High school Essay
Education: A Fundamental Right of the Citizenry is a term paper made to show the concept of learning throughout life meets the challenges posed by a rapidly changing world. This term paper deserves the full and collective support of all the students involving a mindset that consider education as the factor in ensuring sustainable growth of the community. Education: A Fundamental Right of the Citizenry involves the learning of every student who immediately says that the art of learning is difficult yet if we are persevering, we shall soon improve our knowledge.
It formally introduces the History, Development and a New Curriculum adopt by our school system and how its implementation affect the country as well as the peolpe. There are also answers given here to some certain questions and problems that most individuals ask. THE AUTHORS i ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Writing a term paper is certainly not an easy task for beginners like us who never experienced yet how difficult it is to make one. We would like to express our heartfelt gratitude to the following people who took part in making this term paper possible and successful:
*To our ever supportive and loving parents for their moral and financial support and encouragement in making this term paper. *To our English teacher, Mrs. Marianita Patayon who let us made this term paper on our own but also guided us how to make it. We would also like to express our sincere thanks: *To the people who shared their ideas, thoughtful criticisms and suggestions concerning our topic. *And lastly to our Almighty God for His unconditional love and His Holy presence that made us accomplished this term paper on time. ii Chapter I ALL ABOUT THE PROBLEM 1 INTRODUCTION.
In pre-Spanish times, education was informal and unstructured in some areas. Children were provided more vocational training and less academics by their parents in the houses of tribal tutors. When the Spanish arrived in Manila, though, they were surprised to find out a population with literacy rate using a system of writing known as Baybayin which was higher than the literacy rate of Madrid. Under the Spanish, education of indigenous population was initially left to religious orders, with primary education being overseen by parish friars who generally tolerated the teaching of only religious topics.
The friars, recognizing the value of a literate indigenous population, built printing presses to produce material in Baybayin. The friars, made tremendous efforts to educate the native population learning the local languages and the Baybayin script to better communicate with the locals. The Spanish missionaries established schools immediately on reaching the islands and wherever they penetrated, church and school went together. There was no Christian village without its school and all young people attended. The Augustinians opened a school in Cebu in 1565.
The Franciscans in 1577 immediately took to the task of teaching the natives how to read and write, besides industrial and agricultural techniques. The Jesuits in 1581 also mainly concentrated on teaching the young. They were followed by the Dominicans in 1587, which started a school in their first mission at Bataan. The Chinese language version of the Christian Doctrine was the first book printed in the Philippines in about 1590 to 1592. A version in Spanish, and Tagalog, in both Latin script and the commonly used Baybayin script of the Manila tagalongs of the time was printed in 1593.
2 The Problem of Education There must be a perfect balance in everyone’s life between pravritti and nivritti. Whenever this balance is disturbed, difficulties arise. Mere pravritti drives a man crazy. Resulting in excessive expenditure of energy, it turns out to be a bane instead of a boon. Likewise, mere nivritti also renders a man’s life useless. What is needed is a real balance between activity and inactivity, contemplation and non-contemplation, thinking and non-thinking, doubtfulness and non-doubtfulness, memory and forgetfulness, and language and silence.
The physical needs of man dictate that he study and master different subjects with a view to satisfying those needs. This has naturally led people to believe that knowing things, helpful in satisfying physical needs, is all that there is in education. Knowing something about one’s own self has yet not come to be recognized as an essential part of education. No lasting change has ever been brought about through preaching, for language and ideas have their own limitations. They can at best touch the surface of our being; they cannot affect us profoundly.
Tranquility and steadiness of mind are the first step to progress and transformation. A precondition for the opening of the route to inner transformation is the development of a consciousness free from memory, imagination and thinking. Modern education concentrates all its attention on sharpening of our wit and intellect, ignoring the mind. Mere intelligence cannot achieve anything much, for all aberrations and evils originate in the mind. In order to get rid of them it is essential to educate or train the mind. But today’s education rules this out since it has no provision at any stage for training the mind.
