Be confident — Convince yourself how good the thing that you are selling is first as this will make your argument more believable. You can be a bit pushy here if you are trying to promote something. Be positive — It’s better to tell how good your idea is rather than how bad other people’s ideas are as this might make you seem overly pushy and nasty. Be convincing — if you don’t seem sure then you can’t make your ideas stand out as much as you could.
Language devices: Anecdotes — these are short stories of a real (or made-up) event. Their effect is to create an emotional response in favour of your argument.
Catchy phrases or slogans — these are words that are designed to stick in the reader’s mind. This will work like a TV advert, by reminding the reader of the product and by making it easier for the reader to remember key information. Chatty style — this is a chattier style that can be effective in some genres and for some audiences.
It works to create a friendly persuasive effect. List of three/a tripartite list — this is a triple repetition that adds impact, greater effect can be achieved if the words are made more emotional as the list builds up. Contrasts — this is a comparison of two things intended to highlight one of them because of the contrast. By showing the different viewpoints, the writer is showing that they are fair and this makes them a more reliable source of information.
Criticising the opposite opinion/the opposition — this is where a writer will mention all of the alternative arguments and explain their negatives. By doing this, the writer is showing that they are aware of what the reader could be thinking and is showing themselves to be knowledgeable. Emotive words — these are words that are deliberately designed to make a reader have strong feelings, whether negative or positive. Emotive pictures — these do not have to be actual pictures. They may be a description of a picture. A detailed description of a picture can put an image in the mind of the reader and make the argument more persuasive. Exaggeration (hyperbole) — this is where a writer is intentionally over the top to make the reader consider the enormity of the issue.
The exaggeration will usually be a common phrase like ’millions need this’. By using a common phrase, the reader doesn’t question it and will believe the writer. Forceful phrases (imperatives) — these are used to push a reader into thinking that the need to agree or that something is urgent. For example, Stop’. Humour — this is where the writer tries to make funny or ridiculous points to prove that they are right. Humour works in two ways it makes the reader more likely to be on the side of the writer. Also, the reader will remember what made them laugh, making the text even more memorable. Imagery — these are usually used in emotive pictures or anecdotes. When a writer uses imagery, they will be trying to get the reader to picture something specific.
Opinion as fact — this is where the writer will say that their opinion is fact, for example, ’It is a fact that I cannot stand melons!’. Personal pronouns — this is where the writer will use words such as, ‘I’ or ‘we’ or ‘you’ to talk directly to the reader. By using the word, ‘you’, the writer can appeal directly to every individual reading the text and by using the word ‘we’ it makes it seem as if the writer is on the side of the reader. Repetition — this is where a phrase is repeated again and again in order to emphasise it. Rhetorical questions — these are questions that appear are answered in the text in order to help the reader come to the same conclusion that the writer has. Shock tactics — this is where the writer will try to use shocking imagery or statements in order surprise or horrify the reader.
This is effective because it will shock the reader into action. If the reader is surprised or horrified by something, they will remember it and it is likely to cause an emotional response that will make them react. Statistics (& facts) — statistics are numbers or facts that are used to provide convincing information. A writer will use these as a tool to convince the reader. The reader will feel that they cannot argue with facts and that statistics will prove what the writer is saying. They are used to convince a reader and to add factual weight to an argument. Quotations and expert opinions — quotations are used to back up what is being said or promoted, it will make the argument seem much more appealing if other people agree with it. If other people, particularly experts, believe in something, this is used to convince the reader that it must be right as the reader is likely to have much less experience in the subject.
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