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Introduction The prime function of education is to prepare men and women for life and service. As such, it does not only develop the mental, moral, and spiritual capacities but also the physical powers of man. This is not an easy task for the teachers, guidance counselors and administrators to perform. It demands special facilities and equipment, qualified educators with special talents to match the need, and above all, dedication and commitment on the part of the teachers and school administrators.
The statement of our National Hero Rizal that, “the youth is the hope of our fatherland”, cannot be denied. The children are the leaders of tomorrow. They will be the ones to build the edifice of this nation. For them to become great leaders, they must be guided and supported accordingly. Guidance has long been recognized as an important function of education particularly in elementary education because it is the most significant foundation of the basic education The need for it in our school system becomes more urgent.
Thus, every school should have a comprehensive guidance program and well-trained and professional guidance counselors that would render help to pupils who is in need. Background of the Study All people have certain basic needs in common, the satisfaction of which helps and the frustration of which hinders normal personality growth (Walter and Ohara). The rapid increase in population is a cause for alarm. Today, children represent the energy of the present and the hope of the future.
In addition, there is a need to know and understand the children with their skills, knowledge, intelligence, competencies, and understanding. There is every reason to believe that the children population, many largely determine the kind of government a nation will have. (Health and Home vol. 36 no. 2, 1995) Pupil guidance and discipline is an important area of concern for school administrator. Given today’s advancement of science and technology and modernization in our ways of life, guidance becomes a necessity owing to the complex of problems confronting school administrators and teachers on dealing with pupils.
There are numbers of factors that have to be discussed that can cause problematic situations involving not only pupils but teachers as well. These problem situations and their causes have to be addressed appropriately in order that pupils’ involvement into more serious ones can be averted, if not minimized. The school is a learning-teaching venue. Inside its classroom, productive and efficient learning takes place, which translate learning opportunities into actual learning engagement under the direction of teachers. One of the factors that stimulate learning is the operation of guidance service.
In broad terms, guidance implies advice. It is a conscious attempt of an administrator to stimulate and direct the activities of the student/pupil toward definite and worthy objectives. Guidance involves all those influences and opportunities designed to assist the pupil in discovering how he may make his vocational, educational, social, cultural and adjustment most successful. One purpose of guidance is to make individual discover the mode of life by which he can realize most fully his potentialities for worthy and satisfactory service.
To this end, school must have a sympathetic understanding of the pupil’s interest, aptitude and abilities and make a conscious effort to help develop them for the satisfaction of their needs; discharge of duties and responsibilities; and enjoyment of these opportunities. Guidance is a tool to make wise decision and choice (Gregorio, 1965). Children in contemporary times are exposed to several conflicting, distracting, and stressful situations inside and outside the school premise. An individual makes an adjustment when he finds contentment in his relationship with the environment and in the relationships between his needs and interest.
Satisfactorily, adjustment leads on a well-adjusted personality. (Health and Home Vol. 42. No. 3, 2000) Grade six is a time of adjustment especially because it is a period of adjustment to high school work. Every pupil undergoes this stage. This level is crucial and usually characterized with doubt, fear and confusion. The top five areas of concern that need adjustment are spiritual, academic, career, social and economic. The major objectives why schools are now introducing intervention programs that are based from pupils needs is to help them the opportunity to be promoted and to meet the demand for higher quality education.
Schools have great role to play in assisting pupils. Similarly, Sta. Cruz Elementary School Pupils have needs that are needed to be satisfied for a better quality of education, they encounter failures in their performances especially in terms of cognitive level, as well as faculty members need to adopt some methods to meet the needs of their pupils. Identifying these needs would lead them find ways and means of assisting pupils to cope with their different problems that can affect their performance in school. The SCES pupils also face this kind of problems and needs.
Grade Six Level has a large population in the school and the determination of these needs may not be easy. This research aims to determine the Guidance needs of Sta. Cruz Elementary School Grade Six Pupils especially under academics and the other needs that may arise that hinder their growth as pupils. This will also determine the performance of the school in meeting the needs and the effectivity of teachers, since academic needs and problems may arise in the classroom. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study will seek to identify the needs of Grade Six Pupils of Sta.
