1.1 Outline the anatomy and physiology of the human body in relation to the importance of correct moving and positioning of individuals The anatomy and physiology of the human body explains that muscles are attached to the skeleton. They work like hinges or levers to pull or move particular joints when a muscle contracts, pulling the joint in the direction it is designed to move. Parts of muscles move antagonistically, that is, when one contracts, its opposite member relaxes to allow movement. Muscles can become slack, making movement slower and more difficult. Again, it explains that the human muscles move in command from the brain. Single nerve cells in the spinal column called motor neurons form a long very thin extension of the single cell, called an axon.
When an impulse travels down the axon to the muscle, a chemical is released at its ending. Muscles are made of long fibres connected to each other lengthways by a ratchet mechanism, that allows the two parts of an extension ladder to slide past each other,overlapping each other more, so that the muscles get shorter and fatter. When the impulses from the nerves stop, the muscle fibres slide back to their original position. In relation to the importance of correct moving and handling, it makes the muscles not to be fractured. Correct moving and handling will make the muscles not to strain or sprain. The individual and carers will not experience pains and discomfort.
1.2 Describe the impact of specific conditions on the movement and positioning of individuals If an individual has a fracture, the movement must be gentle and careful, and the right procedure must be followed, so as to reduce any complications to the fracture. If an individual is bed-bound, the correct hoist and sling must be used. When staff adhere to the appropriate moving techniques, it will reduce the risks of back injury, pain and discomfort.
2.1 Describe how legislation and agreed ways of working practices relate to moving and positioning individuals. The laws which ensure that safety is maintained at work are covered in Health and Safety At Work Act 1974. The laws that are in effect in the workplace are as follows:
1.Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992: These regulations require employers to minimise the health risks associated with manual handling. Employers should avoid the need to lift, carry, push, pull, lower or support loads whenever possible. Also risk assessments must be carried out taking into account the work task and activity involved. 2.Management Of Health & Safety At Work Regulations 1992: The main requirements of these is that employers must carry out risk assessments to eliminate or reduce risks. Also, employers should make arrangements for implementing the Health and Safety measures identified as necessary by risk assessments. 3.Control Of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) 2002: This regulation requires employers to assess and prevent, or adequately control the risk to health from the use of any hazardous substance in the work place. 4.Report of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR): Under these regulations, work related accidents are reportable by law to the Health and Safety Executive, or local authority.
5.The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulation 1998: The regulation sets out minimum standards for the use of work equipment at work. The requirements are for employers to account of working conditions and hazards when selecting equipment, to provide work equipment which conform to relevant safety standards. 6.Health and Safety First Aid Regulations 1981: The regulation requires employers to provide adequate and appropriate First Aid equipment and facilities and adequate number of qualified first aiders.
7.Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1992 (LOLER): These regulations require employers to ensure that all equipment provided for use at work is sufficiently strong and stable for the particular use, and is marked to indicate safe working loads, and used safely ie, the work isplanned, organised and performed by competent people. 8.Agreed ways of working: Policies, Procedures and Organisational Policy: Working in line with the organisational mission statement, outlining duty of care to the individual, and promoting their care values when moving/positioning individuals at all times.
2.2 Describe what health and safety factors need to be taken into account when moving and positioning individuals and any equipment used to do this. Health and safety factors needed to be taken into account when moving and positioning individuals are: Infection Control: Washing and cleaning of hands and equipment before and after the activity, The use of Personal Protection Equipment (PPE), like plastic aprons, gloves footwear when handling contaminated items, including items contaminated with body fluids, and disposing of waste, Ensuring that the hoist is in full working order before each use, and that the battery is properly charged, Ensuring the right size of sling is used for the individual and for the hoist. Ensuring the correct or right hoist is used, for example, Using a standing hoist for individuals who cannot stand, Slide Sheet – Making sure the slide sheet is not tearing or peeling the skin, Using frames and chairs correctly, and
Ensuring there is enough space to do the agreed activity, and able to move around safely.
3.1 Access up-to-date copies of risk assessment documentation, identify the hazard, decide who might be harmed, and how: Identify the hazard: Walk around the workplace and identify what could possibly or reasonably be expected to cause harm. Check manufacturer’s instructions and date sheets for chemicals and equipment as they can be very helpful in spelling out the hazard and putting them in their true perspective. Check the individuals care of plan to understand the required way for moving and handling him/her. Decide who might be harmed, and how – Identify how the individual mi9ght be harmed ie, what type of injury or ill-health might occur.
Evaluate the risk and decide on precautions: Having spotted the hazard, you then have to decide what to do, about them, putting into consideration if the hazard can be got rid of, if not, the risk can be controlled so that the harm is unlikely, ie, by providing personal protective clothing, welfare facilities, eg first aid, and washing facilities for removal of contamination. Record your finding: Writing down the result of your risk assessment and sharing it with staff Review your risk assessment, and update it if necessary. Look at the risk assessment again. Have there been any changes? Are there improvements you still need to make?Have anything been learnt from accidents and near misses?
3.2 Carry out preparatory checks, using the individual’s care plan. Checking the individual’s care plan and the moving and handling risk assessment prior to commencing any moving and handling: Move and position the individual according to their care plan using the correct technique and in a way that will avoid causing undue pain and discomfort. Use the appropriate equipment in order to maintain the individual in the required position. Obtain the individual’s consent and ensure the individual understands he/she is being moved. Inform the individual of what you are about to do, and support the individual to communicate the level of support you require. Remove potential hazards and prepare the immediate environment ensuring adequate space for the move to take place.
3.3 Carry out preparatory checks using the moving and handling risk assessment. Consider the environment carefully when you are assessing risk Take into account the following measures: Is the surface safe? Are there wet or slippery patches? Are you wearing appropriate clothing eg, low heeled shoes, tunic or personal protective clothing?
3.4Describe the actions to take in relation to identified risks. If the risk cannot be removed provide measures to minimise it, for example, by wearing personal protective clothing.
3.6 Prepare the immediate environment ensuring adequate space for the move in agreement with all concerned: By removing or moving items or furniture so that I can have enough space to work safely. By assessing the items, how heavy is the furniture/individual Ensuring adequate/enough space for the procedure.
4.1 Demonstrate effective communication with the individual to ensure that they understand the details and reasons for the action/activity being undertaken. Demonstrate effective communication with the individual to ensure that they agree the level of support required: Obtain the individual’s consent and ensure she understands she is being moved in particular ways and how they can usefully cooperate in the procedure.