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Well of Moses by Claus Sluter, is a well/portal that was placed in the chapel of a monastery. The Well of Moses is in the Chartreuse de Champmol in Dijon, France and was created between 1395 and 1406. The well is surrounded by Moses, sculpted with horns and five other biblical prophets that include David, Daniel, Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Zachariah. Moses being the most identifiable and referenced carries the plates containing the Ten Commandments. Adding a higher form of support are angels at each corner of the well.
At one point, the well’s base supported a sculpture of the crucified Christ and other “New Testament” characters. Sluter’s use of life like Jambs demonstrated a change for Early Renaissance. In Video 4, the painting Man in a Red Turban by Jan van Eyck, is a portrait of a man wearing a red head scarf, common for the time. The man is gazing upon the viewer with a stare that follows no matter what direction one is viewing the painting.
The man’s face is that of a stern one, indicated by the stress shown in his Jaw. On the bottom of the golden frame the painter includes his name and date (October 21, 433) in Latin, “Jan van Eyck made me”.
Also, etched into the frame in Greek symbols is the phrase, “As I can”. Although this famous painting has endured the test of time, it continues to deteriorate. In Video 4, Last Supper by Leonardo da Vinci is a painting any one could recognize.
The painting was created ca. 1495 and 1498 for the refectory of Santa Maria delle Grazie, a church in Milan, Italy. On plaster, (using oil and tempera), the painting recalls the “Last Supper” of Christ before his crucifixion. All twelve disciples are seated at one side of a long table with Christ at its center as if they were acting ut a scene from a play.
The disciples are intensely discussing who will betray Christ as Judas is shown holding a bag of money, foreshadowing how this will end. Created around 151 5 and 1518, the Assumption of the Virgin by Titian (in Video 3) is an oil painting on wood featuring the ascending of the Virgin Mary into heaven. God floats above her with an angel on either side of him. The Virgin Mary, with her arms out stretched, is on a cloud surrounded by angels. Three angels from the bottom of the cloud seem to be lifting it up, attempting to assist Mother Mary in her scension.
Viewing this miraculous event are the apostles. As they stand in rejoice of the Virgin Mary the clouds at the top of the painting seem to be opening. The Assumption of the Virgin is on display at the Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice, Section 2 Donatello’s relief sculpture David, (in Video 3) shows the biblical underdog in a whimsical light. The freestanding sculpture encouraged the resurrection of the nude figure in Art. Made in bronze, this famous sculpture was commissioned by the influential Medici family between 1440 and 1460.
David is seen standing ontrapposto (a classical style where the weight of the subject is shifted to one foot showing a twist in form) with one foot on the decapitated head of Goliath as symbolism of the revival of Florence. Now located at the Museo Nazionale del Bargello, the famous figure stands in triumph Just as Florence once did. In another sculpture of the biblical hero David (from Video 4), artist Michelangelo flaunts superior skill in sculpting this ongoing symbol of Florence during the Renaissance. David, the famous sculpture was commissioned by the Florence Cathedral building committee for the Signoria.
The sculpture was made out of a block of marble between 1501 and 1504. The statue shows David in a contrapposto stance and gazing upon something. This focus seems to be unknown but it indicates David, pre-battle with Goliath. David is gazing upon his adversary. He stands in a concentrated pose with what seems to be his sling over his soldier. Michelangelo sculpts this image with such a life like features, enlarging his hands and feet to represent victory. By using the classical nude style, Michelangelo yields perfection that lasts beyond its time.
Between Donatello’s David and Michelangelds David there are similarities and differences. Both sculptures possess the style of the classical nude which seems to be a reoccurring style throughout the Renaissance. Donatello’s sculpture revived this style, but Michelangelds sculpture perfected it. Both sculptures also have the hero standing in the contrapposto style where their weight is shifted to one foot. There are the similarities of subject and what the subject represents. Both of these sculptures agree that David was the representation of a “new and improved” Florence during the
Renaissance. These sculptures also have differences that are a reflection of the artist and time. Donatello’s sculpture shows David post-battle, positioned above the head of Goliath, but Michelangelds sculpture shows a more pensive David before his battle. Donatello’s David is smaller and appears to have an immature physique in comparison to that of Michelangelds. This conveys Michelangelds David to be more inspirational, despite Donatello’s David having already won the battle. Also the medium of which the sculptures are created from, are different.
Donatello’s sculpture s made of bronze and has obviously withered with time, but Michelangelds sculpture seams crisp and unmoved, forcing it to appear timeless. As shown in Video 3, Botticelli’s Birth of Venus was created between 1484 and 1486 Poliziano. Painted with tempera on canvas, the painting shows Zephyrus (god of the West-wind) carrying his wife Chloris (Goddess of flowers) while blowing Venus into existence. Venus stands contrapposto and nude in a cockle shell while Ponoma (goddess of fruitful abundance) comes to greet the goddess of love with an intricate cape. This all takes place on the shore of the island, Cyprus.
Venus is the only figure portrayed in full nudity, uncommon for a woman during this time. Although the nudity is uncommon, the humanist approach to art allowed it to be acceptable during the Renaissance. In Video 4, the painting Venus of Urbino by Titian, is an eloquent oil painting on canvas created between 1536 and 1538. This Venetian painting shows a nude female fgure (later coined as Venus) reclining on her bed while one of her hands grips a flower. Titian uses deep colors such as the red of the bed and the green color of the utains behind Venus” to bring the viewer’s attention to the flower she is holding.
Near her feet lies a small dog nuzzled on top of her sheets. In the background there are two maiden like female figures. One of the female figures is looking over a chest with a large garment over shoulder, while the other is bent down reaching into the chest attempting to get a garment to clothe Venus”. With this painting Titian begins the trend of the reclining female nude. Both paintings portray a nude female figure, one upright and the other reclining. Both of these displays of the nude female were innovative for their time. Both paintings also portray Nenus” with a fgure attempting to clothe her.
Venus” is also the only nude figure in these paintings. Both of the Venus” figures are also seen covering their genitalia with their hand. The showing of the female genitalia may have been too erotic for the times. In Birth of Venus the background of the ocean is flat opposed to the more dynamic paintings of the figures in the foreground, while in Venus of Urbino the landscape in the background is painted with the same dimension as the foreground. Although the portrayal of the nude female was evident n both of the paintings there is a difference in their position.
While Botticelli’s Venus is standing contrapposto, Titian’s Venus is reclining. The reclining Venus and the dimensional style amplify the evolution of the Renaissance since the time of Boticelli’s. Section 3 In Video 4, Philosophy or commonly known as School of Athens is a painting by Raphael between 1509 and 1511. Within this painting is a great hall with several men, conversing in groups. On one side there are a group of philosophers led by Plato concentrating on the mystery of the world and on the other side, led by Aristotle re scientists and philosophers focusing on earth and humanity.
That separation is one that is evident in todays society. With the recent government shut down it is the other side shares that of liberal values. Both sides claim to agree on one thing (despite their actions) that they want what’s best for the American people. In the painting there seems to be a distinct separation and discussion, without resolution. The same can be said for the American government, but the people that are directly affected by the lack of progress aren’t ever portrayed.
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