This is its major shortcoming. No student is ever made aware of his infinite inner potential. He never comes to realize the presence of an inner strength which far surpasses mere physical strength. 3 In fact, the modern student is blissfully unaware of his vital life-force. Today’s education has nothing in it to train and rouse this life-force. Similarly, violence has made man cruel and mad. Attachment to and accumulation of worldly goods are draining vital energy. It is conveniently forgotten that anything that disturbs the balance of mind also, to that extent, wastes the vital energy.
Likewise, a propensity for extreme likes and dislikes also has the same effect. A sense of poise and balance is the sweet recipe for energizing the life-force. The main aim of education should be to enable the learners to develop a mind which is balanced, restful and completely unruffled and still. Modem education turns out competent scientists, engineers, doctors and other specialists. However, their professional expertise does not rid them of the propensity for fighting, condemning and feeling jealous. Driven to despair, these people can even commit suicide.
Mere sharpening of the intellect without inculcating the habit of having a balanced attitude and mind is at best a very limited form of education. 3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM In this study, we are going to encounter many questions about Education: A Fundamental Right of the Citizenry; *What is K+12? *How are we planning to implement the K+12 programs? *What will society gain from K+12? *What is Senior High School? *Why add two more years? 4 ANALYSIS K+12 means Kindergarten and the 12 years of elementary and secondary education. Kindergarten refers to the 5-year old cohort that takes a standardized kinder curriculum.
Elementary education refers to primary schooling that involves six or seven years of education. Secondary education refers to high school. After considering various proposals and studies, the model that is currently being proposed by DepEd is the K-6-4-2 Model. This model involves Kindergarten, six years of elementary education, four years of junior high school (Grades 7 to 10) and two years of senior high school (Grades 11 to 12). The two years of senior high school intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired academic skills and competencies.
2 years of in-depth specialization for students depending on the occupation/career track they wish to pursue. Skills and competencies relevant to the job market. The 2 years of senior HS intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired academic skills and competencies. The curriculum will allow specializations in Science and Technology, Music and Arts, Agriculture and Fisheries, Sports, Business and Entrepreneurship K+12 will facilitate an accelerated economic growth. K+12 will facilitate mutual recognition of Filipino graduates and professionals in other countries.
A better educated society provides a sound foundation for long-term socio-economic development. Several studies have shown that the improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by as much as 2%. Studies in the UK, India and US show that additional years of schooling also have positive overall impact on society. To decongest and enhance the basic education curriculum. To provide better quality education for all. The Philippines is the only remaining country in Asia with a 10-year basic education program. K+12 is not new.
The proposal to expand the basic education dates back to 1925. Studies in the Philippines have shown that an additional year of schooling increases earnings by 7. 5%. Studies validate that improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by 2% to 2. 2%. Minus 2 instead of plus 2 for those families who cannot afford a college education but still wish to have their children find a good paying job. Right now, parents spend for at least 4 years of college to have an employable child. 5 CHAPTER II EDUCATION: A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT OF THE CITIZENRY 6
Historical Background Many of the Filipinos who led the revolution against Spain in the 1890s were ilustrados. Ilustrados, almost without exception, came from wealthy Filipino families that could afford to send them to the limited number of secondary schools (colegios) open to non-Spaniards. Some of them went on to the University of Santo Tomas in Manila or to Spain for higher education. Although these educational opportunities were not available to most Filipinos, the Spanish colonial government had initiated a system of free, compulsory primary education in 1863.
By 1898 enrollment in schools at all levels exceeded 200,000 students. Between 1901 and 1902, more than 1,000 American teachers, known as “Thomasites” for the S. S. Thomas, which transported the original groups to the Philippines, fanned out across the archipelago to open barangay schools. They taught in English and, although they did not completely succeed in Americanizing their wards, instilled in the Filipinos a deep faith in the general value of education. Almost immediately, enrollments began to mushroom from a total of only 150,000 in 1900-1901 to just under 1 million in elementary schools two decades later.
