicans on 1846, winning the war and forcing Mexico to sell its north to the USA. In 1862 the country was invaded by French because of unpaid debts, and it finished in 1867.
What is more, both countries will then come across some dictatorships and civil wars.
Both countries come across different political processes such as civil wars, Mexican Revolution, 1910-1920 and the Canadian Civil War in 1861-65. As well as, during the world war one (1914) and world war two both countries joined the allies, Canada on the British side that on the world war two (1939) participate helping with troops as an independent country. But on world war one it participated still being a colony, helping with manpower and guns.
Furthermore, Mexico was not as important during both world wars. But in 1930 to 1970 Mexico experienced a big economic growth on the contrary Canada between the world wars was hit by the Great Depression of the 1930’s.
First contacts between these countries were during the expansion of the rail and maritime network north American that allowed connections between them but the cold war made them split since Canada joined with the USA by the OTAN (treaty of the Atlantic north). This relation Arose on 1980 when the economic crisis of Mexico made it opened to the world, while the rising on protectionism from USA led Canada to look for others agreements outside with free trade and market. In 1994 Canada joined with the United States and Mexico to negotiate the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which made flows of goods, services, capital and persons between Mexico and Canada increased exponentially. It had an important impact on the economy of the countries that were involved due to the rising in trade and commerce.
In fact, the main commercial exchanges were between Canada and the USA even though it brought about a lot of problems inside and outside the country of Canada. First it made it to split and stay far from others trade agreements with countries of the rest of the world and it also create some tensions inside because of environmental problems as well as shortages of economic aid from the USA since 1990 which mainly affected CIDA although in 1998 it raised the budget still it was not completely restored.
The main imports were to the USA with an 48% while to other countries the percentage is lower than 10%. The same happens in export ranking from 2% to 5% with Mexico at a 3% of exportation while with the USA it has the other 67% of export.
Some advantages of it are that,
- In Mexico grew the manufacturing industries and most of USA jobs moved to Mexico
- Even though the fact that it helped the economy of both countries it also had some disadvantages for the two of them.
- Canada had big problems when talking about competing on the global market, with rising taxes, major regulations and less productivity within the NAFTA agreement.
On the other side, Mexico
All of it affects mainly the Canada’s economy, however it still has a very stable financial sector and economic development of the country in comparison to the rest of the world due to the fact that it is recovering and growing since the mid-1990s.
The provinces of Quebec and Ontario are the most important places on economic terms. Its Canadian dollar, (CAD) is valued on 0,760 dollars approximately and Its GDP is from about 1,653 billons USD (2017) having an income per capita of $47,600 dollars, while on Mexico is of 1,15 billion USD (2017). Nevertheless, there is a huge difference on the society between the northern and southern states, more especially those who are rich and poor people but also those at the urban and the rural population.
Canada economy have a lot of natural resources as well as it is the main exporter worldwide since it produces its own products in order to sell it to the world, still also has raw material to use it on the manufacturer sector and on low prices energy. These resources include energy, mineral and timber, such as natural gas, crude oil, gold-silver, copper-zinc, lead-zinc, iron etc. It also has a lot of raw material as well as, forest products, fishery products, skins, corn, and wood and finally it is also a big producer of hydroelectric energy gas and oil. Nevertheless, agriculture is still basic compared to Mexico’s agriculture Because of the post-war period when it shifts from the production of agricultural goods toward increased emphasis on manufacturing and services. Also, we have to consider that Mexico is very limited in size in comparison with Canada. The last one is very large in size and has the world’s largest proportion of freshwater lakes although it has a very small population compared to other countries that are similar in size.
Something a bit different takes place in Mexico. It has a primary, secondary and tertiary industries. However, years before, Mexico’s economy was agriculture and the job sector made a sudden shift towards the industrial sector. Nowadays, it still produces some agricultural products such as vegetables, corn, bananas, rice, and cacao.
Secondary, it has the primary industry where you could find gold, copper, petroleum, silver, etc. Apart from that, natural resources include timber from extensive forests and agricultural land. Mexico is also self-sufficient in most fruits and vegetables and in beans, rice, and sugar, meat and dairy products. Finally, Mexico has been one of the world’s leading oil producers since the 1920s.
On terms of Living, we could start by looking at the political aspects; On one side, Canada is a federal state because it has three levels of government federal, provincial and municipal although it has a parliamentary democracy, since people elect representatives to the House of Commons, these are responsible for approving laws, and monitoring expenditures, as well as keeping the government stable. On the house of commons there are different parties such as the Liberal party (LP) the reformist (RP) the Quebec Block (QB) and the party for a new Democracy (PND). On the senate, however, there are the PL Liberal party, the PCP progressive conservative party, and others that are independent. In 1993 the most important ones were the PL and PCP, two very similar countries, and the PND until, the growth of the PL in terms of power and the PR appeared on the west of the country.
It still is a constitutional monarchy, because the Queen of England is still the “head of state” of Canada although her powers are very limited in government.
On the other hand, Mexico is representative, democratic and republican based on a presidential system according to the its Constitution. Although the constitution established separation of powers, in practice the Mexican executive power (enforces the laws) dominates the legislative (the one that creates laws) and judicial branches which are there in order to have a stable balance. What is more, the legislative one, also separates into three more branches that are the house of commons, the senate and the queen.
