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Herne Bay is situated along Essay

Introduction Herne Bay is situated along the stretch of the North Kent coast in Southeast. I choose to study this site because there are many different measures taken for coastal protection. I can get a broader range of results ending in a more accurate conclusion of the situation. The specific topic I have chosen to study is how and why do cliff and beach profiles vary along the stretch of the north Kent coast. I believe that the most well protected areas of the coast that I will study are likely to have the largest pebbles, the longest and the most level beaches.

In the areas with little or no protection pebbles will be smaller if not be shingle and perhaps sand in some areas. The cliffs are also likely to be cut away from the bottom leaving them unstable and in some conditions causing slumping. It was decided after the storm of 1953, which caused disastrous flooding and wide spread destruction that Herne bay needed new improved sea defences. After some research into the matter by the local district council it was discovered that a storm of the same magnitude would return in an estimated period of a hundred years.

When strong winds gather in the northern sea a factor known as the North Sea surge occurs at which time the sea level can raise up to two metres above the level of the normal waters which is what caused the catastrophic flooding in the storm of 1953. Previous attempts of sea defences in the 1920’s and 1960’s did little to protect central Herne Bay from the flooding in the storm in 1953, proving they were vastly inadequate and the sea was a considerable threat to the town. Despite the sea defences being some 600 metres long, the low quality concrete block wall was of little use against a destructive sea.

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Another storm in 1978 further prompted that something had to be done after it too caused flooding and included such damages as the destruction of the pier, which was the fourth largest in the world before the violent north sea destroyed it. The main defence against the destructive north sea is the shingle beaches along the coastline, however, local councils have struggled to provide the funds to keep replenishing the shingle beaches as the long shore drift collects the shingle and deposits it elsewhere.

Even with regular intervals of groynes to try and preserve the beaches the long shore drift of the sea still breaks down the ever eroding beaches. Those beaches that are sustained are still not the most effective form of sea defence. They are too flat and because of it they absorb very little of the sea’s destructive energy, so the sea wall is submitted to the vast majority of it destructive forces. I am going to study the main methods, which are incorporated to reduce the coastal erosion along the defended stretch of the coast. They are: rip-rap granite supplied from Scandinavia and Scotland.

A 5 metre high reinforced concrete sea wall. Large sand beach, which is protected from erosion (by long shore drift) with a large rock groyne. Upgraded old existing sea defences and of course the “Neptune” sea arm. All these defences came to a sum total of 3. 5 million. Although the sea arm is effective in dissipating the sea’s destructive energy it has been built the wrong way. Long shore drift collects and transports sewage and sediment fed out into the North Sea by the London sewage systems. So inside the sea arm there is a collection of sediment and sewage causing a foul unsanitary odour.

Before construction began of the modern existing sea defences, a public survey and show was put forward to the residents of Herne bay. This was to decide what they wanted from the sea defences. It was generally agreed that the sea front was in dire need of renovation so the defences were to be incorporated into the sea defences. This lead to along, 6 metre wide promenades along the sea wall, a large sand beach suitable for tourism with up to 30,000 tourist visits every year and of course the Neptune Sea arm ideal for walking along. Recently, I have studied the North Kent Coast looking for signs of erosion and long shore drift.

I also began to analyse the sea defences during a class field trip to Herne Bay by following the coast to Reculver. Therefore, when I was asked to choose a new coursework title, I felt that as I had already gained a substantial knowledge of coasts, I could now use this to my advantage. A secondary and very important consideration was the fact that I live close to Bishopstone a location along the studied coastline. Over a fifty-year period, Canterbury City Council has approved a coastal Management Project along the North Kent Coast in particular, the Herne Bay area.

The policy is used as renewal or refurbishment of its coastal defences. My objective is to find out how and why do cliff and beach profiles vary along the stretch of the north Kent coast, but I will also be looking at why coastal protection has been built between Herne Bay and Bishopstone. This is a location map showing the stretch of coast I am analysing: I have drawn this map to identify the area I am studying. It has been based a map I found on the Internet. I drew it to show all the different areas, which were not on the map. Fig 1. 0

I will be comparing the type of coastline at all the locations including protected and unprotected sites. I hope to show the difference and relationship that satisfactory coastal defence systems have and their impact on the beach and cliff profiles and what it does to the size of the pebbles. I plan to find out what coastal protection is, by walking along the designated coast, surveying and observing. I intend to produce notes and evidence, which describes in detail the coastal protection measures present and their purpose. This may also include annotated photographs and possibly a field sketch.