After independence in 1946, the government picked up this emphasis on education and opened schools in even the remotest areas of the archipelago during the 1950s and the 1960s. 7 Education in Prehistory Most of human history lies in history, the period before the use of writing, and before written history. Throughout pre-history, most education was achieved orally and through observation and imitation. From the origin of our species until about 10,000 BC, most humans lived as hunter-gatherers. Some were settled in a given locale/region and others exhibited a nomadic lifestyle across a large territory.
These bands or tribes had traditions, beliefs, values, practices and local knowledge which was passed orally for generations from person to person. The young learned informally from their parents, extended family and kin. At later stages of their lives, they received instruction of a more structured and formal nature, imparted by people not necessarily related, in the context of initiation, religion or ritual. Some forms of traditional knowledge were expressed through stories, legends, folklore, rituals, and songs, without the need for a writing system.
Tools to aid this process include poetic devices such as rhyme and alliteration. These methods are illustrative of morality. The stories thus preserved are also referred to as part of an tradition. The advent of agriculture prompted the Neolithic Revolution, when access to food surplus led to the formation of permanent human settlements, the domestication of some animals and the use of metal tools. Settlement, agriculture and metalwork brought new knowledge and skills to be learned and taught by each generation.
As communities grew larger, there was more opportunity for some members to specialize in one skill or activity or another, becoming priests, artisans, traders, builders or labourers. Many skills would have been learned from an experienced person on the job. The increased size of communities also brought changes to methods of leadership, politics and organization, together with early institutions. Society became less egalitarian as chiefdoms, state, city states and early civilizations replaced the earlier bands and tribes. For example, the Uruk period (c. 4000 to 3100 BC) saw the emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia.
These early city-states had strong signs of government organization. The cities grew to cover up to 250 acres (1 km? ) and up to 10,000–20,000 people by the end of the period. 8 In large settlements, social stratification began to develop, a hierarchical arrangement of social classes or castes within the society.  There might be a king and nobles. There were often priests or other religious leaders, because religious beliefs in deities or spirits often formed an important part of a culture. In some societies, the status of women was lower than that of men; in some there were slaves.
A person’s social class, caste or gender might in turn determine or limit the occupations which he or she might follow and the education that he or she would receive. Before the development of writing, it is probable that there were already epic poems, hymns to gods and incantations (such as those later found written in the ancient library at Ninevah, and the Vedas), and other oral literature (for example, see ancient literature). In ancient India, the Vedas were learnt by repetition of various forms of recitation. By means of memorization, they were passed down through many generations.
9 Formal Education in the Middle Ages During the Early Middle Ages, the monasteries of the Catholic Church were the centres of education and literacy, preserving the Church’s selection from Latin learning and maintaining the art of writing. Prior to their formal establishment, many medieval universities were run for hundreds of years as Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools (Scholae monasticae), in which monks and nuns taught classes; evidence of these immediate forerunners of the later university at many places dates back to the early 6th century AD.
 The first medieval institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy, France, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology. These universities evolved from much older Christian cathedral schools and monastic schools, and it is difficult to define the date at which they became true universities, although the lists of studia generalia for higher education in Europe held by the Vatican are a useful guide.
Ireland became known as the island of saints and scholars. Monasteries were built all over Ireland and these became centres of great learning (see Celtic Church). Northumbria was famed as a centre of religious learning and arts. Initially the kingdom was evangelized by monks from the Celtic Church, which led to a flowering of monastic life, and Northumbria played an important role in the formation of Insular art, a unique style combining Anglo-Saxon, Celtic,
Byzantine and other elements. After the Synod of Whitby in 664 AD, Roman church practices officially replaced the Celtic ones but the influence of the Anglo-Celtic style continued, the most famous examples of this being the Lindisfarne Gospels. The Venerable Bede (673-735) wrote his Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum (Ecclesiastical History of the English People, 10 completed in 731) in a Northumbrian monastery, and much of it focuses on the kingdom.
