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1.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE PROBLEM
Highlander’s bakery is situated in Mafeteng. In the Bedco complex, block D. Its owner is TSL Mokhosi, he formed it in the year 2000. Its main task is to supply the schools and local retailers with fresh bread. It’s open to the public too. They mainly buy the confectionary (Chelsea buns, muffins etc). The bakery employs a total of 9 people, 3 cashiers and the rest do the cooking. They have been divided into three shifts. There are also additional staff members. One of the local schools sends some of the students who have graduated. Their numbers vary and when they do arrive their divided accordingly. The bakery pays their expenses.
The current problem is in the accounts. They use a manual system whereby, the cashiers write down the appropriate information (that days profits, losses etc). Things like receipts and invoices are put into cabinets. The owner just realized that there’s a problem this year when LRA (Lesotho Revenue Authority) implemented its plans to make all the businesses in Lesotho to pay tax for all the years they didn’t. The first problem is that some of the information that the cashiers have recorded is found to be unrealistic. The receipts when added up make a different total from the ones in the books. Now from this information different conclusions can be archived. The cashiers might be stealing stock and putting down the wrong information on purpose. The other staff member’s maybe the ones stealing the receipts to enable theft. Maybe the cabinets are not a secure place to store the receipts.
1.2 LIST OF OBJECTIVES
To tackle the above problems I shall create a database. The database will be only accessed by the authorized employees (the manager and the cashiers). I shall make sure that the appropriate people access the database by inserting passwords which their familiar with, (I shall also suggest that they change them frequently). All the arriving stock shall be recorded on the database. I shall also include things such as staff records and how much they’re paid. Further more the students too will be included in the database and their expenses will be properly recorded. It shall have space for the day’s results, (how much bread, confectionary was baked, how much of it was wasted and how much was sold, etc). It shall also show all the weeks expenses, such as water and electricity bills. Then it shall automatically add everything up, showing how much was made that month and how much of it is profit.
1.3 DESCRIPTION OF EXISTING SOLUTION
The cashiers write down all of the day’s proceeds in a big book. All the staff members can access this because it’s necessary for them to write down their names when they arrive for their shifts. The receipts are simply thrown into cabinets and not properly stored and recorded. When the owner saw that this method is not properly functioning he decided that he should personally call every day after the bakery is closed and be told all of the days proceeds. He then records them secretly. The owner’s wife then checks all this data in the book every 6 months if the written data is realistic she approves them. If not she then takes the money that is short from the managers and cashiers salaries. That’s the way the data is processed and corrected but this method only applies for when money is missing and not stock.
EVALUATION OF EXISTING SOLUTION (1.4)
The existing solution is not that effective. When the owner calling does not prevent the staff members from stealing it only makes them cover their tracks, (destroy the invoices received for stock and not to write about them in the volume). The checking of the information by the owner’s wife only concentrates on the theft of money by the cashiers and the manager. The cabinets are quite ineffective because all have access to it. Malicious employees can gain unauthorized to the receipts, or the staff members can enable theft by making some of the receipts disappear.
DESCRIPTION OF OTHER POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS (1.5)
The bakery may upgrade is manual system. First thing they should do is use one book to keep all the records for the year in one book. This will help because finding records will be easier when their all located in one place. Locks maybe installed on the cabinets and the key given to the head cashier. This will help because it will prevent unauthorized personnel from accessing the record book and the receipts. The head cashier should be the only allowed to use the record book. This will help because there will be only one person who is responsible for the records thus reducing any theft.
My solution, the bakery should be computerized. All the receipts and invoices will be entered using a scanner. All the records will be entered with a standard keyboard. The computer will be secured using physical means and a password will be entered on the computer. The key and password will be known and possessed by the cashiers only. Using the Internet the owner will be able to see all the records for the day and send any queries back to the cashier via email.
