“Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable death in Ireland with 5,500 smokers dying each year from tobacco related diseases. Moving towards a tobacco free society will reduce the number of premature deaths from tobacco and result in healthier, longer and better quality lives for many Irish people” (HSE National service Plan 2012: 22) Introduction In this assignment I will endeavour to explain with reference to Beatties’s model of health promotion, how health may be promoted within the context of a campaign against tobacco smoking amongst college students.
The rationale for this is based on tatistics from the World Health organisation; “Tobacco smoking kills six million people a year……. tobacco users who die prematurely deprive their families of income, raise the cost of health care and hinder economic development” (WHO 2012) According to the National Tobacco Control Office (2010), Smoking rates were highest among younger adults (18-44 years), reaching 30% in the 25-34 year old age group. Prevalence was lowest among the 65+ age group at 13.
5%. (http://www. otc. e/research. asp) To start the process of cessation and ultimate quitting one must understand the echanisms and motivations, which make individuals, start and stop smoking at some point. Social dynamics The habit of smoking by young people according to Ryan, McNamara ; Deasy (2006) is picked during the early or late teenage years. More often than not, it comes under the influence of peers or family members. Statistics show that 50% of all teenage smokers smoke because either or both of their guardians were smokers.
Approximately 25% of them took this habit out of an admiration of an icon or role model in the society and the rest are hooked out of mere curiosity.
This means that ny addiction, cigarette smoking include, comes as a result of external stimuli or influence. Therefore, the first step that health workers need to understand is the genesis of the smoking habit. Psychological dynamics The decision to smoke is ultimately a matter of choice. According to McKenzie, Pinger and Kotechi (2012), tobacco contains substances, which trigger the mind to produce dopamine and the nervous system to achieve pleasure.
These substances act as relaxants because they suppress pressure and sustain the bodys stressful reactions albeit for a short term. Setting For this assignment, I propose to use a college setting and target cessation of smoking amongst students using Beattie’s model of health promotion. Health Promotion is “any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups and communities” (McKenzie, Pinger & Kotechi 2012, p. 32) Health promotion “is the process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health … health promotion goes beyond healthy life-styles to well being” WHO 1986) Health promotion is an integral part of the role of the nurse. A college nurse will need to use a variety of different approaches, including education, powers of persuasion and strategies in an attempt to promote on campus, a culture where healthy decisions about a smoke free lifestyle can be made.
Beattie’s Health Promotion Model (1991 Model) Health promotion models are theoretical representations of real life situations that advocate for behaviour change and promotion of good health habits. Beattie’s model is one such health promotion model that enables individuals and societies to make ational choices about taking positive steps towards healthy living. Health issues brought about by smoking not only affect an individual but the environment around them such as the family, workplace and the wider society (Costello & Hodgins, 2007).
This four-part model gives us a framework to map and appraise different approaches that can be used to assist a group of students or an individual student to stop smoking. Beattie, A (1991) Gabe et al. P. 46 This model, as seen above, is made up of of four paradigms, presented on two axes. The four paradigms represent the different ways in which health can be encouraged hrough health persuasion, legislative action, personal counselling (individual) and community development (collective).
According to Naidoo and Wills (2009), the two axes represent a ‘mode of intervention’ which can be authoritative (a top down approach) or negotiated (a bottom up approach) and a focus of intervention’ which can be individual or collective. Employing this model as a college nurse will involve; Health Persuasion: Here the college nurse engages in persuading students to adopt healthier lifestyles. Thus an information campaign with posters around the college utlining the facts and risks of smoking would be employed.
At this stage of persuasion information on diseases such as lung cancer, COPD, emphysema and other related conditions will be highlighted on campus in an effort to raise awareness and act to change the views students have about the consequences of their smoking. Thus, persuading students that quitting smoking would be beneficial to their long term health could be successful in promoting a healthier living style for them. Use of technology on campus through campaigns on college plasma screens will also provide additional information.