 During the reign of Charlemagne, King of the Franks from 768 – 814 AD, whose empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans, there was a flowering of scholarship, literature, art, and architecture sometimes referred to as the Carolingian Renaissance. Brought into contact with the culture and learning of other countries through his vast conquests, Charlemagne greatly increased the provision of monastic schools and scriptoria (centres for book-copying) in Francia. Most of the surviving works of classical Latin were copied and preserved by Carolingian scholars.
During the reign of Charlemagne, King of the Franks from 768 – 814 AD, whose empire united most of Western Europe for the first time since the Romans, there was a flowering of scholarship, literature, art, and architecture sometimes referred to as the Carolingian Renaissance. Brought into contact with the culture and learning of other countries through his vast conquests, Charlemagne greatly increased the provision of monastic schools and scriptoria (centres for book-copying) in Francia. Most of the surviving works of classical Latin were copied and preserved by Carolingian scholars.
Charlemagne took a serious interest in scholarship, promoting the liberal arts at the court, ordering that his children and grandchildren be well-educated, and even studying himself under the tutelage of Paul the Deacon, from whom he learned grammar, Alcuin, with whom he studied rhetoric, dialect and astronomy (he was particularly interested in the movements of the stars), and Einhard, who assisted him in his studies of arithmetic. His great scholarly failure, as Einhard relates, was his inability to write.
The English monk Alcuin was invited to Charlemagne’s court at Aachen, and brought with him the precise classical Latin education that 11 was available in the monasteries of Northumbria. The return of this Latin proficiency to the kingdom of the Franks is regarded as an important step in the development of mediaeval Latin. Charlemagne’s chancery made use of a type of script currently known as Carolingian minuscule, providing a common writing style that allowed for communication across most of Europe. After the decline of the Carolingian dynasty, the rise of the Saxon Dynasty in Germany was accompanied by the Ottonian Renaissance.
Cathedral schools and monasteries remained important throughout the Middle Ages; at the Third Lateran Council of 1179 the Church mandated that priests provide the opportunity of a free education to their flocks, and the 12th and 13th century renascence known as the Scholastic Movement was spread through the monasteries. These however ceased to be the sole sources of education in the 11th century when universities, which grew out of the monasticism began to be established in major European cities. Literacy became available to a wider class of people, and there were major advances in art, sculpture, music and architecture.
Large cathedrals were built across Europe, first in the Romanesque, and later in the more decorative Gothic style. It should be noted, also, that art and architecture were vital educational mediums through which religion, philosophy and history were taught to masses of peoples who were primarily illiterate. These ‘picture books in stone’ were akin to other cultures in Asia, Africa and South America who passed on history and ideas through representative forms as well. 12 Education in the Modern Period The expansion in the availability of education was not always accompanied by qualitative improvements.
Therefore, quality became a major concern in the 1970s and early 1980s. Data for the 1970s show significant differences in literacy for different regions of the country and between rural and urban areas. Western Mindanao Region, for example, had a literacy rate of 65 percent as compared with 90 percent for Central Luzon and 95 percent for Metro Manila. A survey of elementary-school graduates taken in the mid-1970s indicated that many of the respondents had failed to absorb much of the required course work and revealed major deficiencies in reading, mathematics, and language.
Performance was poorest among respondents from Mindanao and only somewhat better for those from the Visayan Islands, whereas the best performance was in the Central Luzon and Southern Tagalog regions. Other data revealed a direct relationship between literacy levels, educational attainment, and incidence of poverty. As a rule, families with incomes below the poverty line could not afford to educate their children beyond elementary school. Programs aimed at improving work productivity and family income could alleviate some of the problems in education, such as the high dropout rates that reflected, at least in part, family and work needs.
Other problems, such as poor teacher performance, reflected overcrowded classrooms, lack of particular language skills, and low wages. These problems, in turn, resulted in poor student performance and high repeater rates and required direct action. Vocational education in the late 1980s was receiving greater emphasis then in the past. Traditionally, Filipinos have tended to equate the attainment of education directly with escape from manual labor. Thus it has not been easy to win general popular support for vocational training.
