Heinrich Muller was an interesting man, even though we do not know much about his work with Gestapo. Gestapo is the German secret police. Gehemie Statspolize is a German word that means secret state police, which is where we got the word Gestapo (Smelser 59). Although we do not know much about him or what happened to him after the war, Heinrich Muller was an unusual and mean person.
Heinrich Muller’s childhood was like most kids, but some things were unusual for what he did later in life. Heinrich was born on April 28th 1900. He went to school which was equivalent to American High School. Heinrich and his family were in the lower to middle class when it came to economics. His father worked for the government in Bavaria, while his mother was a stay at home mom. He was raised as a Catholic, and stayed religious his entire life (Beyar 14). It is ironic that he stayed a Catholic his entire life, but then he could still go and do everything that he did with Gestapo.
Heinrich was a pilot during World War One and then became a police officer. He joined the German army in June of 1917. Although there was only a year left in the war, Heinrich Muller climbed the ranks. He became an officer by the time he had to retire due to injuries from a plane crash right before the war ended (Beyer 14-18). After the army he joined the police force. He moved up in the ranking all the way to police secretary in 1929. While a police officer he learned how spies worked, what to use them for, and when to use them. He was the police secretary until he joined Gestapo (Beyer).
In 1933 the model for Gestapo was formed by a Prussian named Hermann Goring. The Prussian secret police helped come up with idea for Gestapo, which was created in 1934. Later in the same year Goring gave Himmler, the head of Gestapo at that time, control of the SS and all of his best men. “Muller was known as a professional who got results.” Heydrich brought Heinrich Muller to Berlin Germany in 1934 to be a part of Gestapo (Beyer 39-41). When they moved to Berlin so did the Gestapo Headquarters (Smelser 60). Heinrich Muller was a no hearted cold dispassionate police chief, acting like this got him a nickname called Gestapo Muller.
They called him that because when people thought of Gestapo they thought of people who are mean, harsh, no good, cold people. In 1939 he was put into the NSDAP which is the National Socialist German Workers Party (aka the Nazi Party) (Holocaust Education and Archive Research Team). Also in the year 1939 Muller became the head of the RSHA AMT IV (Naftali). Muller and the rest of Gestapo became a huge power against the rest of Germany and other countries. Gestapo became the Nazis most used form of oppression and destruction (Smesler 59).
Everyone feared Gestapo and the Nazi army during World War Two. Many people feared the power that the Nazis would have if they took over the government. Heinrich Muller’s own father in-law wrote a newspaper fighting against Gestapo and the Nazi party coming into the government (Beyer 22).
Lots of people wanted to overthrow the Nazi government and Hitler himself. The people who tried to overthrow them were always in fear of Gestapo and what they would do to them if they were found. The people who worked for Gestapo, like the spies and officers, were everywhere. They were in the factories, churches, schools and the government buildings. People could not talk freely about what they wanted to because they were in fear of being caught by a Gestapo officer. People back then did not have the freedom of speech that we do today (Beyer 42-43).
Heinrich Muller was famous for using spies. Heinrich “Gestapo” Muller was in charge of security and spy operations. He was famous for using double agents. He would put his people in other agencies so gather information for them to use against them (Naftali). He would even use spies on his own colleagues and friends. He did this so he could make sure no one would betray him by being a double spy for someone else (Holocaust Education and Archive Research Team).
Heinrich “Gestapo” Muller was in charge of what to do with the Jews. When the war began Muller and Adolf Eichman were in charge of the deportation and how to kill the Jews (Naftail). He was immediately included “… In the final solution of the Jew question even more than his superiors…” (Holocaust Education and Archive Research Team). In 1941 Muller and his team started the deportation of Jews in mass numbers out of Germany (Smelser). Gestapo Muller also had a big part in the concentration camps and which Jews went to which camp. He ran the concentration camps where over 6 million Jews suffered and then killed (Salant). He was in charge of deciding if they died or lived. He sent the Jews to either Auschwitz Camp for Extermination or to Buchenwald the death camp. He could do anything he wanted to do to them without getting trouble (Weinstein).
After the war nobody saw or heard from Heinrich Muller ever again. The CIA started the search for Muller just about the same time that the Germans started to look for him (Goda). It was said that no one has seen him since May 1945. He was a CIA must wanted person and they never saw him after the end of World War Two. A list of Nazi terrorists had five men from Gestapo on it to be interrogated. All of the men were captured except for Heinrich Muller (Naftali). People would say that they saw him all over Europe. Rumors say that he was in the Soviet Union, Romania, Turkey, South Africa, South America, and even in the United States (Goda).
The people who thought that he was in the United States said, that he was used as an American spy. “It is said that he was here in 1945,” said George Chalou a historian, “But what happened after that is the sixty-four dollar question.” They even went as far to check the grave with his name on it that someone found, but when they looked inside they found two missing German soldiers (Weinstein). By this point in time people were wondering if the government was even trying anymore to find Muller. In 1971 the government stopped looking for him (Goda). He ended up being only one of two major Nazi war criminals to never be found (Salant).
Heinrich Muller was a very interesting man. Even though it is said that he stayed a Christian his entire life, I find that very hard to believe. He never acted like one after joining Gestapo. He was a very strong willing powerful person. Muller had a great talent for leading people; he just used it for the wrong reason. I think he was killed near the end of the war or he committed suicide.
Beyer, Mark. Heinrich Muller Gestapo Chief. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, 2001. Print Goda, Norman. “Analysis of the Name File of Heinrich Muller.” Central Intelligence Agency. <http://www.anchives.gov/iwg/declasifiedrecords/re-263-muller.html> “Muller Heinrich” Holocaust Education and Archive Research Team. 2007 <http://www.holocaustresearchproject.org/holoprelude/muller.html> Naftali, Timothy. “Heinrich Muller” Jewish Virtual Library. 2012 <http://jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Hmuller.html> Salant, Jonathan. “U.S. Doubted Gestapo Chief Died.” AR Action Report 16/12/1999.web21 <http://www.fpp.co.uk/Himmler/Muller/Death15229html>
Smelser, Ronald “Gestapo.” Learning about the holocauast.2.NewYork: Macmillan Reference USA, 2001. Print
Smelser, Ronald. “SD” learning about the Holocaust.4.NewYork: Macmillan Reference, 2001
Weinstein, Henry. “New Question Arise on Fate of Gestapo Chief.” AR Action Repot.