I will be mainly investigating the impact on the beach and cliff profiles but also the pebble sizes at each location. I will bare in mind the specifics of why coastal protection has been placed in a particular area. I hope to find relationships in the data i. e. high amount of protection where expensive buildings (real estate) are found. Where there are badly eroded cliffs or beaches, I shall expect to see coastal and cliff protection present. A location map of Southeast England to show where we collected our Results Fig 1. 1 Action Plan showing the order of written objectives

This shows the stages of my written plan to complete the coursework: Research – Using school resource books and I. C. T to research my chosen topic. Collection of data required, this includes all coastal protection measures, data for beach profiles and analysis of cliff i. e. the cliff angle and height. Begin write up, Introduction, Aims and Objectives. Hypothesis of predicted results, showing which factors are of greatest importance. Data Recording and tables explaining why each method of data collection was used. Analysis of results – interpreting the data to form trends and patterns,

using visual data organization i. e. graphs and tables Conclusion and Evaluation – containing evaluative comments of the whole study The task that I am studying; ” How and why do cliff and beach profiles vary along the stretch of the north Kent coast? ” There is very little relevant literature associated with this topic and it is difficult to find concise resources. I hope the information that I include in my coursework, will contribute towards answering the question in a positive and understandable way. Why the stretch of coast I am studying is worthy of an investigation.

The Nature Conservancy Council designated the unprotected cliffs, between Bishopstone and Reculver, as a site of Special Interest in 1951. Although the SSSI has biological interest its real importance is geologica1. (a) The rocks forming the cliffs are soft sands and clays, which are rather unstable and liable to erosion. (b) The cliffs expose excellent sections of both the Thanet Formation and the Woolwich and Reading Formation. Kent Geology Fig 1. 2 This is a map of Kent’s Geology, it shows each geological section of Kent. Aim: I aim to answer the question how and why do cliff and beach profiles vary along the Herne Bay coast?

I aim to compare two sites one protected and the other unprotected in order to find out and understand more about the coastal problems Herne Bay suffers. Then I hope to draw a conclusion from the results I have obtained from my visit to Herne Bay’s coast. Objectives: To draw an accurate conclusion from what I have discovered Hypothesis Long shore Drift (Retention of Sand) The predominant direction of long shore drift along this coast is from east to west. This is because the most powerful waves are associated with the northeasterly winds. The long fetch of these waves enables them more time to collect energy from the wind, which left could have caused a drastic affect on the beaches found along the stretch of the coast west of Reculver Towers.

An apron of rock surrounding the Towers protects from erosion and also acts as a barrier to the westward drift of beach material for a short distance from the Towers west. However, along the unprotected beaches of Bishopstone, eroded cliff material adds to the sand on the foreshore with some being transported to beaches further west (Heme Bay area). Overall the amount of beach material in front of the cliffs remains relatively constant, although there is a great day-to-day and seasonal variation according to winds and tides.

Due to the ever on- going risk at Bishopstone of even larger amounts of beach material being deposited after a great storm, could explain the added coastal and cliff protection. Not only does coastal protection act as a barrier to the transportation of beach material, but also I also believe, protected beaches control the frequency and height of waves, due to their steeper gradients. Fig 1. 3 Although waves do carry material up and down a beach, the major movement is along the coast by a process called Long Shore Drift (Fig 1. 3).

Waves rarely approach a beach at right angles, but rather from a direction similar to that from which the wind is blowing. When a wave breaks the swash carries material up the beach at the same angle at which the wave approached the shore. As the swash dies away, the backwash returns material straight down the beach, at right angles to the water, under the influence of gravity. Establishments/Real Estate I hope to find in my data, which I am acquiring, that it will show that in the more densely populated areas where buildings/real estate are present.

There will be larger amounts of coastal and maybe cliff protection compared with other areas along the stretch of coast, which I am studying, where there are none or few buildings and require a lesser amount of protection. At the present time this is only an assumption, but as I have an extremely good knowledge of both the Heme Bay and Bishopstone coastline, it is easy for me to imply that the council have spent more time on both labor and expenditure protecting Herne Bay, rather than Bishopstone. I am able to explain this by having the knowledge that the Real Estate, situated in Mortimer Street (the CBD of Heme Bay) is worth 7.