Cruz Elementary School, Year 2012 – 2013. Specifically, the study will attempt to answer the following problems. 1. What are the needs in terms of academic, character building, economics, family, physical, psychological/emotional, sexual, social, spiritual/moral of the SCES Grade Six Pupils? 2. Is there any significant relationship between their needs and the academic performance? 3. What is the better guidance program for the needs of the respondents? SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS This study was focused on the Guidance Needs of the Grade Six Pupils: A Basis for a Proposed Program of Sta.
Cruz Elementary School, Dasmarinas City. The study has a population of 50 respondents, in school year 2012 – 2013. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDIES The result of the research study will be very significant and useful to the pupils, the teachers, and the school administrators. For the pupils, he may be able to apply the guidance program in enhancing the skills on how to manage different needs. For the teachers, this will be of great help in guiding their pupils as they interact in class. In addition, it maybe be the basis of the teaching strategy that may use in teaching to be effective teachers.
For the school administrators, this will serve as its basis in dealing with pupils and by coping their needs that greatly affect their academic performance and the good standard of the school. The guidance counselors can also assist the pupils in their needs and can be able to guide and formulate action flows necessary to address the said needs. This study will also of great help to parents to sense the current existing needs of their children so that they can be able to cope up with and to make necessary adjustment to strengthen family relationships. CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK.
The theoretical framework of this research was based on Henry Murray’s Theory on needs of Kurt Lewin’s Dynamics of Personality on Needs. Murray defined seeds as a construct convenient fiction or hypothetical concept which stands for a force in the brain region, a force which organizes perception, appreciation, intellection, conation and action in such a way as to transform in a certain direction on an existing, unsatisfying situation. A need is sometimes provoked directly by internal processes of a certain kind, but more frequently (when in a state of readiness) by the occurrence one of a few commonly effective press (environmental force).
Thus it manifest itself by leading the organism to search for or to avoid encountering or when encountered, to attend and respond to certain kinds of press. Each need is characteristically accompanied by a particularly feeling or emotion and tends to use certain modes to further its trends. It maybe weak or intense, monetary or enduring, but usually it persist and give rise to a certain course of overt behavior (or fantasy) which changes the initiating circumstances in such a way to bring about an end situation which still (appeases or satisfied) the organism. (Murray 1998, p. 123-124).
From Murray’s definition, it is important to consider the bases for distinguishing different types of needs. First, there is the distinction between primary and secondary needs. The primary or viscerogenic needs, are linked to characteristic organic events and typically refer to a physical satisfaction, urination, and defecation. The secondary, or psychogenic, needs are presumably derived from the primary needs and from the characterized by physical satisfaction. These needs are needs for acquisition, construction, achievement, recognition, exhibition, dominance, autonomy, and deference.
Second Murray’s destination between overt needs and covertness, that is manifest needs and talent needs. Overt needs typically expressed themselves in motor behavior while covert needs usually belong to the world of fantasy or dreams. Third, there are focal needs and diffuse needs. Some work needs are closely link to limited classes of environmental objects whereas others are so generalized as to be applicable in almost any environmental setting. Murray pointed out that unless there is some unusual fixation as a need as always subject to change in the objects toward with which it is directed and the manner in which these are approached.
That is the sphere of environment events to which the need is relevant may broaden as narrowed, and the instrumental acts linked to the need may be increased or decreased. If the need is firmly attached to an unsuitable objective; this is called a fixation and is customarily considered pathological. Fourth, there are proactive needs and reactive needs. The proactive need is one that is largely determined from within, one that becomes “spontaneous kinetic” because of something in the person rather than something in the environment.
Reactive needs, on the other hand activated because of, or in response to some environmental event. Murray used these concepts also to describe interaction between two or more persons where usually one individual can be identified as the pro actor (initiates the interaction, asks the questions, in general provides the stimulus to which the other must respond) and other individual can be identified as the reactor. (Reacts to the stimuli provided by the pro actor). Fifth, there is distinction between process activities and modal needs plus affect needs.
