Buba – A boil that is caused by the Bubonic Plague, usually on the neck, armpit, or groin and causes excruciating pain. Flagellants- Group of people that whipped themselves to rid them of sins, in belief that Black Death was God’s punishment on humans for wickedness. Crecy-A city in Northern France 1346, English longbowmen scored a great victory over the French knights and crossbowmen. Agincourt- near Arras in 1415, the chivalric English soldier- King Henery V gained the field over vastly superior numbers. Joan of Arc- A peasant girl that convinced the French government the dauphin needed to be crowned and to expel the English out of France.
She dressed as a man and fought in the war, but was caught and burned at the stake for being a witch. Representative assemblies- the beginnings to modern government like the English Parliament and German Diets Nationalism- The feeling of unity and identity that binds together people. The English had strong nationalism after winning the war. Babylonian Captivity- referring to the seventy years the ancient Hebrews was held captive in Mesopotamian Schism- Another word for division, in this case the division of the French and English and their Popes.
Conciliarists- believed that reform of the church could best be achieved through periodic assemblies, or general councils, representing all the Christian people. Statue of Kilkenny- “there was to be no marriages between those of immigrant and native stock” To make sure there was no racism in Ireland Merchant- The fine you have to pay the lord to get a woman married. Banns- Public announcements that are posted on the church door that says who is getting married. Jacquerie- French Peasant uprising named after a mythical laborer. Racism- Discrimination based on ethnicity, Irish were discriminated mostly Dalimil Chronicle- A survey of Bohemian history pervaded with Czech hostility toward Germany Peasant Revolts- Peasants make large groups and try to over throw the leader, happened in Fladers.
Review Questions 1. The Great Famine caused the population decline in the early 14th century. The famine wide out a large potion on the population. Infants, children, and elderly people were susceptible to disease and now the workingman had a reduced diet. These tough conditions made it difficult to support a family, so no babies were being born. So in the 14th century there was population decline.
2. The bacteria that caused the bubonic plague was found in the blood stream of rodents and it traveled through fleas. Overcrowding, poor sanitation, lack of personal hygiene, and poor nutrition encouraged the disease to spread dramatically through Europe. The land values drastically dropped. Narrow streets filled with refuse and human excrement were as much as cesspools as thoroughfares. The extreme overcrowding was everywhere.
3. The short and long-term causes of the Hundred Years’ War were the English claimed Aquitaine as in ancient inheritance. However, the French was strongly expansionist (French Policy). Economic factors about the wool trade and control of Flemish towns served as justification between France and England for the next centuries. The spreading of commerce with England threatened their prosperity.
4. The French overall had their land regained and won the war. They however lost thousands of soldiers and civilians as well as hundreds of thousands of acres of farmland causing the economy to be left in shambles. England spent over 5 million causing to have a massive net loss to go along with the loss of thousands of soldiers. They did however gain the power of representative assemblies such as Parliament.
5. The Babylonian Captivity weakened the prestige of the church because the current pope was asked to move to Rome while sick and at near death. Once he died, the clergy elected Urban VI to pope. He acted insane and cardinals “excommunicated” him from pope. Soon a new pope was chosen, Clement VII. Cardinals that supported the Concilliar Movement elected a new pope as well, making three popes at once.
6. The Conciliarists Movement was revolutionary. It was a belief the reform of the church would be best achieved through periodic assemblies, or general counsel, representing the Christian people.
7. (who is he) John Wyclif was an advocate for the Conciliarists Movement. Wyclif was a threat to the institutional church because he said that churches should be stripped of their property. He told people that they are their own churches if they just read the bible. His followers, Lollards, allowed woman to preach and were like by many.
8. After the Hundreds Years’ War there was little to no employment for knights. Many of those nobles turned to crime called fur-collar crime. This was where the nobles would steal from the rich and tell the poor that they had to pay a fee so that they wouldn’t hurt them. They gained a great deal of money, but after long suffering by peasants they began to get angry and revolt.
9. The French Peasants’ Revolt of 1358 was caused by heavy taxation by the French from the Hundred Years’ War. Plus plague, famine, and being harassed by fur-collar crimes, they went through the countryside killing nobles. Peasants brought about the English Peasants’ Revolt of 1381 because of the demand for higher wages and the governments fail to represent their wants. Also frozen wages and head tax were contributing reasons.