Catholic and Protestant churches sponsored schools, and there were also proprietary (privately owned, nonsectarian) schools. 13 Neither the proprietary nor the religious schools received state aid except for occasional subsidies for special programs. Only about 6 percent of elementary students were in private schools, but the proportion rose sharply to about 63 percent at the secondary level and approximately 85 percent at the tertiary level. About a third of the private school tertiary-level enrollment was in religiously affiliated schools.
In 1990 over 10,000 foreign students studied in the Philippines, mostly in the regular system, although there were three schools for international students–Brent in Baguio and Faith Academy and the International School in Manila. These schools had some Filipino students and faculty, but the majority of the students and faculty were foreign, mostly American. Faith Academy served primarily the children of missionaries, although others were admitted as space was available. Chinese in the Philippines have established their own system of elementary and secondary schools.
Classes in the morning covered the usual Filipino curriculum and were taught by Filipino teachers. In the afternoon, classes taught by Chinese teachers offered instruction in Chinese language and literature. Education policies fluctuated constantly and were likely to be changed before teachers became accustomed to them. Areas of disagreement among Filipinos produced educational change as one faction or another gained control of a highly centralized public education administration. One example was the community school program that sought to involve schools in agricultural improvement.
It was pushed vigorously in the 1950s, but little has been heard about it since. Another policy issue was the choice of a language of instruction. 14 Until independence, English was, at least in theory, the language of instruction from first grade through college. The emphasis on English was followed by a shift toward local languages (of which there were eighty-seven), with simultaneous instruction in English and Pilipino in later grades. Then, at least in official directives, in 1974 schools were told to drop the local language, and a bilingual–English and Filipino–program was adopted.
15 Chapter III ENHANCING K+12 BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAM 16 ENHANCING K+12 The first kindergarten established in England was in 1852; the United States followed by establishing its first kindergarten in 1856. Though education was required of all children in Massachusetts by that time and many other states were following suit, not all schools provided, nor required, kindergarten. Similarly, not all schools required a student to The K-12 education system is the public education system that most of us are familiar with today.
Comprised of thirteen grades, kindergarten through 12th, the K-12 education system refers to the public school system in all of the United States, Canada, the UK, and parts of Europe as well. It is difficult to pinpoint the exact history of education, as education has been occurring in some form for centuries in all parts of the world. For the purposes of this article, we will explore the history of the K-12 education system we know today as it applies primarily to the United States. Today, K-12 education represents the compulsory education required of all children in the US.
Though a K-12 education can be attained from either publicly or privately funded institutions, children who have reached compulsory school age (ranging from age six to eight, depending on the state) are required by law to attend school. Compulsory education in the United States began over 150 years ago when Horace Mann established a statewide system of education in Massachusetts, which became the first state to pass school attendance laws in 1852. By 1918, children were required by law to receive an education in all states.
Kindergarten, being the first grade in the K-12 education system today, was actually developed prior to compulsory education. Though it is not compulsory in all states, children are required to start school in most states at the age of six. If the child is too young to start kindergarten the year he turns five, kindergarten may technically be required since he will be turning six that school year. The word kindergarten is of German origin and means “child or children’s garden. ” The concept of kindergarten was the brainchild of Friedrich Froebel, a self-educated philosophical teacher.
Froebel sought to develop a place of guided play for children to “bloom,” thus he came up with the name kindergarten. 17 Stay in school beyond a certain grade, as compulsory education initially applied only to elementary aged children. Many children were also permitted to miss portions of the school year, especially farmers’ children who were needed at home for harvesting crops and preparing for the winter. The Education Act of 1918, or the Fisher Act, was an act of British Parliament written by Herbert Fisher that implemented changes in progressive education and helped form many aspects of the K-12 education system we recognize today.
The Fisher Act raised the age at which children could leave school to fourteen and addressed education needs such as health inspections and accommodations for special needs children. This Act also prompted a committee that reported to and made recommendations to policy makers regarding education. In the United States, unlike England, public education was governed by each individual state. As early as 1791, 7 states had specific provisions for education in their own individual constitutions and were formed partly on the basis of education without religious bias.