Effect needs are needs that lead to some desired state or end result. Process activity and modal needs are tendencies to perform certain acts for the sake by the performance itself. The random coordinated non-functional operation of various processes vision, hearing, thought, speech and so fort) that occurs from birth on is called process activity. Modal needs, on the other hand, involve doing something with a certain degree of excellence or quality. It is still the activity that is sought and enjoyed, but it is now rewarding only when it is performed with a certain degree of perfection.
According to Kurt Lewin (Hall C. 1997,) need is an increase of tension or the release of energy in an inner personal region is caused by the arousal of a need. A need may be a psychological condition such as hunger, thirst or sex; it maybe a desire for something such as job or a spouse; or it maybe an intention to do something such as completing a task or keeping an appointment. A need is therefore a motivational concept and is equivalent to such terms as motive, wish, drive, and urge. Changing needs of a pupil is considered crucial to the development of effective guidance program.
An individual makes an adjustment when he finds contentment in his relationship with his environment and in the relationship between his needs and interest. CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK The review of related literature and relevant studies presented here provide a good background and for the study. Some studies conducted both in United States and in the Philippines as well as literature related to the present study are presented. Foreign Related Readings The Randolph Township Schools guidance program in New Jersey, seeks to foster the social and emotional growth of students in an effort to have them succeed academically and personally.
Guidance is an integral part of the elementary education program. The counselor is a child advocate. A goal of elementary counseling is to be preventative in nature while also identifying and addressing current problems. Another goal is to help children understand themselves and others. The elementary program is characterized by intervention and prevention techniques. Counselors help students develop social skills including conflict resolution, interpersonal relations skills, decision making and problem solving. Counselors also assist students in their transition to Randolph schools and in moving up to the middle school.
Counselors conduct individual and group session, classroom lessons, district-wide programs, and parent consultations as needed. Counselors work collaboratively with other school personnel, especially the classroom teacher, and serve on each building’s Pupil Assistance Committee. Counselors attend professional conferences and belong to professional associations. The counselors are available to consult with parents, teachers, and administrators to help address specific academic, social, and/or personal concerns of students. Counseling is for everyday people with everyday problems.
Elementary guidance counselors are responding to today’s needs by providing children with developmental school counseling programs and support. There are many reasons a child may see the elementary school counselor as stated in Maine School Administrative District #22 in Hampden, Newburgh and these may include help with peer relationships/social skills, low self-esteem, worry or anxiety, a family concern, behavioral and/or learning difficulties, absenteeism and any other concern that is interfering with the child’s ability to learn.
Local Related Readings The Philippine Education Act of 1982 Sec. 9, states the Rights of all students in school. In addition to other rights, and subjects to the limitations prescribed by law of regulations, students and pupils in all schools shall enjoy the following rights: The right to receive, primarily through competent instruction relevant quality education in line with National goals and conducive to their full development and persons with human dignity.
The rights to freely choose their fields of study subject to existing curricula and to continue their course there in up to graduation, except in cases of academic deficiency or violation of disciplinary regulations, and; The right to school guidance and counseling services for making decisions of selecting the alternatives in field of work suited to his potentialities. Annotated by Amado C. Dizon (1983). Therefore, the Philippine Constitution itself, states the vital role of the schools play in molding and guiding the youth. Foreign Related Studies.
The article “Academic Problems” of the University of Cincinnati stated some common reasons why pupils experience academic problems: a) Motivation; b) Inadequate Time Management; c) Study Skills; d) Social Distractions; e) Learning Disabilities; and f) other Psychological Needs (Cited in campblues). According to Kauffman (1993) managing pupils’ behavior has always been a demanding task, but it has become much more exacting during the past decade. He explained that when teachers are not successful in helping pupils learn and enjoy school, the reason is likely to be, in large measure the difficulty they experience in managing classroom.
Many teachers who become discouraged feel “burned-out” or leave the profession and attribute their unhappiness in teaching to their difficulty in managing pupils’ behavior. What experienced teachers tell people in the field, what they read and what they see in schools – a very reliable indicator – tell them that disruption, aggression, disinterest in school, social withdrawal, and other forms of undesirable behavior are increasingly common in nearly all schools.
