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Trait approach- a trait is something we are born with. Certain characteristics have certain traits and these characteristics may make one player better suited to captaincy than another. Traits or personalities will affect performance and players in positive and negative ways. It can affect performance positively because if a person has a strong, slightly aggressive and determined personality then they can give the team an extra drive to win the game. However someone of this personality can get over aggressive if the team is losing therefore lowering other players morale and maybe causing arguments.
Behavioural approach- this suggests that leaders display certain behaviours. This is different to trait in that behaviours are learnt rather than something we are born with. Players, managers and coaches who lack certain skills can watch others and pick up new skills and techniques. This will mostly have a strong positive affect on performance because if you are learning new skills then technically you are improving. On the other hand the new skills that are learned could not be very effective for a team/individuals style of play.
Interactional approach- this combines trait and the environment influences. It looks at the need for different behaviour and leadership styles dependant on the characteristics of the group and the situation. If you have both type A and type B personalities on the pitch then this will have a positive affect on performance because you will have someone who can psych the team up and add some aggression to the team (type A) but you will also have someone who can clam things down and relax the team (type B). Stages of group development Forming- this is the development of relationships within the group.
This usually involves a player assessing where they feel they fit into a group structure based on other players strengths and weaknesses. It also gives player the opportunity to see if the belong in that group. If a player fits into a team well it will have a positive affect on performance because it will raise the morale of both the individual and the team. However if the player finds that he/she isn’t fitting into the team then their level of performance is likely to be low. Storming- sometimes involves conflict within the group as individuals attempt to establish their position and role in the group.
It may involve confrontation between the leader and the player until different roles are established. This is more likely to have a positive affect on performance as players will be battling for positions therefore there will be a harder work rate from the team. On the other hand players may feel threatened and pressured by new players so they may be nervous in their performance incase they lose their position. * Norming- once the structure has been established the group gains stability and becomes cohesive. Players start co-operating and work towards their common goal.
This is extremely positive on the team’s performance because they are becoming more cohesive meaning that they will work better together and the team can become more successful. Performing- this is the final stage and involves all the players working together towards their common goal. Each individual accepts their role and supports other group members accordingly. Again this is very positive for the teams performance because by this stage the team will be both task cohesive and socially cohesive. It will bring great success to the team as players will be both mentally and physically prepared with each other.