EVALUATION OF OTHER POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS (1.6)
Upgrading the manual system
-It is cost effective the only materials that need to be bought are a book and some locks
-Finding records will be faster than the old system unlike in the old system the records are all kept in one book
-Receipts and invoices will be secure because the cabinets shall be locked properly with padlocks
-It does not give any solution on how to prevent incorrect data from being entered
-They work in shifts so the head cashier doesn’t come on some days and thus access to the stock book cannot only limited to the head cashier
Computerizing the bakery
-The owner has access to daily records via email this means that it will cost less than when he had to call daily to access records
-The records can be stored on the owners computer this is a more secure place than the cabinets
-The computer automatically checks the data meaning that extreme and abnormal data will be automatically rejected
-The computer is more secure than the cabinets because it will be equipped with a password and the same physical security used for the cabinets
-It is expensive the bakery has to buy all the hardware requirements as well as the software
-Employees need training to operate a computer because they only know how to operate the till
Creation of the new database
Microsoft access will be the chosen database.
The passwords are essential for security purposes. e.g. the other staff members will not be able to access any information stored.
Introducing the new system to the necessary staff members. E.g. the new passwords.
2.2 Method of solution
I have used Microsoft access to create a database. In the database I have included a couple of tables to enable the safe storage of data. An example is the supplier’s table that has all the necessary details of the suppliers, and how they can be contacted. The staff members shall have access to accurate information, which has not been tempered. They shall take little time to access the table on the computer. The computer shall have a password that only allows authorized personnel to enter. The information shall never be lost.
2.3 Hardware requirements
The central processing unit
Keyboard, mouse, monitor
Used to input and output data
CD-Rom, floppy drive and flash drive
Used to store and transfer data
2.4 Software requirements
All the typing
3.1 Test strategy
-I intend to test that all the relationships are functioning properly
-I shall test that all the data I have entered is correct (abnormal data and extreme)
-I shall also test that it notifies the user if the entered wrong information
3.2 Test results
– All the relationships are working exceptionally (this will help the user not to encounter any problems whilst using the system)
– There are no errors on the data that I have already entered (the user needs the correct information in order to work fast, smart and effortlessly)
– It does notify the user when the data is of the wrong type (this will make processing easier)
4.1 Technical documentation
-Relationships are made to reduce errors that may occur whilst data is transferred. There are only two. All that the user has to do is open the relationships page and they shall be able to do, as they like.
-Tables, to improve the tables all that needs to be done is the user to go the design page. Click on the appropriate field all the setting s shall be displayed.
Note the validation rules and texts.
-Forms and Reports have also been created. To alter them all the user has to do is go to the design page and they shall be able to alter the form or the report.
4.2 User documentation
To use this system the user needs certain hardware and software
– CPU, Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse and a printer.
– Windows xp/me/2000
The user shall be provided with a CD that has the database in it.
The user should open the CD and store the database on the computer.
The user should load access
The user should open the file
The user shall see a list of tables that are accessible, and then enter the appropriate one
How to enter data
The user will have to use the keyboard
It’s important that the user proofreads the data entered
How to process and output
The user is only required to enter data, when the accountant arrives after six months the user should print all the tables that are needed by the accountant to do their job.
How to prevent problems
The user must not delete anything except the data that they enter that’s incorrect.
The database has all the needs that are mentioned in the objectives. Firstly it has provides a secure place to store data, because it cannot be lost. Secondly the database can only be accessed by the necessary personnel, there is a password that has been installed. Another advantage is that it prevents wrong data such as extreme data from being entered. It also has information to enable easy reordering, the correct details of suppliers and a table for how much stock is present. Employee records are also available this feature is for the accountants use only. The database will also collect daily sales that shall all be given to the accountant without it being changed by any other malicious employee.
The system can be further improved by enabling automatic reordering via the Internet. The system in future can utilize a barcode reader to enter the stock into the database. The database can calculate how much money must be accumulated from the amount of stock bought. The system maybe enabled to operate all the cooking equipment, e.g. if connected to the oven it will have a set time of how long bread should be cooked at what temperature it should cook the bread at. When the workers turn up for their shifts they may use smart card and the computer will record what time they came in and went out all they have to do is swipe.