Without effective strategies for dealing with unacceptable and troublesome behavior, teachers are unlikely to have a career in teaching, and even less likely to enjoy and be successful in their chosen profession. Furthermore, pupils are more unlikely to learn what they should when their teachers are unhappy and feel defeated. Hence, understanding how to respond to behavioral concerns and being responsive to each child begin with understanding of problem behavior and how one can prevent it from occurring through effective classroom behavior management strategies. A study of Missouri high schools as stated in Lapan, R.
T. , Gysbers, N. C. , & Petroski, G. F. (2001). Helping seventh graders be safe and successful: A statewide study of the impact of comprehensive guidance and counseling programs. Journal of Counseling and Development, 79, 320-330, Implementing comprehensive school counseling programs is consistently associated with important indicators of student safety and success. The study found that school counselors who were more fully engaged in providing students with a unique network of emotional and instructional support services were more likely to exert a positive impact than counselors who did not implement such activities.
After researchers controlled for differences between schools due to socioeconomic status and enrollment size, students attending middle schools with more fully implemented comprehensive programs reported (a) feeling safer attending their schools, (b) having better relationships with their teachers, (c) believing that their education was more relevant and important to their futures, (d) being more satisfied with the quality of education available to them in their schools, (e) having fewer problems related to the physical and interpersonal milieu in their schools, and (f) earning higher grades.
A study done in Gwinnett County, Georgia in Mullis, F. & Otwell, P. (1997). Counselor accountability: A study of counselor effects on academic achievement and student behaviors. Georgia School Counselors Association Journal, 1:4, 4-12. Watts, V. & Thomas, B. (1997), shows that school counselors impact students’ academic performance and can increase the on-task, productive behavior of students and reduce disruptive behaviors.
The Behavior Rating Checklist indicated statistically significant decreases in disruptive behaviors and significant increases in productive, on-task behaviors for both the third grade and the fifth grade students tested. Language arts progress was statistically significant for both grade levels as well. The impact of more fully implemented guidance programs on the school experiences of high school students: A statewide evaluation study.
Journal of Counseling & Development, 75, 292-302, shows that schools with more fully implemented model guidance programs had students who were more likely to report that (a) they had earned higher grades, (b) their education was better preparing them for the future, (c) their school made more career and college information available to them, and (d) their school had a more positive climate (greater feelings of belonging and safety at school, classes less likely to be interrupted, peers behaving better).
After removing the variables of school enrollment size, socioeconomic status, and percentage of minority students in attendance, positive program effects were identifiable. Results highlight the important roles school counselors play in promoting the central educational goals of their schools and support a comprehensive guidance program focus for university counseling faculty who train school counselors. Local Related Studies Another problem that the researchers find crucial is financial problem and their lifestyle. All students in public/government schools considered these the most serious problems.
As Sompong Poungcharoen revealed in his study in the “Problems of College Freshmen of the University of Northern Philippines: Implications to the Guidance Program. ” According to him, all students considered their most serious problems to be are in the area of finance, living conditions and employment and that they need help to solve their problems. In the sense that education is a lifelong process, socialization is also a continuous process of learning. Both are concerned with the development of man and society. Socialization begins within the intimate relationships in the home.
Next to the family, the most potent and effective socializing agent is the classroom, which is natural extension of the home. The school in itself is a social system. When the students attend a class, they are interacting within the formal social system of the school which consists of the students, the teachers and the administrators, all of them acting and reacting according to their respective roles and status. All these activities in and out of the school are included in socialization. (Alicia S. Bustos, Ed. D. and Socorro C. Espiritu, Ph. D. , Foundation of Education, 1996).
Structured curricular activities can promote mental health among all adolescents and particularly for those at risk of negative academic outcomes. It is important therefore, that at risk, teens be involved in a structured activity of the choice under the influence of positive peer networks and competent adults. These activities can lead to greater self-esteem, satisfaction and engagement in school, social competence, improved academic performance and graduation. (Educational Research Vol. 4 No. 1 January 2004). Confidence is another aspects that pupils should have at the very early stage, or should we say, must be learned.
