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Kidney is an important organ that helps in maintaining homeostasis thereby help to maintain body composition. Therefore, an experiment was carried out to assess the histochemical impact of a pesticide called dichlorvos on the kidney of a carp fish Cyprinus carpio. Our analysis indicates about detrimental impact on different parts of kidney such as interstitial haemopoietic tissue (IHT) and glomeruli (G), neck segment (NS), proximal convoluted tubules (PCT), neck segment (NS), distal convoluted tubules (DCT), etc. our experiments points towards intoxication of the kidney of the fish and thereby decreasing the nutritional constitution.
Key words: kidney, dichlorvos, intoxication, glomerulus, haemopoietic tissue
The Common carp or European carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a freshwater fish found in waters of lakes and rivers, which is rich in nutrients. Cyprinus carpio has been introduced into environments throughout the world. Since, urine is formed in Kidneys; hence, they remain always in contact with blood. The mesonephric kidneys of fishes show a dramatic response to the pesticide dichlorvos.
Dichlorvos or 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (abbreviated as DDVP) is an organophosphate pesticide that act on the nervous system of insects. It is ill famed because of its prevalence in urban waterways as well as extension of its toxicity beyond insects. In the year 1955, it was encountered that trichlorfon releases a vapor which was recognized as dichlorvos (Hayes & Laws , 1990). Dichlorvos is extremely toxic by any means such as breathing, absorption through skin and consumption (Occupational Health Services, 1991).
Dichlorvos has the oral lethal dose fifty which varies from 61 – 175 mg/kg in mice, 15 mg/kg in chickens, 25 to 80 mg/kg in rats, and 11 – 13 mg/kg in rabbits (Meister, 1992).
The dermal LD50 for dichlorvos in rats is 70.4 – 250 mg/kg, 206 mg/kg in mice, and 107 mg/kg in rabbits (Meister, 1992), (Hayes & Laws , 1990), (Occupational Health Services, 1991)). The pH of the media regulates the rate of the breakdown of DDVP. Alkaline soils, water, etc., show rapid breakdown, whereas acidic media show slow break down. DDVP undergoes slow hydrolysis at pH 4 while instant at pH 9 (Howard, 1989). Histopathological studies have been carried out by many workers like (Saxena, 1988). (Rashatwar & Ilyas, 1984), (Kulshrestha, Shrivastava, & Arora, 1984), Verma and Ratnakar (1978), Sastry and Sharma (1979), Mandal and Kulshrestha (1980), Dubale and Awasthi (1982), Shrivastava and Shrivastava (1982), Konar (1983), Shrivastava et al. (1984) and many more. However, literature pertaining to histochemical studies is very scanty. Hence, histochemical investigation was carried out to assess the histochemical impact of dichlorvos on kidney.
Common carp fish, Cyprinus carpio, were collected from local rivers. The alive fishes were given a treatment of 0.1% potassium permanganate (KMnO4) solution to remove any type of dermal infections. Then they were acclimatized in a large glass aquarium with a capacity of five hundred liter of water capacity for one week. Three aquaria each with a capacity of 200L were taken. Of this two were given a concentration of 3- and 5-ppm DDVP. The third aquarium was not given any pesticide, and hence taken as control while the rest two aquaria were taken as treated. Five fishes were held in each aquarium. Fishes were sacrificed at 10 day and 20-day interval. Excretory organs were taken out, bathed in 1% saline and fixed in fixatives as per the techniques to be used.
Histochemical techniques, which are bromophenol blue for protein, periodic acids schiff’s reaction for carbohydrate and alcian blue for mucopolysaccharides, are used as described by Humasung in “histochemical technique”.
With the Periodic Acid Schiff’s test, microscopic slides of kidney of the healthy fishes revealed strong positive reaction in blood cells; positive reaction in interstitial hemopoietic tissues, nuclei of neck segment and proximal convoluted tubules, very weak positive reactions in cytoplasm of these segments; strong positive reaction in distal convoluted tubules and negative reaction in glomeruli (fig. 1). Following treatment with 3-ppm dichlorvos for ten days, glomeruli showed moderate positive reaction; blood cells and interstitial hemopoietic tissue, proximal and distal convoluted tubules showed positive reaction; nuclei of neck segment exhibited positive while cytoplasmic segments showed negative reaction; (fig. 2). After twenty days exposure the entire tissue exhibited positive reaction.
In 5-ppm intoxication of DDVP for 10-day, interstitial hemopoietic tissues showed strong positive; neck segment and PCT showed weak positive reaction; glomeruli and DCT showed positive reaction. After 20-day exposure interstitial hemopoietic tissues and glomeruli showed positive reaction but neck segment, proximal and distal convoluted tubules exhibited weak positive reaction (fig. 3).
Bromophenol blue test, the slides of the excretory organs of the control fish C. carpio, exhibited following reactions with bromophenol blue test. Moderate positive reaction in distal convoluted tubules; positive reaction in interstitial hemopoietic tissue and blood cells; weak positive reaction in PCT and negative reaction blood spaces and glomeruli (fig. 4). With 3-ppm dichlorvos intoxication for ten days, kidney showed reactions. Moderate positive reactions in nuclei of neck segment, PCT and DCT; positive reaction in few interstitial hemopoietic tissues; weak positive reaction (WPR) in the cytoplasm of these tubules and negative reaction in glomeruli (fig.5). Following 20-days exposure, entire tissue exhibited strong positive reaction along with glomeruli, and moderate positive reaction PCT (fig. 6). Fishes treated with 5-ppm dichlorvos (ten days) exhibited moderate positive reaction in interstitial hemopoietic tissues (IHT), while rest of the tissues exhibited SPR. No difference was observed (fig.7)
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