5 million pounds and I would presume this to be a good enough reason for the council to encourage coastal management. More Hypothesis From my general knowledge on coasts I can draw several hypotheses on what I predict will occur at Herne Bay at both unprotected and protected sites along the coast. Cliff Angles At un-protected sites cliff angles I think will be considerably steeper than at protected sites. This is because the destructive waves eroding away the cliff will cause collapse and slumping making the cliff very steep and jagged as a result making the cliff angle a lot steeper than at protected sites.

Wave Frequency I believe that wave frequency will not vary to any substantial amount if at all seeing as both the unprotected and protected sites are being hit by the same sea, the north sea, so the only variation that may occur is because of the differing material below the sea at each individual site. Wave Depth Wave depth will most probably be deeper at protected sites because the difference in beach gradient is a lot more substantial. Wave Direction Wave direction will be the same at unprotected and protected sites because it is the same sea and winds affecting it.

Beach Gradient At unprotected sites the beach will be fairly level at a steady angle all the way up the beach because no protection is there to prevent material being moved so the movement of the swash and backwash will level it out to a steady relatively flat slant. Where as at protected slights I predict there will be significant inclines at regular intervals up the beach where the long shore drift has bin stopped so leaving large quantities of beach material behind at high and low tide creating definite slopes. Beach Material.

The beach material at unprotected sites will be fine and sandy where the ocean currents have eroded the pebbles and stones by making them collide with each other and the sea continually sweeping over them. At protected sites pebbles will be large and very little sand will be around because the large pebbles will not have been eroded nearly so much in the protection of the groynes. Beach Length At unprotected sites the beach is likely to be relatively short because long shore drift would have taken beach material and deposited elsewhere along the coast.

Wave Type At both unprotected sites I think the waves will be of the same type, destructive, because otherwise the coast would not be protected anywhere because there would be no need. Those areas which aren’t protected are probably so because there is nothing of value to protect at that site. Cliff Erosion The most significant examples of badly eroded cliffs within my stretch of coast are the cliffs of Bishopstone Glen and their surrounding or neighboring cliffs.

Over millions of years the sea has worn them (eroded) significantly, which has created a dangerous situation as the buildings are now only one hundred yards behind the edge of the north- facing cliff and are at risk from avalanche if the cliffs were to erode further. For the safety of the general public and for the salvation of the buildings, the council has provided a management scheme at this site, which ensures a certain decrease in the rate of erosion that, has been occurring. There are a number of examples of improved cliff due to drastic cliff protection Fig 1. 4

The beach gradients of Protected sites are larger than unprotected sites (related to retention of sand) I believe coastal protection has been introduced between Herne Bay and Bishopstone to retain the sand, which therefore, increases the size of the gradients of each protected beach. A beach is aesthetically pleasing if there is a slight slope and that this also acts as a natural correct in protecting the beach from erosion by waves. Pebble and Beach Analysis This is what I used to collect my results and find out what size the pebbles were. The board had three simple measuring devices on it; one for length, breadth, class and radius

This was not the perfect way to collect my results because not all the stones matched with which what was on the board. Fig 1. 5 Beach On the beach we had three main objectives:  Take a pebble analysis  Find out the beach angle  Finally find the beach length How to carry out the second two of the three main objectives is shown below: Location 1: East of Pier Beach Profile (Angle Measurements) Gradient of Beach =  Beach Width 32m Angle (Beach Edge) 6 Distance (Down Beach) 10 metres 5 metres 0. 5 metres 0. 2 metres 21 metres Random Pebble Samples Section 1 (Closest to the Sea) Sample 1 2 3 4.

Point for Assessment Score What percentage of the view is open space? (Score 1 point for each 10% identified as open space) Are there a Variety of features in the view? (Score 1 point for each of the following: cliffs, beach, sea, river, valley, waterfall, cove, hills, lake, woodland. ) Does the landscape have a variety of plants/vegetation?

(Give a score relating to the scale below. Large number of plant 10 8 6 4 2 0 Few plant varieties. ) What is the appeal of the area to you? Is it beautiful, exciting, dull, ugly? Give scores for the following: ample 1 . 2 Point for Assessment Score What percentage of the view is open space? (Score 1 point for each 10% identified as open space) Are there a Variety of features in the view? (Score 1 point for each of the following: cliffs, beach, sea, river, valley, waterfall, cove, hills, lake, woodland. ) Does the landscape have a variety of plants/vegetation?