Students under the category needed guidance and counseling to be able them to minimize or totally eradicate social anxiety and fear of public speaking. Especially that the students understudied are future teachers of the young. “We pay the price of fear and worry to live the life of a human being. Our susceptibility to anxiety is the root cause of our problems”. As Dr. K. Sri Dhammananda stated on the 1st chapter of his book entitled “Why worry? ” states that Fear and Worry seem to be part of human life. One who is immersing in the world is not free from these unpleasant mental states.
Their worries are due to various commitments and responsibilities they have. Their worries come in many various guises. They feel inadequate when they compare themselves with others. They may be afraid to be themselves as they really are in the presence of others, so they act and pretend to be someone else when in fact they are not. People worry about their physical appearances. They are afraid of being criticized, to present their ideas or opinions before a crowd for fear of being ridiculed, but feel angry with themselves whenever someone else present the same idea and gets credit for it.
Others worry about their families. In their workplace, they may have to face problems in carrying out assignments and have difficulties in making decisions. Therefore, parents and school’s guidance counselor and personnel should guide pupils accordingly. Considering the researches above, we can notice that there are needs or problems that needs to be intervened immediately. Such concerns of pupils are the following: Physical needs, Academic needs, Psychological-Emotional needs, Sexual needs, Spiritual needs, Family needs, Career needs, Social needs and Character Building.
According to Kapunan, Guidance does not solve problems for an individual, but it helps the individual to solve them. Guidance therefore, is directed on problems but on the individual because its purpose is to promote the growth of the individual toward self-development. It leads the individual toward self-understanding, self-appraisal, and self-direction. To check whether the function is adequate to the task, the methods fitting, the guidance program needs to assessment. Attention should give to the development and crisis needs of pupils.
Special consideration should be given to psychological as well as intellectual development, creative ability, vocational preparation and a balance socialization and individuality. Farrales (1997) conducted a study, which focused on determining the prevalence of behavioral problems among children 5-12 years of age who consulted at the Zamboanga City Medical Center Out Patient Department. With the use of a Random Questionnaire Checklist, out of 50 respondents, 15% were found out to have maladjustment problems underlying the presenting medical complaints of cough, fever and colds.
While the aforementioned study focuses more on possible co-existing, if not causative psychological problems along with medical complaints, such results show that emotional problems can exist but subtle and easily overlooked, remaining undetected unless sought for. If such is the case, then most certainly it is vital we determine the true prevalence of behavioral problems among children, as many may present with physical ailments, but are with nevertheless underlying serious emotional problems. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES In the conduct of this study, the following hypotheses were tested.
1. There is no significant relationship between the performance of the respondents and their guidance needs in terms of academic, character building, economics, family, physical, psychological/emotional, sexual, social, and spiritual/moral Figure 1. Research Paradigm Figure 2 Figure 1, paradigm showing the needs of SCES grade six pupils’ basis for a proposed guidance program. DEFINITION OF TERMS The following definitions are conceptual or lexical definition. Academic needs- pertains to one’s needs along scholastic adjustment and performance.
(Torres 1987) Adjustments- this refers to the individual’s ability to adopt physically, socially, and emotionally and the ability to adjust to his new environment and friends. (Uy, 2002) Career- The course followed or progress made by a person in his occupation or life’s work. (Webster elementary dictionary) Character building needs- pertains to one’s needs related to the improvement of one’s trait. (Torres, 1987) Economic- Pertains to financial and material needs (Torres 1987) Family needs- pertains to one’s needs in relation to the members of the family.
(Torres 1987) Physical needs- pertains to one’s physiological and bodily needs including the need for sports and recreation. (Torres 1987) Psychological/ Emotional needs- pertains to one’s need for emotional stability and psychological support. (Torres 1987) Sexual needs- pertains to one’s sexual needs like the need to be loved and accepted by the opposite sex, coping with sexual information on human sexuality and sex. (Torres 1987) Social needs- pertains to one’s needs in relation to others. (Torres 1987) Spiritual/Moral- pertains to one’s need in relation to his creator. (Torres 1987) Chapter III METHODOLOGY.