When the president wants to intervene in the states, first it has to be approved by the congress, then he has certain legislative authority, especially in the regulation and development of commerce and industry.
In case that something occurs, and as they have not a vice president, the Congress is in charge of the election of a provisional president. The congress not only makes federal laws, but also has the power of declaring war, imposing taxes, or even approving the national budget and international treaties. The federal Congress, as well as the state legislatures, are both elected by a voting system that includes plurality and proportional representation.
Some similarities are that both Mexicans and Canadians has to aged 18 or more to participate in their democracy and to vote. As well as, not only Canada but also Mexico are both decentralized federal countries due to its provinces’ strength. As well as they have compulsory voting by law but it is not enforced.
Another important thing to analyze is that in Mexico the usual promedy of living is until the people reached the age of 77, while in Canada is up to the 82 years old. This as far crucial to the working life, since in Canada you can apply for and receive a full CPP retirement pension at age 65 or receive it as early as age 60 with a reduction, or as late as age 70 with an increase due to the large time they usually live. It is very similar to Mexico, where the normal retirement age is 65, although a person is able to receive reduced benefits at age 60. Besides, both countries have a huge difference in unemployment rate. Mexico’s rate is of
%. It’s major labor problem, with the agricultural part as the most affected, is unemployment. It was reported at 3% in 2001, but taking account only the most populated areas since rural unemployment was even higher. While Canada unemployment rate is of 5.4% and still is worsening since the situation does not seem to improve much.
However, Quality healthcare still is best on Canada than in Mexico since in Canada drug prices are mostly low, although a big part of the hospitals and doctors operates privately.
It adopted a national health programmed in which the government contributes about 50% of the cost (mostly from taxes) and in those health care systems you have a lot of places or costs between the ones you can choose. There is also a good Access to professional health care and cost containment, but there are strains on the budget, increased by an aging population. The federal government provides with services, financing and control over the distribution of it, as well as towards the constructions of new hospitals and public infrastructures for the population.
Mexico health care system is divided into public and private sector,the public sector which is conformed by the “instituto mexicano del seguro social” (IMSS) “el Instituto de Seguridad y servicios sociales de los trabajadores del estado”( ISSSTE) the “petr?leos mexicanos”(PEMEX) and the “Secretar?a de la defensa” (SEDENA) and The private sector, formed insurance companies, private clinics and hospitals, as well as the social security.
Mexico progress in public health was from an increasing on expenditure as a percentage of gdp from 5.1% in 2000 to 5.9% now. The health services are provided by social security institutions to their members and are financed by the contributions of the government and workers too (mainly by taxes).
In terms of education in both countries the government fund the educational system, however, Canada has a better rate in terms of quality and teaching programs. The Canadian educational system is provincially accredited, it means that is officially authorized, they follow a standard curriculum, and is publicly funded. Although nominal fees are charged for secondary education in some schools or provinces and Each province is responsible for its own system of education since There is no federal department of education and no national system of education. What is more, In Canada there is a law that says that children must attend school starting at the age of 5 or 6 and until they reach an age between 16 and 18, but parents can also, educate their children themselves at home, rather than in a government run public school or a private school.
Without taking account the fact that, Mexico has a lower level of quality on education, schools are also compulsory and free. Except in the Federal District, where education is administered by the federal government, schools are controlled by the state education receives the largest budget allocation.
Another important thing but not more than the previous ones is that in both countries Mexico and Canada are natural disasters, even though, in Canada are more of these than in Mexico because there are Earthquakes, hurricanes, floods and volcanoes in both countries, still, Most volcanoes are located in western Canada, with the most active of these in the Yukon and British Columbia. In Canada we add to the list thousands of avalanches each year which occur when a mass of snow or rock breaks loose and slides down a steep slope, and can be triggered by wind, rain, warming temperatures, and snow. Moreover, Thousands of, earthquakes, landslides (although they are mostly small) and severe storms occur every year. Also, tornadoes, Tsunamis and wildfires are very common in this region because of the climate. It varies from polar and subpolar at the northern region to a most template at south. In fact, you may be surprised to learn that Canada is outranked only by the United States as the country with the highest number of tornadoes.
It mainly occurs because, as Mexico is part of the temperate land, (this means that it is placed between 1000 and about 2000 meters) the climate is subtropical between the 24° and 18°C.
CANADA’S AS THE BEST OPTION TO LIVE IN
In conclusion, due to the information presented and after reading the comparison between both countries, the best place to live-in would-be Canada since, we noticed that Mexico has a big economic stability problem, as well as the government is not as stable as Canada neither. This can be seen during the historical process in which Mexico is highlighted by a lot of dictatorships, revolutions and internal problems such as civil wars.
However, Canada do not have a dictatorship, they only have a monarchy. Still, it does not affect neither the economy nor the political affairs. What is more, it only had a very few revolutions, including the separation of Quebec and some problems with the indigenous people about the territory which later it will be given to them.
Basically, on Canada you could have not only reliability but also peace on your mind since although it could change the presidents or laws, it will be always having a lineal government that would not affect your own projections or plan for the future.
In fact, the ONU consider Canada as one of the best countries to live in. It evaluates income, education, and some other topics that we were developing.
Cite this essay
Historical Processes in Mexico and Canada. (2019, Nov 22). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/historical-processes-in-mexico-and-canada-essay