(Give a score relating to the scale below. Large number of plant 10 8 6 4 2 0 Few plant varieties.) What is the appeal of the area to you? Is it beautiful, exciting, dull, ugly? Give scores for the following: Appealing Points Unappealing Beautiful 3 2 1 0 Ugly Interesting 3 2 1 0 Boring Spectacular 3 2 1 0 Dull Varied 3 2 1 0 Monotonous Inviting 3 2 1 0 Hostile Total of all above What impact have people had on this landscape? Are there features made by people, which spoil it? Blend with the environment 0 points deducted Have little negative impact 1 point deducted Have a strong negative impact 2 points deducted Pollute the environment 3 points deducted Deductions Final Score Location 3 Protected Cliffs at Bishopstone Glen.

Type of Pebble (see fig 1. 5) 5 3 4 2 6 4 Point for Assessment Score What percentage of the view is open space? (Score 1 point for each 10% identified as open space) Are there a Variety of features in the view? (Score 1 point for each of the following: cliffs, beach, sea, river, valley, waterfall, cove, hills, lake, woodland. )

Does the landscape have a variety of plants/vegetation? (Give a score relating to the scale below. Large number of plant 10 8 6 4 2 0 Few plant varieties. ) What is the appeal of the area to you? Is it beautiful, exciting, dull, ugly? Give scores for the following: Appealing Points Unappealing Beautiful 3 2 1 0 Ugly Interesting 3 2 1 0 Boring Spectacular 3 2 1 0 Dull Varied 3 2 1 0 Monotonous Inviting 3 2 1 0 Hostile Total of all above What impact have people had on this landscape? Are there features made by people that spoil it? Blend with the environment 0 points deducted Have little negative impact 1 point deducted

Have a strong negative impact 2 points deducted Pollute the environment 3 points deducted Deductions Final Score Location 5: 100 metres West of Pier Wave Measurements Frequency (per min) = 31 Mean Height =6 cm Direction = Southeast Beach Profile (Angle Measurements) Gradient of Beach = 6i?? Beach Width 37. 6m Angle (Beach Edge) 4 Point for Assessment Score What percentage of the view is open space? (Score 1 point for each 10% identified as open space) Are there a Variety of features in the view? (Score 1 point for each of the following: cliffs, beach, sea, river, valley, waterfall, cove, hills, lake, woodland. ) Does the landscape have a variety of plants/vegetation? (Give a score relating to the scale below.

Large number of plant 10 8 6 4 2 0 Few plant varieties. ) What is the appeal of the area to you? Is it beautiful, exciting, dull, ugly? Give scores for the following: Appealing Points Unappealing Beautiful 3 2 1 0 Ugly Interesting 3 2 1 0 Boring Spectacular 3 2 1 0 Dull Varied 3 2 1 0 Monotonous Inviting 3 2 1 0 Hostile Total of all above What impact have people had on this landscape? Are there features made by people that spoil it? Blend with the environment 0 points deducted Have little negative impact 1 point deducted Have a strong negative impact 2 points deducted Pollute the environment 3 points deducted.

Deductions Final Score Location 6: Kings Hall Wave Measurements Frequency (per min) = 29 Mean Height =9 cm DirectionPoint for Assessment Score What percentage of the view is open space? (Score 1 point for each 10% identified as open space) Are there a Variety of features in the view? (Score 1 point for each of the following: cliffs, beach, sea, river, valley, waterfall, cove, hills, lake, woodland. ) Does the landscape have a variety of plants/vegetation? (Give a score relating to the scale below.

Large number of plant 10 8 6 4 2 0 Few plant varieties. ) What is the appeal of the area to you? Is it beautiful, exciting, dull, ugly? Give scores for the following: Appealing Points Unappealing Beautiful 3 2 1 0 Ugly Interesting 3 2 1 0 Boring Spectacular 3 2 1 0 Dull Varied 3 2 1 0 Monotonous Inviting 3 2 1 0 Hostile Total of all above What impact have people had on this landscape? Are there features made by people that spoil it? Blend with the environment 0 points deducted Have little negative impact 1 point deducted Have a strong negative impact 2 points deducted Pollute the environment 3 points deducted Deductions Final Score.

 

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