This chapter deals with the research design, implemented to systematically answer the specific purpose of the study. It describes briefly the venue of the study, the respondents, and the instrument used to gather data for the statistical treatment to have an accurate interpretation and evaluation that likewise contained in this chapter. RESEARCH DESIGN This study is a descriptive analysis which will use the descriptive survey method (John Best, 1987) point out that descriptive research is concerned with the conditions or relationship that are existing processes that are going on effects that are being felt trends that are developing.
Furthermore, according to Borg and Gall (1979) the survey method will enable the researcher to explore and evaluate many aspects of the research in education such as administrative procedure and policies and interrelationship for purpose of internal evaluation and improvement. In view of this, the researchers consider it most appropriate to use the descriptive method since the main purpose of the study is to identify the guidance needs of grade six pupils of Sta. Cruz Elementary School.
Following the survey research, the researchers will use a survey questionnaire in order to determine the guidance needs of grade six pupils of Sta. Cruz Elementary School and propose a guidance program that would help answer the identified needs. The questionnaires were employed to collect descriptive information that will serve as a basis in conducting the study. POPULATION AND SAMPLING PROCEDURE A total of 85 respondents comprised the sample of the study, which is 10% of the total population of grade six graduating class.
The 10% will be the problem children from all the 16 sections. The researchers will adopt the Pupils Needs Inventory (PNI) concerning the ten areas of pupil needs. To determine the sample of the population, the Sloven formula (1960) will be adopted. Figure 2. Profile of the respondents according to sex Table 1. Religious Affiliations of the Respondents |Religion |No. Of Students | |Roman Catholic |70 | |Born Again |10 | |Islam |0 | |Iglesia Ni Cristo |5 | Grade VI pupils who are Roman Catholic dominate other religion ranking first with 70 pupils out of 85.
Second is born again with 10 pupils followed by Iglesia ni Cristo with 5 pupils. Table 2. Profile of the Respondents according to Monthly Income |20,000 above |0 | |15,000-19,000 |10 | |10,000-14,000 |12 | |9,000-5,000 |28 | |5,000 below |35 | 35 pupils belong to family with monthly income of 5,000 and below; 28 pupils belong to a family with monthly income of 5,000-9,000 followed by 12 pupils with 10,000-14,000, and 10 pupils with 15,000-19,000 monthly income. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT Students Needs Inventory (SNI), 1987, designed by Mrs. Lilia Torres, Research Director of the UP, Dr. Vicentita M.
Cabrera Research Coordinator and Head of Testing and Research activity and counseling and Guidance, UP 1987. This instruments was 1st used by the diagnosis in the three campuses of UP to identify the prevailing needs of the students so that they may be better helped during their study in the university and also to assess their needs so that they will be provided with opportunities for the maximum development of this physical, social, intellectual, as well as spiritual well-being and assist them to explore and make full use of their potential to achieve their goals. The instrument has four parts a.
Part 1- this is the information data sheet where the pupils are asked to write their personal information; monthly income, special skills and interest. b. Part 2- the academic performance sheet where the pupils are asked to write their subject grade when they where in grade V, below that is a space provided for the reason why they got their lowest or highest grade in a certain subject. c. Part 3- pupil needs sheet contains 100 situations that would survey especially the respondents needs and concerns along the ten areas: academic, career, psychological, spiritual, family, economic, social, sexual, physical, character building.
d. Part 4-the answer sheet, which contains five columns where the respondents would indicate their answers using the five point rating scale. 5- Very much of a need, 4- Much of a need, 3- Generally a need, 2-Not much a need, 1- Not a need. The SNI questionnaire consists of one hundred items classified into the following areas: 1. Academic- consists of nineteen items pertaining to one’s needs along scholastic adjustment and performance. 2. Career- consists of seven items pertaining to one’s needs in the world of work.
3. Character Building- consists of nine items pertaining to one’s needs related to the improvement of one’s traits. 4. Economics- consists of seven items pertaining to one’s financial and material needs. 5. Family- consists of nine items pertaining to one’s need in relation to family. 6. Physical- consists of seven items relating to one’s physiological and bodily needs including the need for sports and recreation. 7. Psychological/Emotional- consists of seventeen items perta.