Health Sanitation Practices
Health Sanitation Practices
* a protected well or a developed spring with an outlet but without a distribution system
* indicated for rural areas
* serves 15-25 households; its outreach is not more than 250 m from the farthest user
* yields 40-140 L/ min
Level II (Communal Faucet or Stand Posts)
* With a source, reservoir, piped distribution network and communal faucets * Located at not more than 25 m from the farthest house * Delivers 40-80 L of water per capital per day to an average of 100 households * Fit for rural areas where houses are densely clustered Level III (Individual House Connections or Waterworks System) * With a source, reservoir, piped distributor network and household taps * Fit for densely populated urban communities
* Requires minimum treatment or disinfection
Proper Excreta and Sewage Disposal Program
EHS sets policies on approved types of toilet facilities:
* Non-water carriage toilet facility – no water necessary to wash the waste into receiving space e.g. pit latrines, reed odorless earth closet. * Toilet facilities requiring small amount of water to wash the waste into the receiving space e.g. pour flush toilet & aqua privies Level II
* On site toilet facilities of the water carriage type with water-sealed and flush type with septic vault/tank disposal. Level III
* Water carriage types of toilet facilities connected to septic tanks and/or to sewerage system to treatment plant.
Objective: The objective of this study is to determine sanitation practices and preferences in sitio ganha-an.By examining differences between current practices and preferences, the study assesses if the communities are satisfied with their current sanitation options and if there is a demand for increased sanitation coverage and better facilities.
Water Supply. The major problem for poor people in most countries is access to safe water in adequate quantity, with reasonable convenience, and at an affordable cost. Solutions include local grants to install household gutters and rainwater capture tanks; local wells designed to resist pollution; and small networks of water points served by a local well, borehole, or spring. The supply problems of major cities require integrated approaches that combine demand management, leak repair, backflow prevention, wastewater reuse, and the efficient, sustainable exploitation of sources.
Solid Waste Disposal. The interdependence of sanitation aspects is illustrated by the need for adequate solid waste removal to prevent the blockage of rainwater drains. Collection of refuse in hot climates must be frequent since piles attract flies and rats, and it should rely more on local labor-intensive methods rather than on expensive trucks. For the operation to be successful requires close cooperation between the users and providers of the service, and financing must come either from municipal recurrent funds and/or user fees.
Excreta Disposal. Large sewerage infrastructure projects tend to be too expensive for the vast majority of urban and rural people in developing countries, and it may be impossible to build a sewage network infrastructure in congested, narrow streets. On-site options include latrines, pourflush toilets, and septic tanks. There should be evaluated at each location according to needs and priorities. As water use grows in villages and towns, wastewater from washing and bathing (sullage) can be cost-effectively handled by a separate drainage system coupled to on-site excreta disposal.
Garbage is a never ending cycle. Every day each household produces a significant amount of trash. The more we consume the more garbage we incur. Garbage disposal has been a monumental problem ever since. ( Yapchiongco, 2012)
For a lack of historic time series of reliable nationally representative drinking water quality data, the JMP cannot report on the actual water safety aspect of the MDG drinking water target. The proxy indicator used in the global survey methodology – “use of improved drinking water sources” – does not guarantee that the quality of drinking water consumed by people meets the standards for safe drinking water as proposed in the WHO Guidelines for Drinking water Quality (WHO, 2011).
Pollution from domestic and industrial sources, geogenic contamination, and poor sanitation and hygiene all threaten the safety of drinking water sources. In recognition of these threats, many drinking water supply operators and regulators are adopting an integrated risk assessment and management approach that takes risk spots and events into account along the chain of events from source to tap. Strategies include quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), sanitary inspections, the application of health-based targets and water safety plans (WSPs).
The practice of household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) can help improve water quality at the point of consumption, especially when drinking water sources are distant, unreliable or unsafe. However, HWTS is a stopgap measure only and does not replace the obligation of a service provider to provide access to safe drinking water. It is intended for people who have no access to improved drinking water sources at all, for people with access to improved sources outside of their home or premises (i.e. when contamination can occur during transport and storage), for people with unreliable piped supplies who have to store water to bridge the gaps between deliveries, and for people in emergency situations.
People relying on unimproved drinking water sources who apply an appropriate household water treatment method are still not considered to have sustainable access to safe drinking water. Doing so would absolve the providers of their responsibility to provide safe drinking water and in effect transfer this responsibility to consumers. http://www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/resources/report_wash_low.pdf
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 10 November 2016
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