Prior to the passing of compulsory school attendance laws, education was primarily localized and available only to the wealthy and often included religious teachings. Following the compulsory attendance laws, Catholics banned together in opposition of states mandating common schooling and created private Catholic schools. In 1925, the Supreme Court ruled that children could attend public or private schools for education. Over time, each individual state developed its own department of education to oversee the public education system.
Compulsory attendance grew to include kindergarten and mandate attendance through the age of 16. Funding sources for public education also grew to include federal, state and local sources. Federal funding was overseen by The United States Department of Health, Education, and Welfare from 1953 to 1979, until it was divided and the US Department of Education was formed as a stand-alone entity. By the 1950s, compulsory education had become well established, but the K-12 education system we know today was really still in its infancy. Schools were still primarily localized, but education was no longer available only to the wealthy.
17 However, even in the 1950s, segregation by race was still common practice in public schools. Then came another landmark decision by the Supreme Court. In 1954, in the US Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas, the Supreme Court ruled unanimously that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional. Though this decision was met with resistance and it took many years before legalized segregation was completely eliminated, especially in southern states, the federal courts eventually achieved success.
This achievement was not without its repercussions, and many urban and inner city schools saw an exodus of wealthy and middle-class white families, who moved to suburban districts. In time, many urban districts were left only with poor families and it became difficult to attract and pay for quality teachers and education. Since the formation of the US Department of Education in 1979, the K-12 education system has been similar to what we recognize today, but has undergone a series of developments and amendments to accommodate the changing needs of education.
Funding has always been a source of concern for public schools, especially in poor, urban districts, where quality of education also came into question. Currently, the K-12 public education system provides a 12th grade education to eligible students for free. Families have the option of sending their children to private schools, but are then responsible for tuition. The future of K-12 education will undoubtedly experience change and social and economical challenges, just as it have in the past.
K-12 education programs may soon expand to include pre-K compulsory attendance and could even expand to include options beyond the 12th grade, as these are concepts, in their earliest stages, currently being explored. 18 Features of K 6-4-2 (1) Kindergarten and 12 years of quality basic education is a right of every Filipino, therefore they must be and will be provided by government and will be free. (2) Those who go through the 12 years cycle will get an elementary diploma (6 years), a junior high school diploma (4 years), and a senior high school diploma (2 years).
(3) A full 12 years of basic education will eventually be required for entry into tertiary level education (entering freshmen by SY 2018-2019 or seven years from now). * An open and consultative process will be adopted in the development and implementation of K+12. * Change is two-fold: (a) curriculum enhancement and (b) transition management. * What is the proposed implementation plan of DepEd? Phases of Implementation: (1) Universal kindergarten will be offered starting SY 2011-2012. (2) DepEd will begin unclogging the basic education curriculum in SY 2012-2013.
(3) The enhanced 12-year curriculum will be implemented starting with incoming Grade 1 students of SY 2012-2013. (4) Incoming freshmen of SY 2012-2013 will be the first beneficiary of a free Senior High School education that will be made available by DepEd in public schools beginning SY 2016-2017. Electives to be offered in Senior HS (arts, music, tech-voch.. etc) 19 In implementing the K-6-4-2 proposal, DepEd will take into account the issues and concerns of all stakeholders, including the high school graduates before 2016.
This will be done through regional consultations to begin early 2011. The mechanics and other details of the transition plan will be threshed out with HEIs in coordination with CHED, TESDA and other critical stakeholders. How much will this cost? * The immediate cost for the program will not be needed until 2016 when the first year of the two additional years is implemented. * Meanwhile, we will continue to close the resource gaps in basic education – the President ordered DepEd to its close resource gaps in 2 years.
At this time, we estimate the total funding requirement to procure all needed resources at P150 billion for: 152,569 new classrooms 103,599 more teachers 95. 6 million More books 13. 2 million Seats. Are private schools obliged to follow? * While we enjoy the support of private school associations, we are yet to discuss with them the implementation of the program. Where are we at now? * Insufficient mastery of basic competencies is common due to a congested curriculum. The 12 year curriculum is being delivered in 10 years.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 22 September 2016
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